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Full text of "Contributions to the natural history of the Lepidoptera of North America .."

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CONTRIBUTIONS 

TO THE 

NATURAL HISTORY 

OF THE 

LEPIDOPTERA 

OF 

NORTH AMERICA 



VOL. Ill 
No. 1 



NEW SPECIES OF NORTH AMERICAN 
LEPIDOPTERA 

NOTES ON WALKER'S TYPES OF 

GEOMETRIDAE IN THE D'URBAN 

COLLECTION 

BY 

WILLIAM BARNES, S. B., M. D. 

AND 

J. H. McDUNNOUGH, Ph. D. 

DECATUR. ILL. 

THE REVIEW PRESS 

NOVEMBER 27. 1916 



Published 

Under the Patronage 

of 

Miss Jessie D. Gillett 

Elkhart, 111. 



CORRIGENDA & ADDENDA TO VOLUME II. 

page 50, line 24, for Genitalia of o. basiflava Pack, read Genitalia of 0. basi- 
flava Pack. 

page 124 Genus Sciagraphia. 

In our remarks on this genus we evidently had misread Hulst's 
characterization of the genus as we differentiate it from Macaria on the 
strength of the latter genus possessing a hair pencil on the $ hindtibia ; 
as a matter of fact both genera show the hair pencil and in all probabil- 
ity Sciagraphia, the type of which is granitata Gn., will fall to Macaria 
Curtis. 

page 206, line 1, for Fidonia atomaria Gn. read Fidonia amitaria Gn. 

page 209, line 18, for Ap^ecasia defluata Wlk. read Ap^ecasia de- 
ductaria Wlk. 

This error and that on p. 206 must be attributed to a lapsus calami 
on our part which should certainly be corrected. 

page 212, line 12, for PI. XII fig. 14 read PI. XII fig. 16. 



NEW SPECIES AND VARIETIES OF NORTH 
AMERICAN LEPIDOPTERA 

NOCTUIDAE 

AGROTINAE 

Schinia cupes deserticola var. nov. (PL III, Fig. 16). 

Similar in maculation to the typical form from Texas but much paler in 
color ; the head and thorax are whitish, lightly peppered with black, the ground 
color of the primaries is a very light ochreous or cream-color shaded with 
deeper ochreous terminally and without any of the smoky-brown color character- 
istic of typical cupes; the outer dark border of secondaries is paler than in the 
type form and the underside is less heavily shaded with black. 

Habitat: S. Arizona (Poling) (April); Palm Spgs., Riverside Co., Calif. 
2 3,1 9 . Types, Coll. Barnes. 

We have had the 2 $ 's from Arizona in the collection for some 
time; the receipt of a $ from the desert region of California con- 
vinces us that we are dealing with a good geographical race which 
evidently inhabits the hot, arid regions of the south-west. In the 
coast region of California typical cupes is again found, redescribed 
by Hy. Edwards under the name crotchi. 

Grotella citronella sp. nov. (PI. Ill, Fig 13). 

Head, thorax, and primaries lemon yellow, the latter crossed by two faint 
black lines, tending to become punctiform; the inner line is slightly outwardly 
inclined, forming a rather prominent projection above the inner margin and 
accentuated in the cell by a dark dot; the outer line is well rounded about the 
cell with a slight inward bend opposite the same, then inwardly oblique to 
inner margin fairly close to t. a. line, the median space being only half as 
wide as at the costa, the line accentuated by black dots opposite the cell, in 
the submedian fold and on the inner margin. Secondaries blackish with pale 
fringes. Beneath primaries blackish with lemon yellow costa and outer margin ; 
secondaries pale ochreous. Expanse 19 mm. 

Habitat: Palm Springs, Riverside Co., Calif. 3 8, 2 9. Types, Coll. 
Barnes. 

The species is very similar to spaldingi B. & McD., of which we 
have also a single specimen from the same locality; it is however 
much deeper yellow in color and has not such a prominent prow- 
shaped process to the frontal protuberance as in spaldingi. 



Rynchagrotis orbipuncta sp. nov. (PI. I, Fig. 2). 

Head, thorax, and primaries in the $ fawn brown, in the 2 largely suf- 
fused with pale reddish ; basal line indicated by a dark spot on costa and another 
in the center of the wing; t. a. line scarcely visible, consisting of a dark spot 
on costa, a curved mark below the cubitus followed by an outwardly oblique 
mark below vein 1 to inner margin; orbicular and reniform prominent, filled 
with blackish, the former a small round dot, the latter upright, broad ; t. p. line 
obsolescent in 2 , distinct in $ , pale, rather evenly rounded, accentuated by 
smoky shading on both sides and with a black mark on the costa at its inception ; 
submedian and terminal area sprinkled with smoky which is crossed by a pale 
wavy s. t. line, preceded, especially in 2 , by small dark blotches ; terminal 
dark dots ; fringes ochreous, cut by two smoky lines. Secondaries smoky, paler 
towards base ; fringes pale with a yellowish basal line followed by a similar 
smoky one. Beneath ruddy, somewhat suffused with smoky with a post- 
median dark line and discal dot on all wings. Expanse 40 mm. 

Habitat : $ Palmerlee, Ariz. ; 2 's Huachuca Mts., Ariz. 1 $ , 4 2 . 
Types, Coll. Barnes. 

The species is readily distinguished by the black filled spots and 
small orbicular, which in two of the 2 's is entirely wanting ; other- 
wise in size and coloration it is close to alcandola Sm. 



HADENINAE 

Anarta sierra sp. nov. (PI. Ill, Fig 3). 

Head and thorax clothed with gray and black hairs ; primaries greenish 
black, heavily suffused in the median area with whitish ; basal area dark with 
scattered white scales near base, defined outwardly by an oblique t. a. line 
dentate on cubital vein and vein 1 and shaded inwardly in costal region with 
slight white scaling; median area heavily scaled with whitish leaving a small 
dark patch on inner margin and a larger dark patch extending obliquely from 
costa to t. p. line and containing the reniform which is indistinct and slight- 
ly white centered ; t. p. line dentate, rounded outwardly below costa and then 
subparallel to outer margin ; s. t. line marked by pale scaling preceding and 
following it, rather irregular, forming a large dark blotch on costa ; terminal 
area rather pale ; fringes checkered. Secondaries even smoky black with pale 
fringes, a white blotch of the underside partially showing through. Beneath 
primaries blackish at base and along inner margin, outer area silvery white 
with a large quadrate black reniform and a sinuate subterminal line; terminal 
area sprinkled with gray with dark terminal line and checkered fringe ; secon- 
daries black with a large white patch beyond the cell preceded by an indistinct 
dark reniform blotch, the outer edge of the white patch being parallel to outer 
margin of wing; fringes pale. Expanse 25 mm. 

Habitat: Mineral King, Tulare Co., Calif. 1 $. Type, Coll. Barnes. 



The species is allied to laertes Sm. differing in the more variegat- 
ed appearance of the primaries and their greenish-black tinge rather 
than brownish-black as in laertes and melanopa; we have a second very- 
worn specimen from the same locality which agrees with the types 
in the unicolorous secondaries ; two $ 's, one from Deer Park Spgs., 
Lake Tahoe, and the other simply labelled 'S. Calif.' agree in the 
maculation of primaries with the type of sierra but show a white 
patch on the upper side of secondaries as in laertes; we propose for 
these the varietal name of laertidia and figure a specimen on PI. Ill, 
Fig. 4. 

Polia (Mamestra) brenda sp. nov. (PI. I, Fig. 3). 

Head and thorax clothed with gray scales mixed with black and with a 
distinct black line across the collar; abdomen tinged with pinkish laterally; 
primaries with very distinct and decided maculation, gray suffused with smoky; 
basal half line black, geminate, filled with pale; a short black basal streak; 
space to t. a. line rather even dark gray; t. a. line geminate, black, composed 
of three improminent scallops, in general upright; orbicular large, whitish, 
touching t. a. line, partially outlined with black ; claviform large, almost hemis- 
pherical, white, outlined with black, and connected with t. p. line by a black 
dash; reniform very large, white, with a central smoky lunule, partially out- 
lined in black especially on inner side and resting with its base on t. p. line; 
an upright smoky median shade, angled outwardly below cubital vein; t. p. 
line indistinctly geminate, bent strongly outward around cell and dentate, with 
a single prominent scallop between veins 1 and 2 which is slightly tinged with 
pale yellowish; s. t. space in general paler gray than median area except at 
costa where there is a smoky patch with 3 pale costal dots; veins dotted with 
black and white; s. t. line pale yellow, angled below costa, forming an in- 
distinct W mark on veins 3 and 4, accentuated by black arrow marks pre- 
ceding the line and blackish shades outwardly above and below the W; a 
broken black terminal line; fringes checkered smoky and ochreous; secondaries 
pale smoky with darker terminal line and pale fringes. Beneath whitish with 
slight ruddy tinge, primaries largely suffused with smoky with the commence- 
ment of a postmedian line at costa and a broad indistinct discal lunule; secon- 
daries paler than primaries with a prominent discal dot and a faint postmedian 
line, dotted on the veins with black; terminal dark lines on both wings and 
checkered fringes on primaries. 

Habitat: Stockton, Utah (May 17, Spalding). 1$. Type, Coll. Barnes. 

Seemingly closest to distincta Hbn. but with a much less oblique 
t. a. line and less heavily shaded median area. 

Polia (Mamestra) delecta sp. nov. (PI. I, Fig. 17). 

Head, thorax and primaries a rather dull smoky brown, slightly sprinkled 
with gray scales; maculation of primaries rather indistinct, traces of an 



8 

angled black geminate basal half line filled with paler; t. a. line geminate, 
the outer dark line and the pale filling alone showing, slightly crenulate and 
directed outwards to just above inner margin where it curves gently inward ; 
orbicular small, round, partially outlined in black; reniform rather narrow, 
outlined partially in pale ochreous, followed by a black line on side toward 
orbicular; a smoky median shade curved outwardly; t. p. line indistinctly 
geminate, composed of the inner dark crenulate line and the pale filling, 
curved outwardly to well beyond reniform, then rigidly oblique from vein 
4 to inner margin; beyond it pale dots on the somewhat black-outlined 
veins ; s. t. line pale ochreous, wavy, indistinct ; a dark terminal line ; fringes the 
color of the wing with pale dots at base. Secondaries smoky with pale terminal 
line at base of fringes. Beneath primaries largely smoky, outwardly paler, 
sprinkled with brown with an indistinct postmedian line starting from a dark 
spot on costa ; secondaries considerably paler, sprinkled with brown, with dis- 
tinct postmedian line and discal dot. Expanse 30 mm. 

Habitat: Camp Baldy, S. Bernardino Mts., Calif. (Pilate) (June, July) ; 
Loma Linda, S. Bernardino Co., Calif. (Mch.) 2 $,A ?. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

Superficially greatly resembling Trachea pavice Behr but easily 
separated on structural characters ; it will probably fall in the goodelli 
group. 

Eriopyga discreta sp. nov. (PI. I, Fig. 18). 

Palpi ochreous, outwardly smoky ; thorax and primaries a pale fawn gray, 
the latter somewhat shiny; basal half line black, angled below costa; t. a. line 
single, black, composed of three prominent scallops, in general course upright, 
preceded by a faint pale shade ; orbicular almost invisible, round, faintly 
outlined in smoky; reniform a rather obscure dark blotch more or less hidden 
by the median band which is oblique outwardly from costa to reniform where 
it forms almost a right angle and is then inwardly oblique to inner margin close 
to t. p. line; t. p. line bent outward below costa, then strongly dentate and in 
general parallel to outer margin with a strong scallop in the submedian fold ; 
s. t. line indicated by darker shading in the subterminal area, angled below 
costa, then slightly waved ; a terminal dark line and a yellow line at base 
of smoky fringes ; secondaries smoky, noticeably excavated on outer margin 
between veins 4 and 6 with a yellow line at base of fringes. Beneath shiny 
smoky, secondaries rather paler; a postmedian line and discal dot on both 
wings. Expanse 33 mm. 

Habitat: Camp Baldy, S. Bernardino Co, Calif. (July 8) 2 $,2 ?. Types 
Coll. Barnes. 

The species is close to mania Stkr. and dubia B. & McD. ; from 
the former it differs in its rather more slender build, paler color, the 
lack of white dots around base of reniform and beyond t. p. line and 
the less prominent shading before s. t. line; from the latter it differs 
structurally, the 3rd joint of the palpi being much shorter and the 



9 



antenna much thinner with finer ciliations ; the eyes too are more 
sparsely haired than in either of the other species. Besides the types 
we have a series of what seems to be the same species from Truckee, 
Calif., captured in September. 



CUCULLIINAE 

Oncocnemis sagittata sp. nov. (PI. I, Fig. 8). 

Front whitish, sprinkled with black and with a dark interantennal tuft; 
collar white, crossed by a black line at base, a smoky one at center and a broader 
line at the apex leaving the tips white; thorax rather blackish with scattered 
white sprinkles and a small orange tuft on metathorax dorsally ; primaries gray, 
basal portion to t. a. line blackish ; t. a. line outwardly oblique, obsolete in costal 
portion, consisting of a scallop in the fold and another below vein 1, both edged 
inwardly by white ; median space gray, suffused with blackish between the spots ; 
orbicular small, oval, outlined with pale gray; reniform diffuse outwardly, de- 
fined inwardly by a black lunate line bordered with white beyond which is a 
dull orange shade; t. p. line scarcely visible, marked by a curved dark shade 
line at costa and a perpendicular white waved line below reniform ; subterminal 
area deep blackish except in costal portion beyond the t. p. line which is gray, 
bordered outwardly by a very sharply dentate white s. t. line, close to the outer 
margin, the points of the teeth mostly touching the same, the inward dentations 
being prolonged by black arrow marks of which that above vein 4 is heaviest; 
terminal area sprinkled with whitish with black shading in the central inter- 
spaces and a terminal dark broken line; fringes pale, checkered and sprinkled 
with smoky. Secondaries whitish ochreOus with broad black terminal band and 
pale fringes. Beneath white with a broad dark terminal border, the pale area 
of primaries more or less suffused with smoky and with an indistinct discal 
lunule, secondaries with costa sprinkled with smoky and with small discal dot; 
fringes as above. Expanse 32 mm. 

Habitat: Yavapai Co., Ariz. (Sept. 20) 1 $. Type, Coll. Barnes. 

CONISTRA FRINGATA Sp. nov. (PI. I, Fig. 1). 

Head and thorax red-brown tinged with gray; primaries rather a bright 
red-brown, basal area to t. a. line sprinkled with gray; an angled basal half 
line; t. a. line pale, narrow, concave outwardly; median space red-brown; 
reniform long, narrow, only distinct outwardly where it is edged with pale 
yellow; t. p. line pale, angled below costa, slightly incurved below reniform; 
s. t. line pale yellow, rather irregular, preceded by an olivaceous shade which 
is defined inwardly by a rigid, whitish, rather broad line proceeding from 
costa near apex to inner margin at anal angle where it touches the s. t. 
line; terminal space slightly sprinkled with gray; fringes ruddy. Secondaries 
deep smoky with contrasting ruddy fringes. Beneath smoky, tinged considerably 



10 

with ruddy sprinkling and with two faint subterminal dark lines crossing both 
wings and a prominent discal lunule on secondaries. Expanse 39 mm. 
Habitat: Truckee, Calif. (Oct. 24). 1 $. Type, Coll. Barnes. 

Similar in type of maculation to the Eastern devia Grt. but con- 
siderably larger in size with much ruddier fringes. 

ACRONYCTINAE 

Leucocnemis obscurella sp. nov. (PI. Ill, Fig. 9). 

Palpi and head ochreous, thorax ochreous suffused with blue-gray; 
primaries ochreous evenly overlaid with bluish gray, leaving the ground 
color only visible partially in the terminal area where it is cut by the darker 
veins; the only maculation visible is the orbicular and reniform spots, both 
small, round and ochreous with a slightly deeper central dot; fringes obscurely 
checkered ; secondaries even smoky brown with paler fringes. Beneath light 
smoky ochreous. Expanse 20 mm. 

Habitat : Denver, Colo. 3 9 . Types, Coll. Barnes. 

This obscurely marked species is allied to perfundis but lacks all 
indications of cross lines ; our three $ 's have only one fore-tibia be- 
tween them but this shows a distinct claw which, combined with the 
non-tuberculate front, seems to warrant the above generic refer- 
ence. 

Catabena pronuba sp. nov. (PI. Ill, Fig. 11). 

Palpi and thorax gray, sprinkled with smoky, collar pale ochreous at base, 
this area limited by a black transverse line; front pale ochreous crossed by a 
dark line; primaries long, narrow, rather dark gray with ill-defined macula- 
tion; a very fine black basal hair streak extending through fold halfway 
to outer margin; t. a. and t. p. lines indicated by small dark costal blotches; 
a dentate mark above inner margin evidently marks a portion of the t. a. 
line; orbicular rather prominent, consisting of a very narrow decumbent white 
oval with a central dark line ; reniform indicated by a small dark lunule below 
and around which are some indistinct dark strigae which may form portions 
of the t. p. line; an oblique dark shade extends inward from apex of wing and 
below this the s. t. line can be traced as a faint white wavy line, angled inward- 
ly above inner margin and with narrow black dashes beyond it in terminal 
area, most prominent in fold and opposite cell. Secondaries hyaline white, 
immaculate. Beneath primaries pale smoky, secondaries as above. Expanse 
27 mm. 

Habitat: Jemez Spgs., N. Mex. (July 24). \$. Type, Coll. Barnes. 

The species approaches sagittata B. & McD. in wing form but 
apart from the maculation of primaries is at once separated by the 



11 

pure white secondaries ; it is possible that other specimens will show 
a better defined maculation on primaries which will make it pos- 
sible to trace the course of the transverse lines more accurately, an 
impossibility with the single specimen before us. 

Stilbia fotelloides sp. nov. (PI. Ill, Fig. 1). 

Head and thorax an admixture of black and gray scaling, slightly tinged 
with ochreous ; fore wings in general grayish, in basal area to t. a. line, whitish 
strongly suffused with blackish and ochreous; t. a. line geminate, the outer line 
deep black, evenly outcurved, the inner paler and angled inwardly below 
cell ; orbicular large, round, gray, ringed with white and outlined in black ; 
reniform broad, outlined as orbicular; claviform a small dark loop attached 
to t. a. line ; t. p. line black, indistinct at costa where it is lost in a whitish 
shade extending from reniform to near apex of wing, rather squarely ex- 
serted around cell and strongly bent in below reniform, then slightly out- 
wardly inclined to inner margin; an oblique costal dash defining the outer 
margin of pale costal patch and touching the t. p. line at vein 7; terminal 
area rather even gray with darker terminal line; secondaries hyaline white, 
smoky along costa and outer margin with traces of a dark subterminal line. 
Beneath primaries smoky, secondaries as above. Expanse 22 mm. 

Habitat: Baboquavaria Mts., Ariz. (July, Poling). 1 $. Type, Coll. 
Barnes. 

The species greatly resembles Fota minorata or a species of 
the genus Oxycnemis in type of maculation but the front is smooth 
and the fore tibiae without claws ; we place it doubtfully in the genus 
Stilbia as vein 8 of secondaries is quite strongly anastomosed with 
the cell. 

Crambodes lunata sp. nov. (PI. I, Fig. 6). 

Head, thorax, and primaries a rather dull smoky black somewhat sprinkled 
with white scales ; the maculation is obsolescent with the exception of a white 
lunule marking the reniform; faint traces of a claviform outlined in black 
and preceded by a short black basal dash; t. p. line sinuate, most distinct 
above inner margin; veins and interspaces in the area preceding the s. t. line 
rather streaked with black, tending to accentuate a very irregular pale s. t. line 
which is much as in discistriga Sm.; terminal broken dark line; fringes dark, 
slightly checkered with white points opposite veins at base and with a crenulate 
outer margin. Secondaries rather squarely angled at vein 3, pale smoky, 
deepening towards outer margin and with a distinct dark terminal line and 
smoky fringes. Beneath heavily sprinkled with smoky with a large dark 
discal lunule on secondaries and a broken terminal dark line, more con- 
tinuous on secondaries; primaries with white costal marks near apex. Expanse 
34 mm. 

Habitat : Reno, Nevada. 1 $ . Type, Coll. Barnes. 



12 

In type of maculation quite similar to discistriga Sm. but lack- 
ing all of the brown tinges, in this respect approaching leucorena Sm. 
which is placed by Hampson in the genus Namangana but which pos- 
sibly should be more closely associated with discistriga. 

Cham^clea basiochrea sp. nov. (PI. Ill, Fig. 22). 

Head yellow ; thorax pale ochreous ; abdomen orange-yellow ; legs ochreous 
tinged with purplish; fore wings with basal area to t. p. line pale ochreous 
tinged with purplish along costa; t. a. line very indistinct, indicated by a deep 
purple mark on costa and an olivaceous oblique stripe above inner margin; 
the general course as indicated being strongly outcurved below costa to near 
middle of wing and then inwardly oblique to inner margin near base of wing; 
median area largely purplish, more or less suffused with deep olive above inner 
margin; t. p. line indistinct, in general subparallel to t. a. line, strongly out- 
curved below costa, bent in below cell and angled inwardly on vein 2, then 
slightly rounded to inner margin; the angle on vein 2 is connected with t. a. 
line by a dark olive shade; beyond t. p. line are pale shades on costa, in the 
angle below cell and on inner margin, the remainder of the subterminal 
space being deep olivaceous; terminal space pale ochreous crossed by an olive 
shade below vein 6; a slightly darker terminal line and pale fringes divided 
by a darker line. Secondaries yellow-brown at base, deep smoky outwardly 
with pale fringes. Beneath primaries smoky, strongly suffused with orange- 
brown and tinged with purplish along costa and outwardly; secondaries rather 
deep ochreous tinged along costa with purplish. Expanse 25 mm. 

Habitat: Brownsville, Tex.; S. Benito, Tex. (Sept.) (G. Dorner) 1 $, 
6 9. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

The species is very similar to peruana Grt, differing in the less 
distinct t. p. line on primaries with deeper angle on vein 2 and the 
yellow-brown basal area of secondaries; peruana was figured in our 
'Contributions' Vol. II (1), PI. 21, Fig. 20. 

Stiria olivalis sp. nov. (PI. Ill, Fig 8). 

Head and thorax white, slightly tinged with gray; abdomen gray; fore 
wings white, more or less suffused with olivaceous and crossed by three diffuse 
olive-green bands, the first, representing the t. a. line, is in general course in- 
wardly oblique, dentate below costa and again on cubital vein, the second, 
in the place of the t. p. line is subparallel to the first, rather indistinct and 
broadly diffuse in costal portion, narrower and well defined above the inner 
margin, the third is submarginal, broken, consisting of a costo-apical patch, 
another between veins 4 and 6 and a third above inner margin, more or 
less joined together by a narrow olive green line; a broken terminal olivaceous 
line ; fringes pale, tipped with fuscous. Secondaries entirely deep smoky 
brown. Beneath primaries deep smoky brown; secondaries pale whitish gray 



13 

crossed by an indistinct smoky median line and suffused with smoky on costa 
at base of wing. Expanse 29 mm. 

Habitat: Loma Linda, S. Bern. Co., Calif. (Mch., Apr.) (G. R. Pilate) 
2 $, 3 9 . Types, Coll. Barnes. 

There is considerable variation in the amount of olivaceous suf- 
fusion on primaries, worn specimens, in which the white overlying 
scales have been rubbed off, being much darker in general appear- 
ances ; in the 9 's the coloration is rather yellower than in the $ 's. 
The species is allied to hutsoni Sm. but is considerably larger. 

Stiriodes virida sp. nov. (PI. Ill, Fig. 7). 

Head and thorax creamy, abdomen ochreous ; primaries pale creamy, 
shaded basally and terminally with dull green and crossed by two oblique 
bands of the same color of which the inner is twice as broad as the outer, 
occupying the whole median area except at costa which is white ; the outer 
band is subterminal, in general parallel to the outer margin with the outer 
edge slightly waved ; fringes pale, checkered with smoky ; secondaries smoky 
with pale fringes cut by a dark line; traces of a dark discal dot and curved 
median line. Beneath primaries smoky, costa edged with whitish with a tri- 
angular patch of same color near apex; secondaries pale, whitish, with dark 
discal dot. Expanse 21 mm. 

Habitat: Palm Springs, Riverside Co., Calif. 2$, 2 9. Types, Coll. 
Barnes. 

The species agrees structurally with Hampson's definition of the 
genus Stiriodes but differs entirely in general appearance from the in- 
cluded species, looking more like Polenta tepperi in coloration scheme. 

NOCLOA TORNIPLAGA Sp. nov. (PI. I, Fig. 7). 

Head and thorax brown-black, collar heavily sprinkled with gray; pri- 
maries rather deep velvety brown, basal area somewhat paler, limited by a 
blackish t. a. line, rounded gently outwardly to vein 1, then jutting outwardly 
forming a prominent tooth just above inner margin; orbicular and reniform 
rather paler than the surrounding area, former round, latter rectangular; 
t. p. line bent outward below costa and slightly dentate, incurved below cell 
and followed at this point by a pale ochreous patch occupying the whole 
subterminal area from vein 3 to inner margin; s. t. line pale, irregular, pre- 
ceded by darker arrow marks from costa to vein 2 ; terminal dark line ; fringes 
dark. Secondaries whitish toward base, smoky outwardly. Beneath whitish, 
suffused with smoky and with faint postmedian line on secondaries. Expanse 29 
mm. 

Habitat: Palmerlee, Ariz. (Sept.). 2 9. Types, Coll. Barnes. 



14 

The frontal protuberance is rather reduced, especially the central 
process but the species bears such an undoubted resemblance to dis- 
similis B. & McD. that we place it in the genus Nocloa. 

COPANARTA SEXPUNCTATA sp. nOV. (PI. Ill, Fig. 17). 

Palpi pale ochreous mixed with black; front and thorax dull blackish 
slightly peppered with whitish and with some bluish iridescent scales; primaries 
dull black crossed by three deep black lines, the first subbasal, straight, ex- 
tending only to middle of wing, the second antemedian, angled slightly out- 
wardly below costa and with a prominent outward bulge below the cubital 
vein, the third postmedian, crenulate, angled below costa and well rounded about 
cell, bent in strongly below reniform and slightly angled on vein 1 ; a prom- 
inent white reniform, partially filled with smoky brown centred with white, 
preceded by a faint whitish shade on costa ; a faint wavy white s. t. line, 
considerably broken; fringes black with a white point at extremity of veins; 
secondaries black with a large round white spot filling entire end of cell and 
another oval white spot at middle of inner margin. Beneath black, primaries 
with inner margin shaded with white and with a single large round white discal 
spot, secondaries with two white spots as on upper side. Expanse 20 mm. 

Habitat: Shasta Retreat, Siskiyou Co., Calif. (July 1-7) (McDunnough). 
5 $ ,7 9 . Types, Coll. Barnes. 

The species was taken flying in the hottest sunshine around patches 
of Apocynum on the railway tracks a short distance north of Shasta 
Retreat. It shows considerable likeness to Pseudacontia aterrima and 
groteana but the outer claw on the fore tibia, which characterizes the 
genus Pseudacontia, is wanting, so we judge the species better placed 
in Copanarta. 

ERASTRIINAE 

Phobolosia bilineata sp. nov. (PI. Ill, Fig. 10). 

Palpi white, dark at base; front pale with a bronze interantennal tuft; 
thorax white, sprinkled with black; primaries olivaceous, crossed by numerous 
fine black striae, forming parallel lines across the wing ; t. a. and t. p. lines 
black, thickest on costal half of wing, bordered on each side by white, former 
slightly rounded, latter well rounded below costa then parallel to outer margin 
and subparallel to t. a. line; reniform represented by a short black longitudinal 
streak ; a narrow apical white patch, from which a faint white s. t. line 
arises, bent in opposite cell and in fold ; terminal area whitish with prom- 
inent black terminal line ; fringes ochreous at base, olivaceous outwardly. 
Secondaries smoky with broken terminal dark line and pale basal line to fringes. 
Beneath primaries smoky with white apical patch and dark streak showing 
the commencement of t. p. line of upper side; secondaries white, sprinkled 



15 

with smoky with distinct discal dot and traces of a curved postmedian line; 
fringes as on upper side. Abdomen with a small bronze terminal tuft. Expanse 
14 mm. 

Habitat: San Benito, Texas (July, Sept.). 2 $,3 9. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

In wing shape and maculation very similar to brimleyana Dyar 
and grandimacula Schaus but lacking the black patch at end of cell; 
the latter species or one very similar also occurs on our Texan bor- 
der; we have six specimens from Brownsville before us. 

Phoenicophanta bicolor sp. nov. (PI. Ill, Fig 15). 

Head and thorax rosy pink, with a yellow line behind the antennae and 
another crossing the tips of the tegulse; the metathorax and tips of patagia are 
also yellow ; abdomen with basal half yellow, the remainder rosy pink. Prim- 
aries yellow, costa and terminal area broadly pink with a pink median oblique 
fascia, irregular on outer edge and defined on costa by a narrow yellow streak 
on each side ; a brownish terminal line, defined on inner side by yellow. 
Secondaries pale ochreous tinged with brown and slightly pinkish outwardly 
with indistinct pale curved median line. Beneath pale, tinged with smoky 
in basal half with pinkish shading on costa. Expanse $ 12 mm., 9 16 mm. 

Habitat: $, Santa Catalina Mts., Ariz. (July 24-31); 9, Yavapai Co., 
Ariz. 1 $, 1 9. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

Very similar to fiavifera Hamp. from Argentina of which it may 
be merely a race; it is apparently smaller in size with the yellow sub- 
terminal area much broader and the median pink band consequently 
narrower. 

Tarachidia albimargo sp. nov. (PI. Ill, Fig. 25). 

Head and thorax deep purple black ; primaries purplish-black with the 
exception of an irregular terminal border of creamy white; the color is 
deepest at the base of the wings, lightening somewhat outwardly, with a 
sinuate dark t. p. line, broadly geminate above inner margin and filled in with 
a pale shade which contains an inconspicuous dark patch at end of cell mark- 
ing the termination of the geminate portion ; beyond the t. p. line the s. t. 
area is greenish black with a very irregular outer margin marking the position 
of the s. t. line ; terminal area and fringes pale creamy. Secondaries deep 
smoky-black. Beneath smoky with inner margin of primaries somewhat paler. 
Expanse 18 mm. 

Habitat: Esperanza Ranch, Brownsville, Tex. (Aug. 28) ; S. Benito, Tex. 
(Sept. 8). 3 9. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

The species differs from Hampson's characterization of the genus 
Tarachidia in having vein 7 of primaries from the cell and not from 
the apex of the areole; the bulging front shows also a slight central 
tubercle; it is quite distinct from any described N. American species 



16 

of Tarachidia and has a superficial resemblance to Chrysoscia scira 
Druce with which, but for the fact that veins 3 and 4 of secondaries are 
stalked, we should have been inclined to associate it. 

Tarachidia albitermen sp. nov. (PI. Ill, Fig. 6). 

Head and thorax creamy, abdomen pale ochreous ; primaries olivaceous 
brown overlaid by sparse white scales (in the 9 the ground color is yellower) ; 
the terminal area is narrowly whitish tapering toward apex, broadest in sub- 
median fold (in 9 of even width throughout) ; orbicular a dark dot, reni- 
form faintly indicated by an obscure shade below which in $ traces of a 
dark t. p. line are visible ; a terminal dark line of dots ; secondaries whitish, 
somewhat suffused with smoky. Beneath creamy, rather shiny; primaries 
partly suffused with smoky. Expanse 23 mm. 

Habitat : Paradise, Cochise Co., Ariz. ( $ ) ; Palm Springs, Riverside Co., 
Calif. (9). 1 $, 1 9. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

The species is larger than its near ally, modesta Hy. Edw. ; the 
white shaded terminal area is quite distinctive. In connection with 
this genus we might note that the species bicolorata B. & McD„ (Contr. 
I, (5) p. 26) was erroneously described under Tortricidia, a lapsus 
calami for Tarachidia. 

Euaontia clarki sp. nov. (PI. Ill, Fig 14). 

Head and thorax whitish ochreous; primaries whitish or creamy heavily 
shaded subterminally with brown or reddish-brown ; a small basal dark spot 
on costa ; t. a. line about one-fourth out, dark brown, gently curved, thickened 
somewhat at costa and in submedian fold ; t. p. line rather nearer base than usual, 
about the centre of the wing, in general parallel to t. a. line, forming a prom- 
inent outward projection in the cell and bent inward in the fold, the en- 
closed area between the lines forming a broad whitish band crossing the wing; 
beyond the t. p. line the submarginal area is almost entirely deep brown, at 
times with a decided reddish tinge and a little whitish suffusion; the reni- 
form is faintly marked on this area as a bluish-black patch; the outer margin 
of this area is formed by an irregular white s. t. line, rather diffuse outwardly 
and bent in prominently opposite cell and in submedian fold; terminal space 
more or less smoky shaded ; prominent terminal broken dark line ; fringes white ; 
secondaries white, slightly smoky terminally, more so in 9 than in $ . Beneath 
white with the maculation of primaries showing faintly from upper side. 
Expanse 20 mm. 

Habitat: Palm Springs, Riverside Co., Calif. 1 $,3 9. Types, Coll. 
Barnes. 

We take much pleasure in naming this pretty species, which is 
closely related to semirufa B. & McD., after Mr. B. Preston Clark of 
Boston, Mass., through whose kind offices we have secured a very 



17 

interesting lot of material from the desert region of Southern Cali- 
fornia. 

EREBINAE 

Melipotis bkunneifasciata sp. nov. (PI. I, Fig. 4). 

Head and thorax gray, two longitudinal dark streaks on the collar; meta- 
thorax tinged with ruddy; primaries with basal space gray limited outwardly by a 
band of deep brown about 1 mm. in width, outwardly oblique from costa to 
submedian fold with a slight outward bulge in the cell, in the fold making 
a rather sharp angle and then inwardly oblique to inner margin; this band is 
edged outwardly by a blackish t. a. line followed by a faint narrow yellowish 
shade; median space bright ruddy brown forming a very conspicuous band 
across the wing, the outer third slightly suffused with smoky; this median 
band is limited outwardly from the base of vein 3 to inner margin by a rather 
rigid black t. p. line shaded inwardly with yellowish and bent outward below 
vein 1 ; the white rigid inner border line of the reniform which practically 
continues the t. p. line from vein 2 forms the boundary of the median band 
for the remainder of the wing except at costa where there is no sharp de- 
fining line ; the dark gray reniform is not sharply defined outwardly but is 
followed by a white shade line tending to extend along veins 3 and 4 in short 
streaks ; from vein 3 the t. p. line forms the customary bulge around the cell 
being slightly angled on vein 4, strongly angled on vein 6 and squarely angled 
below costa ; the submedian space is dark gray, limited by a pale waved s. t. 
line, preceded in costal portion by several black arrow marks ; the rather broad 
terminal space is light gray, slightly smoky outwardly; outer margin strongly 
scalloped with dark intervenular points ; fringe smoky. Secondaries white 
in basal half, deep smoky brown outwardly with a slight whitish patch on 
outer margin below vein 2; fringe white tinged with smoky between veins 2-4 
and at inner angle. Beneath white with a broad blackish band outwardly, 
primaries with a curved blackish band from costa at the end of cell to the 
outer dark band, enclosing a quadrate white space ; secondaries with a faint 
discal dot ; fringes pale, shaded with smoky. Expanse 37 mm. 

Habitat: Camp Baldy, S. Bern. Co., Calif. (July 16). 1 S, 1 2. Types, 
Coll. Barnes. 

This handsome species is closely allied to fumosa Stkr. of which 
it is possibly merely a geographical race; it may be readily distin- 
guished by the ruddy brown median band, much deeper and brighter 
than in fumosa from Texas. 

HYPENINAE 

OXYCILLA BASIPALLIDA Sp. nOV. (PI. Ill, Fig. 2). 

9 . Palpi porrect, smoothly scaled, extending well beyond head, dark 
gray, 3rd joint ochreous; primaries with basal area gray with a slight purplish 



18 

tinge, this area extending over about one-third of the wing and very sharply de- 
fined outwardly by an almost perpendicular narrow band of deep ruddy brown; 
median area deep purplish, with a narrow reniform outlined in black and 
bent toward apex of wing in upper portion; below reniform traces of a dusky 
median shade; t. p. line brown, thicker at costa where it is outwardly oblique 
for a short distance, then crenulate and subparallel to outer margin with slight 
inward teeth on veins 1 and 2, preceded by a narrow purplish shade paler than 
the rest of the median area and bordered outwardly by an ochreous line; s. t. 
area pale purplish with three or four orange-ochreous costal dots; s. t. line 
very irregular, pale, accentuated inwardly by diffuse dark arrow marks; 
terminal area shaded with smoky over purple and with a terminal dark line 
broken by orange dots ; fringes deep smoky ; secondaries deep smoky with traces 
of a curved median line bordered outwardly with whitish, most prominent at 
inner margin; a very faint subterminal dark band with whitish edging, only 
distinct above anal angle; terminal line and fringes as on primaries. Beneath 
primaries smoky with costal dark dash and beyond it four ochreous dots; 
secondaries as above but much paler. Expanse 23 mm. 

Habitat : Palmerlee, Ariz. 1 9 . Type, Coll. Barnes. 

In default of a $ the species is only temporarily placed in Oxy- 
cilla Grt. ; the strong contrast between the pale basal area and the 
deep purplish outer portion renders the species quite easily recogniza- 
ble and distinct from any N. American species with which we are ac- 
quainted. 

Phytometra (Prothymia) apicata sp. nov. (PI. Ill, Fig. 23). 

Palpi, front, and base of collar pink, remainder of collar and thorax pale 
yellow; primaries pale yellow or straw color, at times suffused with pinkish 
terminally; basal half of costa pinkish; a faint pinkish oblique line proceeds 
from apex of wing inwardly to vein 2 just below the base of vein 3; fringes 
slightly pinkish; secondaries whitish, shiny. Beneath whitish, primaries suf- 
fused with smoky in costal portion of wing from base to end of cell. Expanse 
20-23 mm. 

Habitat : Redington, Ariz. 4 6\ 3 9 . Types, Coll. Barnes. 

This must be allied to plana Grt. but can hardly be the same species 
as Grote's description makes no mention of the oblique pink line from 
apex. 

Phytometra curvata sp. nov. (PI. Ill, Fig 24). 

Palpi longer than in the preceding species, obliquely upturned and blade- 
like, pink; front pink; thorax straw-yellow. Primaries straw-yellow with a 
faint curved pale line from apex of wing to base of vein 2 between which 
and costa is more or less pink suffusion; basal half of costa pink; fringes 



19 

pinkish; secondaries pale whitish. Beneath pale, suffused with smoky through 
the cell of primaries. Expanse 22 mm. 

Habitat: Paradise, Cochise Co., Ariz. (Oct.); Jemez Spgs., N. Mex. 
(July). 2 $'s. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

Very similar to the preceding species but differing in the distinct- 
ly longer palpi and the curved character of the apical line. 

Dyspyralis noloides sp. nov. (PI. Ill, Fig. 5). 

Palpi blackish outwardly, the joints tipped with yellow; front and thorax 
pale ochreous mixed with a few black scales, the latter crossed by a dark 
band on prothorax; abdomen ochreous; primaries whitish, ochreous-sprinkled 
and suffused somewhat with black; a blackish spot on costa at base, another 
larger one marking the inception of the t. a. line which is indistinct, black, 
bulging in the fold and outwardly oblique above inner margin; t. p. line 
rather indistinctly geminate, squarely exserted around the cell with an inward 
angle opposite the reniform, straight to vein 1 where it bends outwards to 
inner margin; reniform a narrow diffuse black patch situated just above bend 
in t. p. line with two short black streaks from its base toward t. a. line; s. t. 
space with irregular dark dashes marking the inner edge of s. t. line; a 
terminal broken black line, fringes smoky; secondaries very pale ochreous, 
smoky outwardly. Beneath primaries smoky, secondaries as above. Expanse 
19 mm. 

Habitat: San Benito, Texas (Sept. 8). 1 $. Type, Coll. Barnes. 

Rather similar in general character to illocata Warr. {humerata 
Sm.) but considerably larger and without such a well defined median 
dark band ; it looks at first sight like a Nolid. 

Epizeuxis punctalis sp. nov. (PI. Ill, Fig. 12). 

$ . Antennae ciliate, palpi upturned, smooth, ochreous, smoky outwardly ; 
head, thorax and primaries ochreous, the latter suffused with smoky in median 
and terminal areas ; t. a. line single, dark smoky, angled below costa, bent 
outwards below cubitus and then rather inwardly oblique to inner margin ; 
two small black dots represent the orbicular and reniform spots; t. p. line 
smoky, thicker at costa and bent strongly outward below same then rather 
waved to inner margin, parallel to t. a. line with a slight bulge in the fold; 
s. t. line faint, accentuated by the darker shaded s. t. area, irregular, bent 
in opposite cell and again in the fold, preceded on costa by three ochreous dots; 
terminal row of dark lunules; fringes dusky; secondaries smoky, rather paler 
at base with ochreous fringes, smoky outwardly. Beneath smoky ochreous, 
immaculate except that the costo-apical ochreous spots of upper side are re- 
peated. Expanse 25 mm. 

Habitat: Palmerlee, Ariz. 1 $, 1 5. Types, Coll. Barnes. 



20 

The fore legs are missing in the $ specimen so the species is 
doubtfully referred to Epizeuxis with which genus however it agrees 
in other particulars. 

GEOMETRIDAE 
HEMITHEINAE 

Chlorosea pulcherrima sp. nov. (PI. II, Fig. 10). 

Palpi deep wine red ; front wine red slightly mixed with ochreous, a 
white band between the antennae bordered posteriorly with wine red which shades 
into ochreous distally; thorax and primaries a brilliant emerald green, the 
latter strongly striate with white and with the veins distinctly outlined in 
whitish, costa narrowly deep ochreous shaded with wine red at base ; a faint 
white postmedian line, subparallel to outer margin; a prominent black discal 
dot; fringes greenish spotted opposite the veins with wine-red, each spot 
containing a darker central dot; secondaries whitish green, semitransparent, 
pale basally, with traces of a curved white postmedian line; fringes pale green 
with a whitish basal line and traces of the red spotting of primaries; a small 
black discal dot. Beneath much as above but paler and primaries not speckled 
with white, costa wine red at base for about one-third the length of wing. Abdo- 
men green at base then shiny white with small red dorsal patches containing 
white diamond spots on segments 2-4 ; fore coxae green, tibiae wine-red outwardly, 
tarsi pale ochreous. Expanse 27 mm. 

Habitat: Eldridge, Sonoma Co., Calif. (Feb. 1-7). 7 $. Types, Coll. 
Barnes. 

This very handsome species we place provisionally in the genus 
Chlorosea on account of the single pair of spurs on hind tibiae in $ 
(one specimen shows a single spur preceding the terminal pair) ; a 5 
will be necessary to correctly place the species. The bright green 
color shows a great tendency to fade even in unspread specimens, pos- 
sibly due to the action of the cyanide jar; the red spotting on the 
fringes is variable, being reduced in some specimens to the apical por- 
tion of primaries. 

LARENTIINAE 

LlTHOSTEGE DESERTICOLA sp. nov. (PI. II, Fig. 15). 

$ . Antennae strongly bipectinate, fore tibia with claw, front protub- 
erant; head and thorax clothed with an admixture of black and white scales; 
primaries dark gray crossed by numerous parallel lines, in general subparallel 
to outer margin and somewhat inwardly oblique in consequence; basal space 
dark gray crossed by two dark lines between which is slight whitish shading; 



21 

beyond this is a narrow white band, obscured by smoky scaling and traversed 
by two further dark lines ; median space similar in color to basal space with 
three pairs of darker lines, the lines of each pair tending to coalesce; a faint 
discal dot; the outer border of this area bent in slightly opposite cell and again 
below vein 2 and followed by a narrow white band edged outwardly by a dark 
line and with a similar central one; terminal space dark smoky crossed by 
a faint whitish s. t. line originating in a short white apical streak; terminal 
black line broken at ends of veins ; fringes pale, with central dark line and 
slight checkering oposite the veins ; secondaries whitish, sprinkled with smoky, 
with traces of the parallel lines of primaries, the only one however that is 
at all distinct being a post median line corresponding to the outer border of 
the median area of primaries ; terminal dark line and fringes as on primaries. 
Beneath rather pale smoky, sprinkled, with a broad paler outer border on 
both wings defined inwardly by a dark line corresponding to the postmedian 
line of upper side; white apical dash on primaries and small discal dots on 
all wings ; fringes as above. Expanse 27 mm. 

Habitat: La Puerta Valley, S. Calif. 3 $. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

The species is very similar in maculation to elegans Grossb., 
wrongly placed in the genus Coenocalpe as the fore tibia is clawed 
and the front tuberculate; it is however rather paler in color and the 
antennae are strongly pectinate, not ciliate as in elegans. We place 
the species in Lithostege as it appears to agree structurally, apart from 
the pectinate antennae, with the characterization of this genus. 

Lithostege marcata sp. nov. (PI. Ill, Fig. 19). 

9 . Head and thorax white with dark speckles and a blackish line across 
the collar, abdomen ochreous ; primaries whitish, sprinkled lightly with purplish 
gray and with the terminal area entirely this color; traces of an angled 
basal line; t. a. line distinct, geminate, purple gray, the outer line heavier, 
straight for a short distance below costa, then rounded outwardly, bent inward 
in the fold, straight to inner margin with three blackish dots on outer line, 
one just above inner margin the other two on fold and cubital vein ; t. p. 
line purplish-gray, starting from a prominent costal dark streak, rather diffuse 
and concave opposite cell its inner edge marked by a dark upright streak 
representing the reniform and with dark streaks on veins 3 and 4, below vein 
4 narrower and parallel to outer margin with three equidistant dark dots, the 
lowest resting on inner margin ; beyond it two equidistant parallel fine purplish 
gray lines, the inner scalloped, the outer diffuse below costa; fringes checker- 
ed. Secondaries white with a faint smoky tinge, deeper outwardly. Beneath 
whitish, primaries with two dark costal blotches near apex and slight smoky 
terminal shade; secondaries immaculate. Expanse 25 mm. 

Habitat: So. New Mexico (Sept. 1) (Poling) 1 9. Type, Coll. Barnes. 

Very similar to Scelidacantha triseriata Pack, in general appear- 
ance and possibly confused in collections with this species; the pres- 



22 

ence of two pairs of spurs on the hind tibise however at once sep- 
arates it. 

Hydriomena terminipunctata sp. nov. (PI. II, Fig. 7). 

Palpi moderately long, blackish; front and thorax ochreous sprinkled with 
black; primaries gray, slightly tinged with pale olivaceous, sprinkled and 
banded with purplish; with the exception of slight blackish shading along 
costa the basal space is pale, bordered outwardly by a black line which is 
outwardly oblique from costa to middle of cell, then rather sharply angled 
and almost perpendicular to inner margin or bent slightly outwardly above 
vein 1 ; this line is followed by a pale band of ground color the outer edge 
of which forms a prominent outward tooth in the cell and is then sub- 
parallel to the basal line with a slight tooth above vein 1 ; the median band is 
fairly broad, the inner § being purple, the outer i olivaceous-gray, a fine 
dark line marking the division of the two colors; the outer margin of this 
band is formed by a dark line, broad at costa and oblique outwardly to vein 
5, then very fine, slightly waved, and almost perpendicular to vein 1 where 
it bends outward reaching inner margin considerably before anal angle; vein 1 on 
the outer portion of this area is rather broadly black-lined, extending at times 
almost to anal angle; in the $ the subterminal space is rather immaculate gray 
sprinkled with purple, bordered outwardly by a broad purple band, oblique 
from costa to near outer margin on vein 4 and then greatly narrowed, close 
to and parallel with margin with an inward bend in the fold; this band is pre- 
ceded by a fine dark subparallel line more or less obsolete in lower portion 
of wing; in the 5 this line is much more prominent, thickened at costa, the 
remainder crenulate with a purplish blotch preceding same opposite cell; a 
purplish apical patch and two black subapical streaks, the lower one cutting 
the submedian purple band below vein 6; terminal area olivaceous gray with 
veins lined on both sides by short purplish streaks; fringes pale, checkered; 
secondaries pale smoky with a faint postmedian dark line, sharply bent on vein 
3 to inner margin above anal angle, shaded outwardly with whitish, a terminal 
series of pale oblong intravenular spots; fringes white, checkered with black 
opposite veins. Beneath pale, slightly smoky with the maculation of the upper 
side faintly visible. Expanse $ 24 mm., 9 27 mm. 

Habitat: Stockton, Utah (July). 1 6,3 9. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

The species is closest apparently to similaris Hist, (glenzvoodata 
Swett) but much paler and the terminal pale spots on secondaries 
seem quite characteristic. 

Hydriomena mediodentata B. & McD. 

Since describing this species from a unique and almost unicolor- 
ous dark 9 we have received a $ from Palmerlee, Arizona; it is 
less dark than the 9 and has an ochreous patch at base above inner 
margin crossed by a brown perpendicular line; the median area is 



23 

more or less ochreous bordered inwardly above inner margin by a 
dentate brown line and with traces of an irregular brown defining 
line outwardly. 

Hydriomena cyriades Druce. 

Judging by the figure (Biol. Cent. Am. PI. 56, Fig. 10) we have 
a specimen of this species from Tucson, Ariz. It is rather smaller 
than the figure but agrees well in coloration and maculation. 

Xanthorhoe alticolata sp. nov. (PI. I, Fig. 9). 

$. Antennae very shortly bipectinate; head, thorax, and abdomen dark 
gray, the latter black-banded ; primaries dark gray crossed by a prominent bright 
brown median band edged on both sides by whitish, the inner edge gently 
rounded, the outer edge oblique at costa (not inwardly rounded) projected out- 
ward at vein 4, bent back to near base of vein 2 and then straight to inner mar- 
gin; a dark upright cross line near base of wing, preceding which the basal 
area is slightly ocher tinted; equidistant between this line and the inner edge 
of median band is a second dark line slightly crenulate ; the area beyond slightly 
paler gray and crossed by a fine hair line very close to median band; the cen- 
tral portion of the median band is rather paler tinted than the outer portions, 
this area being bounded inwardly by a dark line parallel to inner edge and out- 
wardly by a slightly waved geminate dark line, distinctly bent inward at costa 
and then sub-parallel to outer margin of wing; subterminal area gray with 
dark dots on the veins, faintly connected by a dark shade line ; s. t. line white, 
evenly scalloped, preceded and followed by smoky shades, especially distinct 
opposite cell; a dark broken terminal line; fringes smoky, paler outwardly; 
secondaries smoky, paler in basal and median areas with two central parallel 
curved lines, bent downward from vein 2 to inner margin; faint traces of a 
dark postmedian line and white s. t. line; terminal dark line and fringes as on 
primaries. Beneath smoky with postmedian line of upper side repeated; small 
discal dots on all wings. Expanse 30 mm. 

Habitat: Silverton, Colo. (July 8). 1 $. Type, Coll. Barnes. 

The short pectinations of the $ antennae at once distinguish the 
species from the munitata group ; its appearance is rather like that of 
a large designata Huf. 

Perizoma tahoensis sp. nov. (PI. II, Fig. 8). 

Palpi short, blackish ; front and collar ochreous ; thorax blackish, sprinkled 
with white; primaries pale gray, shaded with smoky; costa with a dark patch 
near base from which a vertical dark line crosses the wing; beyond this is a 
geminate dark line, the outer portion most distinct and slightly dotted on the 
veins, followed by a narrow pale band of ground color; in the middle of the 
costa is a quadrate dark blotch from the inner and outer edges of which parallel 
and nearly vertical dark lines cross the wing, the included area being shaded 



24 

with smoky; the junction of the cubital vein with vein 2 is outlined in black 
forming a V mark and vein 1 in this area is also outlined in black ; the following 
area is paler, especially in costal half which contains a prominent discal dot; 
this area is bounded outwardly on costa by a third quadrate black patch giving 
rise to two lines as before, the inner being subparallel to the preceding lines, 
the outer more irregular, angled outwardly below costa, then strongly concave 
opposite the discal spot, forming an outward angle on vein 4, then inwardly 
oblique to the fold and rounded outwardly to inner margin ; the included area 
is very narrow for a short distance below vein 2, shaded with smoky and 
crossed by dark dashes on veins 1, 3 and 4; beyond this line at a distance of 
about V/2 mm. is a smoky line more or less parallel followed at a short distance 
by a whitish, crenulate, s. t. line, parallel to outer margin, preceded, especially 
above and below vein 5, by dark shading ; a terminal broken dark line and slightly 
checkered fringes ; secondaries pale smoky with discal dot, crossed by indistinct 
curved, dark, median and subterminal lines shaded outwardly with paler ; distinct 
terminal broken dark line preceded by pale spots; fringes checkered. Beneath 
primaries smoky with ochreous blotches on costa accentuating a dark patch 
corresponding to the third patch of upper side; subterminal markings of upper 
side faintly discernable ; secondaries as above with markings rather more distinct. 
Expanse 29 mm. 

Habitat: Glen Alpine, Lake Tahoe, Calif. (July 8). 1 $. Type, Coll. 
Barnes. 

Very similar to curvilinea Hist, but the first subterminal line is 
well defined and not represented by dots and the discal dot is promi- 
nent ; the apex of wing is also less rounded. 

Perizoma epictata sp. nov. (PI. Ill, Fig. 20). 

Primaries pale brown, narrowly banded with whitish; an upright white 
subbasal line ; beyond this a narrow white band with central brown line forming 
the inner edge of the median fascia ; this white band is straight from costa to 
cubital vein then bent inward to inner margin where it touches the white sub- 
basal line, the included triangular space being brown ; median area brown, cen- 
trally whitish, especially around the discal dot and above inner margin, crossed 
by three faint wavy lines, one before and two beyond the discal dot, the inner 
two tending to coalesce ; the outer margin of the median area shows a prominent 
bulge between veins 2 and 4 with a slight inward angle on vein 3 ; a narrow 
white band edges the median area outwardly, crossed by a central dark line; a 
dentate white s. t. line beyond which the terminal area is gray shaded with a 
smoky suffusion below apex; fringes checkered ochreous and smoky; secondaries 
whitish, slightly smoky, with indistinct median and subterminal dark curved 
lines, a terminal dark broken line and checkered fringes. Beneath primaries 
smoky, costa and terminal area paler; a dark spot on costa near base and discal 
dot; postmedian and s. t. lines of upper side repeated faintly, accentuated on 
inner side by smoky shades; secondaries whitish, sprinkled with smoky, a dark 



25 

discal dot, a curved median line and an s. t. line composed of confluent dark 
patches most distinct below costa. Expanse 20 mm. 

Habitat: San Diego, Calif. 1 $. Type, Coll. Barnes. 

The species is evidently allied to osculata Hist, but not very closely 
and as far as we know is quite distinct from any described species. 

GEOMETRINAE 

Drepanulatrix (Deilinia) lutearia sp. nov. (PI. II, Figs. 5, 6). 

$ . Antennae heavily pectinate ; front, thorax, and primaries orange yellow 
with a slight pinkish suffusion the latter crossed by three equidistant, parallel, 
upright, purple lines, thicker at costa and with slight outward angle just below 
same, the 3rd line only prominent on costa and inner margin in the single male 
before us but the course better indicated in some 9 specimens; some diffuse sub- 
terminal purplish shading most prominent between veins 2 and 4 where it rests on 
t. p. line ; a black discal dot just outside of 2nd line and a row of faint dark ter- 
minal dots ; fringe purplish ; secondaries pale ochreous basally, shading into 
pinkish outwardly, without any dark sprinkling, but with distinct discal dot and 
two slight black marks on inner margin showing inception of median lines; 
faint terminal dots and purplish fringes. Below pale ochreous much suffused 
with pink outwardly and with discal dot on each wing. 

9 . Deeper orange than in $ , shading into maroon outwardly ; all macula- 
tion very indistinct except the discal dots. Expanse 23-26 mm. 

Habitat: Camp Baldy, S. Bern. Mts., S. Calif. (July). 1 6\ 5 9. Types, 
Coll. Barnes. 

Rather close to carnearia Hist, but entirely lacking the black 
sprinkling characteristic of this species, the secondaries bearing great 
resemblance in this respect to those of bifilata Hist. The antennae are 
much more strongly pectinate than in nevadaria Hist. 

Drepanulatrix (Deilinia) secundaria sp. nov. (PI. II, Figs. 11, 
12). 

$ . Antennae finely pectinate, the pectinations shorter than in quadraria 
Grt. but longer than in nevadaria Hist. ; head, thorax, and primaries pale orange- 
ochreous, sprinkled finely with dark atoms; maculation indistinct, consisting of 
three upright, parallel, equidistant dark lines ; a subterminal narrow dark band, 
bent in toward the 3rd line below vein 5 ; a small discal dot and distinct terminal 
dark points ; secondaries pale flesh-color, sprinkled lightly with dark speckles 
and with dark discal and terminal dots ; traces of two median dark cross lines 



26 

only visible at inner margin ; fringes pale. Beneath creamy slightly sprinkled 
with smoky and shaded outwardly and apically with pinkish. 

$ . Deeper in color than the $ with maroon shades in the terminal area. 
Expanse 26 mm. 

Habitat : Mineral King, Tulare Co., Calif. 4 $ , 4 $ . Types, Coll. 
Barnes. 

Allied to celataria Hist, in type of maculation but more ochreous 
in color and with the pectinations of the $ antennae considerably short- 
er; it has rather more dark sprinkling on the primaries but the sec- 
ondaries, especially in the $ , are lighter in color. 

Itame perornata sp. nov. (PI. II, Fig. 16). 

Male antennae shortly pectinate; head, thorax, and primaries pale purplish 
shading into reddish purple outwardly, cross lines faint except at costa ; t. a. 
line oblique and well defined from costa to cell, then angled, faint, and per- 
pendicular to inner margin ; median line only represented by a very oblique black 
streak on costa, more oblique than the similar portion of t. a. line ; t. p. line 
concave and well defined at costa, angled slightly above vein 6, straight for a 
short distance to below vein 5, then bent gently inward and slightly waved, 
but very indistinct, to inner margin; indistinct terminal dark dots and smoky 
fringes ; outer margin of primaries excavate below apex ; secondaries pale ochre- 
ous, sprinkled with purplish, with traces of a discal dot and median oblique dark 
line ; outer margin scalloped slightly. Beneath light ochreous sprinkled with pur- 
plish with markings of upper side faintly repeated. Expanse 20 mm. 

Habitat : Redington, Ariz. 1 $ . Type, Coll. Barnes. 

Belongs in the inqiiinaria group but is smaller than any describ- 
ed species we know; we have a 2 from the same locality still small- 
er with similar maculation but pale orange in color which may be 
the other sex of this species, but on account of the color distinction 
and lack of a sufficient series to establish the range of variation we 
do not venture to make it a type. 

Nepytia regulata sp. nov. (PI. II, Fig. 13). 

Head and thorax gray; primaries gray-sprinkled over a paler ground 
color, giving a general pepper and salt effect; t. a. and t. p. lines subparallel and 
upright, dark smoky, the former bent slightly outward at costa and somewhat 
wavy, accentuated on median, cubital and anal veins by short dark dashes on its 
outer edge ; t. p. line crenulate, scarcely curved at costa, the veins on inner edge 
streaked with black, edged outwardly with whitish, most prominently at costa; 
s. t. line very indistinct, indicated by whitish, diffuse, irregular shading; second- 
aries paler than primaries with the outer line continued obliquely across the 



27 

wings ; all wings with discal dot. Beneath pale ochreous with black discal dots 
and traces of the t. p. line of upper side. Expanse 35 mm. 

Habitat : Redington, Ariz. 3 $ , 2 9 . Types, Coll. Barnes. 

The species bears such a close general resemblance to semiclu~ 
saria Wlk. that we place it in Nepytia in spite of the fact that the $ 
hind tibse have hair pencils ; the course of the cross lines is much 
as in nigrovenaria Pack, without the strong bend at costa. 

Plat^ea triangularia sp. nov. (PI. Ill, Fig. 18). 

Primaries whitish to s. t. line, sparsely sprinkled with gray; terminal area 
olivaceous ; a large semitriangular olivaceous patch occupies the median area of 
the wing, the base resting on costa, the apex just above the center of inner mar- 
gin, the outer edge bent inward in the cell and connecting with a small white 
discal spot; s. t. line white, angulate on vein 5, preceded by a narrow smoky 
shade band ; apex of wing slightly falcate with the outer margin toothed on 
veins 6 and 4; secondaries light brown shading into whitish at base, outer mar- 
gin entire. Beneath whitish, slightly speckled, with maculation of upperside 
partially visible. Expanse 25 mm. 

Habitat: Palm Springs, Riverside Co., Calif. (April). 1 $. Type, Coll. 
Barnes. 

This may be a mere aberration of one of the described species 
but if so it is a very beautiful one and worthy of a name. 

Morina curvata sp. nov. (PI. II, Fig. 17). 

Primaries dark gray with rather indistinct maculation ; t. a. line obsolete 
or represented by a few indistinct marks near base of wing; t. p. line from costa 
near apex, pale-shaded outwardly and parallel to outer margin as far as vein 2, 
then curved inward to about middle of inner margin, accentuated on the veins 
by dark dots ; a dark median shade line parallel and closely approached to the 
t. p. line with the intervening area rather paler than the basal and remaining 
median portion of wing ; a whitish crenulate s. t. line parallel to outer margin ; 
terminal dark line ; fringes smoky, faintly checkered ; secondaries whitish, 
dusted with smoky outwardly and along inner margin with traces at inner margin 
of a smoky antemedian band, a median line edged outwardly with white and a 
white s. t. line edged inwardly by a smoky band ; a terminal dark line and 
slightly smoky fringes. Beneath whitish, peppered with smoky. Expanse 22 mm. 

Habitat: La Puerta Valley, S. Calif. 4$, 2 ?. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

The species differs from coniferaria Grossb., the type of the genus, 
in having the t. p. line evenly curved and not wavy as in the latter 
species. 

*Pterot.ea tremularia sp. nov. (PI. II, Fig. 4). 

Thorax light gray crossed by a black line at apex of tegulae; primaries 
pale to dark gray, sprinkled lightly with smoky; t. a. line black, bent outward 



*This is probably Cleora Melanocarpa Swett the description of which has just ap- 
peared. 



28 

at costa, strongly bent backward above inner margin to near base of wing, pre- 
ceded by a light brown shade and separated from it by a narrow pale area ; t. p. 
line black, sinuate, slightly broken at costa, preceded by a broad dark median 
shade which more or less unites with it in lower half of wing but which is 
separated in costal half by a narrow pale area; discal dot usually obscured by 
this shade ; following the t. p. line is a light brown parallel band ; s. t. line indis- 
tinct, crenulate, whitish, shaded inwardly and outwardly in costal portion with 
smoky, this shade being in some instances pronounced, in others only faint ; a 
distinct crenulate dark terminal line ; secondaries much as primaries with t. a. 
line wanting except for a dot at base of wing and median and t. p. lines wider 
apart and parallel. Beneath pale, shaded somewhat with smoky outwardly; 
dotted with black along costa and with a faint dotted postmedian line and small 
discal dots. Expanse 32 mm. 

Habitat: Camp Baldy, S. Bern. Mts., Calif. 4 $. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

Very similar to cariosa Hist., but with much more strongly pectin- 
ate antennae and with a distinct brown band beyond t. p. line ; there is 
considerable variation in the depth of ground color and the amount 
of smoky suffusion caused by the union of the median and t. p. lines. 

Pterot^a serrataria sp. nov. (PI. II, Fig. 9). 

Thorax gray, sprinkled with black; primaries whitish-gray, largely suffused 
with blackish especially in the $ sex rendering the maculation obscure and 
diffuse ; t. a. line bent outward at inner margin, geminate, the intervening space 
tending to become filled with smoky ; a sinuate dark median line, crossing in the 
cell a faint discal dot, the lower median area in the $ largely suffused with 
blackish ; a curved geminate dark t. p. line, bent considerably inward below vein 
2 and filled above inner margin by a faint ochreous tinge ; s. t. line white, crenu- 
late, most prominent in the central portion where it crosses a smoky shade ex- 
tending outwardly from t. p. line ; above the inner margin the subterminal area 
is rather conspicuously whitish, forming an irregular blotch ; a black crenulate 
marginal line ; fringes checkered ; secondaries strongly crenulate, especially in 
the $ sex, with the maculation of primaries repeated and much as in the pre- 
ceding species. Beneath pale, shaded with smoky and with small discal dot on 
all wings. Expanse 29 mm. 

Habitat: Witch Creek, S. Diego Co., Calif.; Alpine, S. Diego Co., Calif. 
(1 $). 1 $, 2 $'s. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

On account of the general similarity to the preceding species we 
place this species in the genus Pterot&a although the $ antennae are 
not pectinate but merely slightly serrate; its smaller size, more dif- 
fuse appearance and the strongly crenulate outer margin in the sec- 
ondaries of the 9 should serve to distinguish it from cariosa and 
tremularia. 



29 

Cleora perpictaria sp. nov. (PI. II, Fig. 14). 

Antennae in $ pectinate, the pectinations short and thick; palpi short, por- 
rect, blackish ; thorax heavily and roughly scaled with dark olive ; primaries dark 
olive green, tinged with pinkish along inner margin and slightly on veins beyond 
the cell, presenting a general mossy appearance with rather diffuse maculation ; 
t. a. line blackish, outwardly rounded, forming a small dark patch at costa, pre- 
ceded by a dark parallel shade near base of wing; median line from a dark 
patch on costa, rather irregular, in general parallel to t. a. line ; t. p. line em- 
phasized by dots on the veins, parallel to median line as far as vein 3 then 
strongly curved inward, touching this line at base of vein 2 and more or less 
united with it to inner margin ; s. t. line whitish, crenulate, very indistinct, shaded 
inwardly prominently with smoky at costa and on both sides of vein 5 ; outer 
margin crenulate, bordered by a fine dark line; a rather prominent dark discal 
dot ; secondaries similar to primaries in color and maculation ; median line want- 
ing; inner line an oblique dark shade, outer line forming an inward angle shortly 
above inner margin ; outer margin strongly crenulate ; distinct discal dot. 
Beneath whitish, shaded with smoky with discal dots on all wings. Expanse 
30 mm. 

Habitat : Paradise, Cochise Co., Ariz. ; Palmerlee, Ariz. 5 $ . Types, 
Coll. Barnes. 

The species is quite distinct from any North American form; it 
rather reminds one of some of the European species belonging to the 
genus Gnophos; until this large group is thoroughly worked over gen- 
erically we are in doubt as to its exact location; the $ hind tibiae ap- 
pear to be without a hair pencil and the curious short pectinations of 
the antennae are quite characteristic and much as in the genus 
Track eops. 

Genus Cochisea gen. nov. (Type, C. rigidaria sp. nov.) 

Eyes hairy ; fore tibia with a strong terminal claw ; wing shape, vestiture, 
and venation as in Amphidasis Tr. (type, betularia L.) 

C. rigidaria sp. nov. (PI. II, Figs. 2, 3). 

Palpi and pectus blackish, front and collar whitish, the latter with the 
apical portion crossed by a deep black line; thorax deep gray, metathorax 
crossed by a faint dark line and tufted with white; primaries in $ whitish, 
sprinkled and suffused with dark gray especially in costal and terminal areas, 
in $ rather even dark gray; two prominent heavy lines cross the wing, the inner 
is slightly angled below the costa, prominently rounded outwardly in the cell 
and strongly oblique from the base of vein 2 to the inner margin near base of 
wing; the outer line, near outer margin, is slightly lunate from costa to above 
vein 4, then strongly oblique and parellel to inner line to about the middle of 
inner margin; it is followed by a broad brownish band (not distinct in $ ), 
heaviest and broadest at inner margin and edged faintly outwardly with smoky; 



30 

secondaries whitish in the $, darker outwardly, in the 9 slightly paler than 
primaries ; a dark subterminal line, slightly bent on vein 4 but in general parallel 
to outer margin and followed in $ by traces of similar brown shading as on 
primaries; a dark median line, distinct only on inner half of wing. Beneath 
much paler, whitish, gray sprinkled, with the maculation of the upper side 
repeated with the addition of a discal dot on all wings. Expanse 38-44 mm. 

Habitat: Paradise, Cochise Co., Ariz. (Aug.-Oct.). 12 $,8 ?. Types, 
Coll. Barnes. 

Cochisea sinuaria sp. nov. (PI. II, Fig. 1). 

Palpi and pectus black; collar and thorax gray, sprinkled with black and 
with indistinct dark lines crossing apex of collar and metathorax; wings 
whitish, lightly sprinkled with blackish; t. a. line black, rounded below costa, 
angled inwardly on cubitus, then curving backward to inner margin near base 
of wing, preceded by a diffuse smoky shade ; an indistinct dark median shade, 
forming a diffuse patch on costa and broken centrally; a strongly sinuate black 
t. p. line forming a prominent outward angle above vein 4 and below vein 2, fol- 
lowed by a dark shade band, extending in the lower portion of wing across 
the whole terminal area and crossed by a faint white s. t. line ; prominent inter- 
venular terminal dots ; secondaries with an indistinct continuation of the median 
shade, a dark discal dot and a black submarginal line, forming a distinct angle 
on vein 4 and slightly crenulate towards inner margin ; terminal dark dots as on 
primaries. Beneath much as above but with the lines rather paler and less 
prominent. Expanse 40 mm. 

Habitat: Paradise, Cochise Co., Ariz. (Aug. 24). IS. Type, Coll. 
Barnes. 

Easily separable from the preceding species, with which it agrees 
generically, by the course of the t. p. line on primaries. 

Parexcelsa inconspicuaria sp. nov. (PI. II, Fig. 18). 

Primaries rather dark smoky brown, almost immaculate, with faint traces 
in the cell and above inner margin of a dentate t. p. line followed by short sub- 
terminal dark dashes ; secondaries unicolorous smoky white. Beneath whitish, 
primaries slightly smoky. Expanse 27 mm. 

Habitat: Paradise, Cochise Co., Ariz. (July 24-31, Aug. 1-7). 7 S's. 
Types, Coll. Barnes. 

We place this species in the genus Parexcelsa for the present, 
although it has a distinct tongue, as the venation appears very similar 
and the hind tibiae of the $ are without a hair pencil. It is prob- 
able that a new genus will be required but in the present unsatisfac- 
tory condition of the genera in this subfamily we hesitate to add to 
the confusion without very strong reasons; in general appearance 



31 

the species seems allied to lineata Hist, but the lack of any definite 
maculation renders it easily distinguishable. 

Ellopia (Therina) phantoma, sp. nov. (PI. I, Fig. 12). 

Thorax and primaries pale ochreous, the latter rather thinly scaled and 
very faintly dark sprinkled, with smoky purple discal dash and two prominent 
thick cross lines of same color, the inner bent outward at costa and then gently 
oblique to middle of inner margin, the outer oblique from costa to vein 4 and 
then curved gently inward to inner margin rather close to inner line; fringes 
rather smoky; outer margin slightly angled at vein 4; secondaries still paler 
ochereous, unsprinkled, with outer line of primaries continued but more faintly, 
outer margin rounded. Beneath pale, immaculate, with markings of primaries 
showing through. Expanse 27-29 mm. 

Habitat : White Mts., Arizona. 2 5 . Types, Coll Barnes. 

We had wrongly identified this species as laeta Hist, but as this 
has proved to be the same as our flavilinearia there is apparently no 
name available for the present species which seems to differ consid- 
erably from any described N. American Ellopia species. 

Sicya olivata sp. nov. ( PI. I, Fig. 10) . 

Head and thorax pale yellow ; primaries pale yellow marbled and suffused 
with olivaceous especially prominent in the median area on the inner side of 
the cross lines ; t. a. line inwardly oblique, white, slightly bent below costa, bor- 
dered outwardly by an olivaceous shade line ; black discal dot ; t. p. line subpar- 
allel to t. a. line with a slight angle on vein 4 between which vein and costa it 
is less oblique than in lower portion reaching costa shortly before apex; on 
inner side at costa a narrow triangular dull reddish shade with a central yellow 
streak on costa; beyond the t. p. line the whole outer area from inner margin 
to vein 3 is whitish shaded with pinkish, this area gradually narrowing above 
vein 3 to a point at intersection of t. p. line and vein 6; the apical terminal area 
rather bright yellowish; fringes yellow, reddish just below apex of wing; sec- 
ondaries whitish at base, shading into salmon color outwardly with very faint 
discal dot and curved faintly geminate post-median line most distinct above inner 
margin where it is rather broad and purplish, otherwise salmon colored. 
Beneath primaries pale orange-pink, shaded with yellow apically, with markings 
of upper side repeated ; secondaries much as above, less smooth in appearance, 
the cross line being emphasized by dots on the veins and distinctly geminate at 
inner margin. Expanse 30 mm. 

Habitat: Jemez Spgs., N. Mex. (Sept.) 1 $. Type, Coll. Barnes. 

Rather similar to Sicya neda Druce (Biol. PI. 45, Fig. 10) but 
differing in the maculation of secondaries; the olivaceous shading 
of primaries should readily distinguish the species from our other 
N. American forms. 



32 

GONODONTIS MACULARIA Sp. nOV. (PI. I, Fig. 16). 

Head and thorax orange, the latter clothed with rather long hairs; pri- 
maries deep orange with a prominent large oval ochreous spot at the end of the 
cell slightly sprinkled with orange ; an indistinct oblique t. a. line, bent down- 
ward above inner margin, shaded inwardly with ochreous ; a smoky median band 
just beyond the discal spot, curving slightly around it and then perpendicular; a 
sinuate t. p. line more or less parallel to outer margin and dotted outwardly with 
ochreous, most prominently below costa ; secondaries orange, costal area ochre- 
ous. Beneath paler, rather shiny, secondaries with a large dark discal dot. 
Expanse 38 mm. 

Habitat: Ft. Wingate, New Mex. (June). 1 $. Type, Coll. Barnes. 

The rather worn type lacks fringes ; we have a second very 
rubbed specimen before us from the same locality which is too poor to 
make a type. The species would seem to fall into the same group as 
ocellaria Grossb. with which it agrees well in wing shape. 

EUCHL^NA DETRACT ARIA Sp. nOV. (PI. I, Fig. 11). 

Head and thorax ochreous ; primaries light olivaceous brown, paler in ter- 
minal area ; t. a. line very faint, angled below costa ; t. p. line inwardly oblique, 
whitish, sharply angled to costa at a point on vein 7 close to apex of wing, 
shaded diffusely inwardly with a slightly darker shade than the ground color 
except at costa ; a faint discal dot ; terminal area rather paler than remainder 
of wing except along the extreme outer border; secondaries rather paler than 
primaries with the outer line continued obliquely across wings ; primaries well 
angled at vein 4, secondaries slightly so. Beneath rather shiny ochreous with 
faint discal dots on all wings. Expanse 27 mm. 

Habitat : Babaquivera Mts., Ariz. ; Tucson, Ariz. 2 $ 's. Types, Coll. 
Barnes. 

The species looks somewhat like a very pale distycharia Gn. but 
the antennae are much less strongly pectinate and the hind tibiae have 
hair pencils ; it has possibly been already described from Mexico but 
if so we have been unable to locate it ; for the present it may be placed 
in Euchlccna next to galbanaria and argillaria. 

Lycimna peccataria sp. nov. (PI. I, Figs. 13, 14). 

$ . Thorax heavily clothed with purple-brown hairs ; wings purple-brown 
with a slight ochreous tinge at base and very diffuse and indistinct maculation; 
primaries with t. a. line marked by a blackish patch on costa then faintly con- 
tinued as a dark band bent below the costa ; median dark shade band beyond 
middle of wing angled below costa and inwardly oblique; t. p. line fine, inwardly 
oblique, angled sharply to costa just below apex of wing, ending in a small black 
patch; secondaries with median band and t. p. line continued from primaries, 
the former very diffuse at inner margin. Beneath paler and the maculation of 



33 

upper side with the exception of the t. a. line repeated and much clearer; 
median band prominent, dark ; t. p. line accentuated on veins by dots and rather 
crenulate ; terminal space shaded with smoky below apex of primaries. 

9. Much paler than the $ with better defined t. a. and t. p. lines on 
primaries, the latter dotted outwardly with whitish on the veins ; median shade 
almost wanting in our single 9 except at costa; beneath whitish, smoky sprin- 
kled, with distinct maculation as in the $ . Expanse 40 mm. 

Habitat: $, Palmerlee, Ariz. (April); 9, Chiricahua Mts., Ariz. (Aug. 
16). 1 $,\ 9 . Types, Coll. Barnes. 

We place the species in the genus Lycimna Wlk. as used by 
Druce in the Biologia; it seems closest to matalia Druce (1 c. PI. 43, 
Fig. 3) but lacks any subterminal dark blotches and is deeper in color. 

Sabulodes triangulata sp. nov. (PI. I, Fig. 15). 

9 . Antennae bidentate ; palpi short, blackish ; head, thorax, and pri- 
maries ochreous, the latter suffused with ruddy and slightly peppered with dark 
dots; a black patch on costa indicates the inception of the t. a. line which is 
otherwise obscure but in general course perpendicular to inner margin after a 
slight outcurve below costa ; a large triangular dark apical patch shaded with 
white scales, ochreous along costa, the inner edge rather sharply defined, out- 
wardly oblique from costa to vein 6 and forming the costal portion of the t. p. 
line which is otherwise faint, orange, inwardly oblique with a very slight curve 
inward opposite the cell; above the inner margin the t. p. line is shaded out- 
wardly with a prominent black patch consisting of a small dot below vein 1 and 
a larger patch above same extending almost to vein 2; outer margin of wing 
strongly angled at vein 4, apex slightly falcate ; secondaries ochreous, slightly 
ruddy, evenly sprinkled with smoky-purple dots, no maculation except a small 
discal dot; angle of the wing at vein 4 not prominent. Beneath ochreous, 
sprinkled with smoky purple, with traces of the dark apical patch of upperside. 
Expanse 35 mm. 

Habitat: Paradise, Cochise Co., Ariz. 1 9. Type, Coll. Barnes. 

We have another 9 from Kerrville, Texas apparently belong- 
ing to the same species, but rather more orange in color and with- 
out the black patch on inner margin beyond the t. p. line. The posi- 
tion of the species is rather doubtful until the $ is known; apparent- 
ly it would fall in the arcasaria group from which it is at once dis- 
tinguished by the lack of lines on secondaries and the much less 
prominent angulation of the outer margin. The species has possibly 
been described from Mexico or the West Indies, but if so we have 
been unable to discover it. 



34 

PSYCHIDAE 

Apterona fragilis sp. nov. (PI. Ill, Fig. 21). 

$ . Antennae strongly bipectinate ; head and thorax sparsely clothed with 
long whitish hair; wings semitransparent, blackish, finely clothed with long 
black hair; abdomen scarcely exceeding hind wings. Expanse 11 mm. 

Habitat : Redington, Ariz. ; Paradise, Ariz. 2 $ . Types, Coll. Barnes. 

The ' reference to this genus as defined by Spuler (Schmett. 
Europ. II, 180) would seem to be indicated by the presence of 7 
veins on secondaries and 10 veins on primaries; on secondaries veins 
4 and 5 are either connate or slightly stalked, 8 is connected with 7 
by a cross bar; on primaries vein 1 a is obsolete and the other veins 
are well separated, almost equidistant, with the exception of 4 and 5 
which are rather closer to each other at the point of origin. 

COSSIDAE 

Acossus connectus sp. nov. (PI. I, Fig. 5). 

Thorax roughly scaled, pale brownish, tinged with white at base of meta- 
thoracic tufts; primaries with the basal half light smoky brown, the outer half 
paler and tinged with silvery white ; numerous deep black transverse streaks are 
present besides two rather prominent postmedian irregular lines, connected to- 
gether in the fold by a black streak, diverging towards costa, the outer one 
forking near the apex of the wing ; along the outer margin are slight black reticu- 
lations. Secondaries paler with only traces of reticulation. Beneath smoky 
brown with faint reticulation. Expanse 30 mm. 

Habitat: San Benito, Texas (April 24-30). 1$. Type, Coll. Barnes. 

The species at first sight greatly resembles Fania nanus Stkr. 
but apart from a somewhat different arrangement of the lines and 
reticulations differs in the venation of the secondaries in which veins 
6 and 7 are well stalked and veins 4 and 5 connate from the end of 
the 'cellula intrusa' which is only faintly developed owing to the 
partial obsolescence of the discocellular vein. We place the species 
provisionally in Acossus, until more material is obtainable, as it seems 
to show considerable affinity to tmdosus Lint. ; it is however very much 
smaller than this species. 



35 



NOTES ON WALKER'S TYPES OF GEOMETRI- 
DAE IN THE D'URBAN COLLECTION 

Through the kindness of the Rev. Dr. Bethune we have recently 
had the opportunity of examining the D'Urban Collection of N. Amer- 
ican Lepidoptera, now the property of the Entomological Society of 
Ontario and contained in their collection at the Ontario Agricultural 
College, Guelph. This collection contains a number of specimens 
which served as types to Francis Walker of the British Museum, the 
descriptions of the species occuring both in Walker's Catalogue of the 
Lepidoptera of the British Museum and also in a paper by Mr. D'Urban 
in the Canadian Naturalist and Geologist Vols. V and VI on the Lepid- 
optera of the Rouge River. Our attention was largely confined to the 
Geometridae and as the results obtained from an examination of these 
types vary considerably from the idea of the species as given in 
Dyar's Catalogue, we offer the following notes with a view to clear- 
ing up the synonymy of the species involved. 

We might preface our remarks by stating that none of the speci- 
mens actually are marked with the word 'type', except in some few 
instances where Dr. Bethune has recently labelled them as such; the 
specimens however, bear Walker's written label containing the name 
of the species and very often the letter 'n', presumably an abbrevia- 
tion for 'nova' ; in some few instances there has evidently been an 
unfortunate shifting of labels, due doubtless to the many hands the 
collection has passed through since its original determination by 
Walker and it has been necessary to check up each presumable 'type' 
with the original description before definitely pronouncing it to be the 
true type. 

As far as our present knowledge goes there are twenty-five pre- 
sumable species of Geometridcu described by Walker, the types of which 
are stated to be contained in the D'Urban Collection ; in the fol- 
lowing notes we treat the species in their order of publication, irrespec- 
tive of their present position in our lists. 

Ellopia aequaliaria Wlk. (1860, C. B. M. XX, 164). 

This species has been listed as a synonym of fiscellaria Gn., but 
the specimen so labelled, which agrees excellently with the description, 
does not at all agree with Oberthur's figure of Guenee's type (Et. de 



36 

Lep. Comp. VI, PI. 156, fig. 1511) ; on the contrary the type of cequal- 
iaria would appear to be a normal specimen of athasaria Wlk. which 
was described from a specimen in which the cross lines were unusually 
close together. Packard already suggested this synonymy (Mon. 
Geom. p. 495) and we would point out in confirmation of this reference 
that the description does not call for any orange border to the dark 
cross lines. 

Endropia effecta Wlk. (1860, C. N. & G. V, 260; effectaria, 1862, 
C. B. M. XXVI, 1504). 

The specimen bearing Walker's label is a 2 of Sabulodes trans- 
versata and quite in discrepancy with the original description which 
calls for a $ , a much notched exterior border of hind wings and the 
middle and exterior lines very distinct on underside; we imagine that 
the label has been at some time or other wrongly transferred to this 
specimen and are strengthened in this belief by the fact that a $ speci- 
men agreeing in all particulars with the description and also with our 
usual conception of the species is present in the collection without any 
written label ; this specimen is in all probability the true type. In any 
case we can see no grounds for accepting the transversata specimen as 
type nor for changing the usual idea of the species. 

Endropia annisaria Wlk. (1860, C. N. & G. V, p. 260; aniusaria, 
1862, C. B. M. XXVI, 1507). 

There are no specimens in the collection bearing this name; the 
species was described from a $ and $ and has generally been con- 
ceded to be a synonym of ribearia Fitch; a $ and a 5 of this latter 
species are present in the collection without labels and as they agree 
well with the description we believe them to be the true types from 
which the labels have possibly dropped off and been lost ; in any case 
the synonymy need not be changed. 

Biston ursaria Wlk. (1860, C. N. & G., V, 261 ; C. B. M. XXI, 304). 

The type specimen is present and confirms the general conception 
of the species. 

Acidalia similaria Wlk. (1860, C. N. & G., V, 261-2; C. B. M. 
XXVI, 1592). 

On the authority of Dr. Hulst (Ent. News, VI, 72) this species 
has been considered the same as quadrilineata Pack, and this appears 



37 

to be borne out by the specimen labelled similaria in the collection ; un- 
fortunately however for this reference all the Acidalia species of this 
group have a distinctly black front whereas the original description of 
similaria just as distinctly states that the head is white, besides dis- 
agreeing in other particulars. We believe that this is another case of 
interchanging of labels and that a poor ? specimen of what appears to 
be Cabera erythemaria Gn., masquerading in the collection under the 
label Numeria inceptaria (which it cannot possibly be), is probably the 
true type of similaria. The description would certainly apply much 
better to erythemaria than to any of the known white species of Acida- 
lia and we would suggest therefore the sinking of similaria to erythe- 
maria. We point out later our grounds for believing that the name 
to be employed for what has been called similaria Wlk, is really 
junctaria Wlk. 

Acidalia anticaria Wlk. (1860, C. N. & G., V, 262; 1862, C. B. M., 

XXVI, 1593). 

The specimen under this label, which agrees excellently with the 
original description, we cannot separate from strongly marked speci- 
mens of the common Eastern species, inductata Gn., and believe the 
name should fall as a synonym. 

Pellonia successaria Wlk. (1860, C. N. & G., V, 262; 1862, C. B. 
M., XXVI, 1617). 
This is correctly listed as a synonym of Hcematopis grataria Fabr. 

Lozogramma sub^quaria Wlk. (1860, C. N. & G., V, 262; 1862, C. 
B. M. XXVI, 1660). 

The usual conception of this series is correct; the name subae- 
quaria will however take priority over defluata Wlk. which was not 
published until 1861 (Cat. B. M. XXIII, 984) ; the earlier publication 
of subcequaria in the Can. Naturalist appears to have been overlooked 
by Hulst in his compilation in Dyar's Catalogue. 

Numeria inceptaria Wlk. ( 1860, C. N. & G., V, 263 ; 1862, C. B. M., 

XXVI, 1667). 

As stated above the specimen bearing this label in the collection is a 
Cabera erythemaria Gn. and cannot possibly be made to fit in with the 
original description which reads as follows: 

'Male. Cinereous, slender, minutely speckled. Antennae rather broadly 
pectinated. Wings with a slender blackish marginal line. Forewings hardly 



38 

acute, with two slight oblique undulating blackish lines and with a diffuse and 
indistinct submarginal brown line; discal lunule small, blackish. Hindwings 
with two somewhat diffuse, brown lines. Length of body, 5 lines ; of the wings, 
12 lines.' 

We found nothing in the collection that would fit in with the 
above description; the species was unknown to Packard; Hulst (Ent. 
News, VI, 11), on the strength of Moffat's determination, placed the 
species as synonymous with argillacearia Pack, but quite recently 
Swett (C. Ent. 48, 253) takes exception to this and claims the two are 
distinct ; we certainly agree with him in the light of the description but 
confess our inability to correctly identify the species ; perhaps some of 
our Montreal friends who have collected in the Rouge River region 
can solve the problem; for the present inceptaria Wlk. must remain 
one of the troublesome 'unknowns.' 

Anisopteryx restituens Wlk. (1860, C. N. & G., V, 263; 1862, C. 
B. M., XXVI, 1696). 

Correctly placed as a synonym of pometaria Harris. 

Scotosia affirmaria Wlk. (1860, C. N. & G., V, 264). 

This species seems to have been omitted in Dyar's Catalogue; it 
proves to be the same species as Triphosa indubitata Grt. and takes 
priority over Grote's name; Hulst (Ent. News, VI, 43) also gives this 
reference but confuses affirmaria Wlk. with Scotosia affirmata Gn. 
from Brasil, probably dropping the former name as a homonym; as 
however Guenee's species will doubtless fall into a different genus we 
imagine that the use of Triphosa affirmaria Wlk. for our N. American 
species will be permissable. 

Macaria spilosaria Wlk. (1860, C. N. & G., V, 266; 1862, C. B. M., 
XXVI, 1641). 

This name seems to have been omitted from Dyar's list ; the speci- 
men in the collection is labelled 'Cidaria? spilosaria', agrees well with 
the original description and proves to be a specimen of Earophila va- 
saliata Gn. of the unicolorous brown form. Hulst states that the type 
is lost (Ent. News, VI, 105) but he was presumably misled by the dif- 
ferent generic reference ; in our opinion there is no question as to the 
authenticity of the type. 



39 

Cleora tinctaria Wlk. (1860, C. B. M., XXI, 486; distinctaria 
D'Urban, 1861, C. N. & G., VI, 39). 

Considerable confusion exists concerning the three Cleora species 
and the five Boarmia species described by Walker in the Addenda to 
Part XXI of his Catalogue (pp. 486-9) and listed as being in the 
D'Urban Collection; of these eight species Hulst lists the types of 
Cleora tinctaria, Boarmia convergaria and B. ejectaria as lost and 
refers these names in Dyar's Catalogue to patnpinaria Gn., larvaria Gn. 
and hutnaria Gn. respectively. If we now turn to D'Urban's paper in 
the Can Nat. VI, 39 we find that he also lists three Cleora species and 
five Boarmia species as new but omits the descriptions of all except 
Cleora limitaria, the description of which tallies with that given by 
Walker in his catalogue ; with regard to the other two Cleora species 
it may be noted that he lists diversaria Wlk. which evidently is divisaria 
as published by Walker, his third species beeng distinctaria Wlk. which 
just as evidently may be held to be the tinctaria of the catalogue. Turn- 
ing to the Boarmia species we find cineraria Wlk. listed as cunearia, 
convergaria as converzaria, and Boarmia? ejectaria not mentioned at 
all, but in its place a Boarmia? patularia, the query following the 
generic reference making it almost certain that both names refer to 
the same species ; it would seem that Walker for some reason or other 
had, in publishing his descriptions, not rigidly adhered to the names 
placed originally on D'Urban's specimens and this would at once ac- 
count for the fact that Hulst could receive from Dr. Moffat no word 
of the types of tinctaria and ejectaria as these were labelled respectively 
distinctaria and patularia. 

Taking the species in order we would note that the specimen la- 
belled C. distinctaria exists in the collection and agrees so well with 
Walker's description of C. tintaria that we have no hesitation in accept-, 
ing it as the type of this species ; unfortunately only the fore wings 
are left to the specimen, but these are sufficient to show that the species 
has nothing in common with pampinaria but is really what has been 
passing under the name of Orthofidonia exornata Wlk., the type being 
a rather pale and worn specimen ; the name tinctaria will take priority. 

Cleora limitaria Wlk. (1860, C. B. M. XXI, 487; 1861, C. N. & G., 
VI, 39). 

The present reference of this species to the genus Nyctobia is cor- 
rect. 



40 

Cleora divisaria (1860, C. B. M., XXI, 487; diversaria D'Urban, 
1861, C. N. & G, VI, 39). 

The reference of this species to Hydriomena autumnalis would 
seem to be correct ; we could not exactly match the type, which is worn, 
with a specimen of the latter species from Ottawa, Ont., which we had 
taken with us but believe the slight differences presented would fall 
under the category of individual variation; the type shows great re- 
semblance to a figure before us of the type of renunciata Wlk. in the 
British Museum. 

Boarmia inordinary Wlk. (1860, C. B. M., XXI, 488; 1861, C. N. 
& G., VI, 39). 

If the ordinary identification of granitata Gn. is correct then the 
reference of inordinaria to this species will hold ; the type is a rather 
well marked specimen of the common pine feeder of the northern 
woods, the many forms of which have received various names from 
Walker e. g. dispuncta, irregulata, retinotata etc. ; as far as our present 
knowledge goes it would best be placed as a synonym of dispuncta. 

Boarmia cineraria Wlk. (1860, C. B. M., XXI, 488; cunearia 
D'Urban, 1861, C. N. & G., VI, 39). 

The specimen labelled cunearia is present and appears correctly 
referred to Ectropis crcpuscularia D. & S. ; it is a large, pale and 
strongly marked male. 

Boarmia convergaria Wlk. (1860, C. B. M., XXI, 488; conver- 
zaria, D'Urban, 1861, C. N. & G., VI, 39). 

The type of this has apparently been destroyed as only a pin with 
the name label is present in the collection. We cannot however see 
how this species can possibly be placed as a synonym of larvaria Gn. as 
the description, which we append, calls for a totally different insect : — 

'Male. Whitish with numerous and irregular brown speckles which are 
here and there confluent on the fore wings. Head and thorax brownish. 
Antennae moderately pectinated except at the tips. Wings beneath with a black 
discal dot. Fore wings irregularly banded. Hind wings white with a few 
irregular brown marks. Length of body 4 lines, of the wings 11 lines.' 

In our opinion there is much more chance of convergaria being 
one of the forms of Eufidonia notataria Wlk. than of any other species 
we know ; the locality and size would agree and there is nothing in the 



41 

description which would definitely prevent this association, especially 
with such a form as bicoloraria Minot. 

Boarmia ejectaria Wlk. (1860, C. B. M., XXI, 489; patularia 
D'Urban, 1861, C. N. & G., VI., 39). 

We have already stated our reasons for believing that the speci- 
men marked patularia in the collection is the type of ejectaria Wlk.; 
this specimen agrees well with the original description of ejectaria and 
proves to be a specimen of the ordinary pale brownish form of cana- 
daria Gn. ; this reference of ejectaria to canadaria would to us seem 
far more probable than that of Hulst's to humaria Gn., which latter 
species can hardly be said to fit in well with Walker's description. 

Boarmia divisaria (1860, C. B. M., XXI, 489; 1861, C. N. & G. 
VI, 39). 

The reference of this species as a synonym of abraxaria Wlk. is 
correct. 

Acidalia junctaria Wlk. (1861, C. N. & Geol., VI, 39; 1862, C. B. 
M., XXVI, 1593). 

The $ bearing this label is very poor but would appear to bear 
out Grote's reference of the species (C. Ent. IX, 27) to vestaliata Gn. ; 
the original description of the species however leads us to believe that 
this specimen cannot be considered to be the true type as Walker dis- 
tinctly states that the head is black in front which is certainly not the 
case with the labelled specimen. It would almost seem as if the labels 
of junctaria, similaria and Numeria inceptaria had become loose at 
some time or other and then been replaced on the wrong specimens for 
certainly the description of junctaria would fit much better to what 
has been called similaria than the original description of this latter 
species does ; as it is in all cases this original description which defines 
the species rather than any so-called type specimen we believe we are 
justified in applying the name junctaria in the above sense. 

Macaria subapiciaria Wlk. (1861, C. N. & G., VI, 40; 1862, C. B. 
M. XXI, 1641). 

Grote's reference of this species to inordinaria Wlk. (C. Ent. IX 
27) is correct; the ground color is rather more evenly gray than in this 
latter species but the difference is only slight. 



42 

Melanippe propriaria Wlk. (1861, C. N. & G., VI, 40; 1861, C. B. 
M., XXV, 1293). 

The reference to albovittata Gn. is correct. 

Cosemia? palparia Wlk. (1861, C. N. & G., VI, 40; 1862, C. B. M., 
XXV., 1309). 

Grote referred this species to the genus Bomolocha, but the name 
has been apparently dropped from our lists ; the species proves to be 
the same as that described later by Grote as Bomolocha scutellaris and 
palparia Wlk. will take priority therefore over Grote's name. 

Cidaria lactispargaria Wlk. (1861, C. N. & G., VI, 41 ; 1862, C. B. 
M., XXV, 1387). 

This species, listed by Dyar as latispargaria, is correctly placed as a 
synonym of Homochlodes fritellaria Gn. 



44 



PLATE I 

Fig. 1. Conistra fringata B. & McD. Type $. 

Fig. 2. Rynchagrotis orbipuncta B. & McD. Type $ . 

Fig. 3. Polia brenda B. & McD. Type $ . 

Fig. 4. Melipotis brunneifasciata B. & McD. Type $ 

Fig. 5. Acossus connectus B. & McD. Type $ . 

Fig. 6. Crambodes lunata B. & McD. Type $ . 

Fig. 7. Nocloa torniplaga B. & McD. Type 9 . 

Fig. 8. Oncocnemis sagittata B. & McD. Type $ . 

Fig. 9. Xanthorhoe alticolata B. & McD. Type 5. 

Fig. 10. Sicya olivata B. & McD. Type $ . 

Fig. 11. Euchlaena detractaria B. & McD. Type $ . 

Fig. 12. Ellopia phantoma 5. & McD. Type 9 . 

Fig. 13. Lycimna peccaria B. & McD. Type $ . 

Fig. 14. Lycimna peccaria B. & McD. Type 9. 

Fig. 15. Sabulodes triangulata B. & McD. Type 9. 

Fig. 16. Gonodontis macularia B. & McD. Type $. 

Fig. 17. Polia delecta B. & McD. Type $ . 

Fig. 18. Eriopyga discreta B. & McD. Type $. 



Plate I 








3 



1 %m^ 






3 
I 


ijNffeSfc! 


£ 


• 


1 










% 


ii 


S 




;« 


■-.'•- * 






:x> 






/* 



46 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


15. 


Fig. 


16. 


Fig. 


17. 


Fig. 


18. 



PLATE II 

Cochisea sinuaria B. & McD. Type $ . 
Cochisea rigidaria B. & McD. Type $ . 
Cochisea rigidaria B. & McD. Type 2 . 
Pterotaea tremularia B. & McD. Type $ . 
Drepanulatrix lutearia B. & McD. Type $ . 
Drepanulatrix lutearia B. & McD. Paratype 2 . 
Hydriomena terminipunctata B. & McD. Paratype 
Perizoma tahoensis B. & McD. Type 8 . 
Pterotaea serrataria B. & McD. Type 2 . 
Chlorosea pulcherrima B. & McD. Type $. 
Drepanulatrix secundaria B. & McD. Paratype $. 
Drepanulatrix secundaria B. & McD. Type 2. 
Nepytia regulata B. & McD. Type $. 
Cleora perpictaria B. & McD. Type $ . 
Lithostege deserticola B. & McD. Paratype $ . 
Itame perornata B. & McD. Type $ . 
Morina curvata B. & McD. Type $ . 
Parexcelsa inconspicuaria B. & McD. Type $ . 



Plate II 







mm 



\ y f 



w&> 4m 







48 



PLATE III 

Fig. 1. Stilbia fotelloides B. & McD. Type 5 . 

Fig. 2. Oxycilla basipallida B. & McD. Type 9 . 

Fig. 3. Anarta sierrae B. & McD. Type $. 

Fig. 4. Anarta sierrae laertidia B. & McD. Type $ . 

Fig. 5. Dyspyralis noloides B. & McD. Type $ . 

Fig. 6. Tarachidia albitermen B. & McD. Type $. 

Fig. 7. Stiriodes virida B. & McD. Type 9 . 

Fig. 8. Stiria olivalis B. & McD. Type 9 . 

Fig. 9. Leucocnemis obscurella B. & McD. Type 9 . 

Fig. 10. Phobolosia bilineata B. & McD. Paratype 9. 

Fig. 11. Catabena pronuba B. & McD. Type $. 

Fig. 12. Epizeuxis punctalis 5. & McD. Type #. 

Fig. 13. Grotella citronella B. & McD. Type $ . 

Fig. 14. Euaontia clarki B. & McD. Type 9 . 

Fig. 15. Phoenicophanta bicolor B. & McD. Type 9 . 

Fig. 16. Schinia cupes deserticola B. & McD. Type $ 

Fig. 17. Copanarta sexpunctata B. & McD. Type $ . 

Fig. 18. Plataea triangulata B. & McD. Type $. 

Fig. 19. Lithostege marcata B. & McD. Type $. 

Fig. 20. Perizoma epictata B. & McD. Type $ . 

Fig. 21. Apterona f ragilis B. & McD. Type $ . 

Fig. 22. Chamseclea basiochrea B. & McD. Type 9. 

Fig. 23. Phytometra apicata B. & McD. Paratype $. 

Fig. 24. Phytometra curvata B. & McD. Type $. 

Fig. 25. Tarachidia albimargo B. & McD. Type 9. 



Plate III 













INDEX 



Page 

abraxaria Wlk 41 

aequaliaria Wlk 35 

affirmaria Wlk 38 

affirmata Gn 38 

albimargo B. & McD 15 

albitermen B. & McD 16 

albovittata Gn 42 

alcandola Sm 6 

alticolata B. & McD 23 

annisaria Wlk 36 

aniusaria Wlk 36 

anticaria Wlk 37 

apicata B. & McD 18 

argillacearia Pack 38 

argillaria Hist 32 

aterrima Grt 14 

athasaria Wlk 36 

autumnalis Strom 40 

basiochrea B. & McD 12 

basipallida B. & McD 17 

bicolor B. & McD 15 

bicoloraria Minot 41 

bicolorata B. & McD 16 

bifilata Hulst 25 

bilineata B. & McD 14 

brenda B. & McD 7 

brimlevana Dyar 15 



brunneifasciata B. & McD. 

canadaria Gn 

cariosa Hist 

carnearia Hist 

celataria Hist 

cineraria Wlk 

citronella B. & McD 

clarki B. & McD 

coniferaria Grossb 

connectus B. & McD 

convergaria Wlk 

converzaria D' Urban 

crepuscularia D. & S 

crotcbi Hy. Edzv 

cunearia D'Urban 

cupes Grt. 



17 

41 
28 
25 
26 
40 
25 
16 
27 
34 
40 
40 
40 
5 
40 
5 

curvata B. & McD (Morina) ... 27 
curvata B.&McD. (Phytometra) 18 



Page 

curvilinea Hist 24 

cyriades Druce 23 

defluata Wlk 37 

delecta B. & McD 7 

deserticola B. & McD. (Lith- 

ostege) 20 

deserticola B. & McD. (Schinia) 5 

designata Hufn 23 

detractaria B. & McD 32 

devia Grt 10 

discistriga Sm 12 

discreta B. & McD 8 

dispuncta Wlk 40 

dissimilis B. & McD 14 

distincta Hbn 7 

distinctaria D'Urban 39 

distycharia Gn 32 

diversaria D'Urban 40 

divisaria Wlk. (Boarmia) 41 

divisaria Wlk. (Cleora) 40 

dubia B. & McD 8 

effecta Wlk 36 

effectaria Wlk 36 

ejectaria Wlk 41 

elegans Grossb 21 

epictata B. & McD 24 

erytbemaria Gn 37 

exornata Wlk 39 

fiscellaria Gn 35 

flavifera Hamp 15 

flavilinearia B. & McD 31 

fotelloides B. & McD 11 

fragilis B. & McD 34 

f ringata B. & McD 9 

f ritellaria Gn 42 

fumosa Stkr 17 

galbanaria Hist 32 

glenwoodata Swett 22 

goodelli Grt 8 

grandimacula Schaus 15 

granitata Gn 40 

grataria Fabr 37 

groteana Dyar 14 



Page 

humaria Gn 41 

humerata Sm 19 

hutsoni Sm 13 

illocata Warr 19 

inceptaria Wlk 37, 41 

inconspicuaria B. & McD 30 

indubitata Grt 38 

inductata Gn 37 

inordinaria Wlk 40 

irregulata Wlk 40 

junctaria Wlk 41 

lactispargaria Wlk 42 

laertes Sm 7 

laertidia B. & McD 7 

laeta Hist 31 

larvaria Gn 40 

leucorena Sm 12 

limitaria Wlk 39 

lineata Hist 31 

lunataB. & McD 11 

lutearia B. & McD 25 

macularia B & McD 32 

mania Stkr 8 

marcata B. & McD 21 

matalia Druce 33 

mediodentata B. & McD 22 

melanopa Thun 7 

minorata Grt 11 

modesta Hy. Edw 16 

neda Druce 31 

nevadaria Hist 25 

nigrovenaria Pack 27 

noloides B. & McD 19 

notataria Wlk 40 

obscurella B. & McD 10 

ocellaria Grossb 32 

olivata B. & McD 31 

olivalis B. & McD 12 

orbipuncta B. & McD 6 

osculata Hist 25 

palparia Wlk 42 

pampinaria Gn 39 

patularia D'Urban 41 

paviae Behr 8 

peccataria B. & McD 32 

perfundis Sm 10 

perornata B. & McD 26 



Page 

pernana Grt 12 

perpictaria B. & McD 29 

phantoma B. & McD 31 

plana Grt 18 

pometaria Harr 38 

pronuba B. & McD 10 

propriaria Wlk 42 

pulcherrima B. & McD 20 

punctalis B. & McD 19 

quadraria Grt 25 

quadrilineata Pack 36 

regulata B. & McD 26 

renunciata Wlk 40 

restituens Wlk 38 

retinotata Wlk 40 

ribearia Fitch 36 

rigidaria B. & M. D 29 

sagittata B. & McD (Catabena) 10 
sagittata B. & McD (Oncocne- 

mis) 9 

scira Druce 16 

scutellaris Grt 42 

secundaria B. & McD 25 

semiclusaria Wlk 27 

semirufa B. & McD 16 

serrataria B. & McD 28 

sexpunctata B. & McD 14 

sierrae B. & McD 6 

similaria Wlk 36, 41 

similaris Hist 22 

sinuaria B. & McD 30 

spaldingi B & McD 5 

spilosaria Wlk 38 

subaequaria Wlk 37 

subapiciaria Wlk 41 

successaria Wlk 2>7 

tahoensis B. & McD 23 

tepperi Morr 13 

terminipunctata B. & McD.... 22 

tinctaria Wlk 39 

torniplaga B. & McD 13 

tremularia B. & McD 27 

triangularia B. & McD 27 

triangulata B. & McD 33 

triseriata Pack 21 

undosus Lint 34 

nrsaria Wlk 36 

vasaliata Gn 38 

vestaliata Gn 41 

virida B. & McD 13 



CONTRIBUTIONS 

TO THE 

NATURAL HISTORY 

OF THE 

LEPIDOPTERA 



OF 



NORTH AMERICA 



VOL. Ill 

No. 2 



NOTES ON NORTH AMERICAN DIURNAL 
LEPIDOPTERA 

BY 

WILLIAM BARNES, S. B., M. D. 

AND 

J. H. McDUNNOUGH, Ph. D. 



DECATUR. ILL. 

THE REVIEW PRESS 

DECEMBER 5. 1916 



Published 

Under the Patronage 

of 

Miss Jessie D. Gillett 

Elkhart, 111. 



INTRODUCTION 

In a recent re-arrangement and revision of the Diurnals in the 
Barnes' Collection we have been struck not only by the difficulty in 
determining what is the nimotypical form of a given species but 
also by the numerous errors which occur in the literature regarding 
many of the species especially in such difficult groups as the Melitaeas 
and Lycaenids, one of the worst offenders in this respect being W. 
G. Wright, whose "Butterflies of the Pacific Coast" fairly bristles 
with errors. 

We offer the following notes based on a study of the material 
in the collection and also of many of the still existant type specimens 
in various museum collections and trust that they may serve as a 
spur to collectors to endeavor to clear up the still doubtful points, 
many of which can only be solved by patient work in the type 
localities of the species. 



53 



NOTES ON NORTH AMERICAN DIURNAL 

LEPIDOPTERA 

PAPILIONIDAE 

P. americus Koll. (PI. IV, Fig. 1). 

This species is figured by Edwards (Butt. N. Am. Ill, Pap. Ill) 
and listed as having been captured by the Wheeler Expedition in 
Arizona. Rothschild and Jordan in their revision of N. Am. Papilios 
(p. 542) cast doubt on this record and imagine some mistake in 
labelling has occurred. A couple of years ago we received a batch 
of Papilio pupae from Mr. C. Biederman of Palmerlee, Ariz, which 
hatched out in the early spring into normal astcrius with the excep- 
tion of one 9 which proved to be almost an exact counterpart of 
Edwards' figure of americus, the color being merely slightly paler and 
the abdomen lacking the subdorsal rows of spots and having in their 
place a broad lateral stripe; we at first took it to be orcgonia but the 
cell on the underside of the primaries showed no trace of yellow shad- 
ing and precluded association with this species. We could detect no 
difference in the pupae and can only conclude that occasionally speci- 
mens of asterius occur in Arizona which can scarcely be separated 
from americus; this is all the more strange as the 2 form in this 
region tends to a diminution of the yellow markings rather than to 
an increase of the same. We figure the specimen in question. 

P. glaucus Linn. (PI. IV, Figs. 3, 4). 

The race described as canadensis by Rothschild & Jordan (1906, 
Rev. Am. Pap. p. 586 (Aug.)) was apparently described a few 
months later by Skinner as rutulus var. arcticus (Ent. News. XVII, 
378, Dec). The typical form of canadensis is from Newfoundland 
and that of arcticus from Alaska; we have specimens before us from 
both localities and from many intermediate points and fail to find 
any marked points of distinction between them ; we imagine the race 
is common to the whole of Northern America even extending down 
into the higher portions of New York state; canadensis resembles 
rutulus in having the submarginal yellow spots on the underside of 
the primaries more or less united into a band and this doubtless 
led Skinner to place arcticus as a race of rutulus; on the other hand 
the orange costal spot at the apex of the secondaries points very de- 



54 

cidedly towards glaucus and doubtless the structural characters of 
the $ genitalia show similar affinities as Rothschild & Jordan have 
referred the race to glaucus rather than to rutulus. We might note 
that we have a specimen of typical rutulus as well as several of 
canadensis from Chatanika, Alaska, proving that both species occur 
in the far north; our Alaskan rutulus can hardly be distinguished 
from Californian specimens although the marginal yellow lunules 
are considerably reduced which may or may not be a racial char- 
acter; it differs markedly from canadensis in its larger size, almost 
entire lack of orange submarginal shading on underside and in hav- 
ing the discal black dash on the underside of the secondaries sprinkled 
with blue scales. We figure both sides of the $ canadensis from 
Alaska. 

P. aliaska Scud. (PI. IV, Fig. 2). 

Verity has made aliaska synonymous with kamtschadalis, fol- 
lowing Holland's figure (Butt. Book PI. 41, Fig. 1) and redescribed 
the true aliaska as machaon var. joannisi from Numato, Alaska, one 
of the type localities of aliaska. There is no doubt from Scudder's 
original description that the form to which he applied the name 
aliaska is what Verity has redescribed ; whether Holland's figured 
specimen really came from Alaska or not is an interesting point for 
collectors to clear up; if it be correct we would then have two dis- 
tinct forms of machaon in our northern fauna differing in the width 
of the black submarginal band of secondaries; the few authentic 
specimens we personally have seen have all been of the form aliaska; 
we figure one of these from Rampart House as Verity's work is not 
very accessible to American entomologists. 

PARNASSIIDAE 

P. smintheus Dbldy. & Hew. (PI. V. Figs. 1-6). 

Considerable misconception exists concerning the typical form 
of this species ; Edwards and other authors have treated the Color- 
ado form, such as is figured in Butt. N. Am. I, PI. II, as the nimo- 
typical race. We find however that the types of smintheus (3 $ , 
1 9 in the British Museum) were collected by Lord Derby in the 
Canadian Rocky Mountains, and Sir Geo. Hampson, who has been 
kind enough to examine them for us, writes that 'it is the ordin- 
ary Canadian Rockies form found at Laggan and Banff', i. e. the 



55 

small form which has usually gone under the name of nanus Neum. 
An examination of the 3 and 9 types of nanus in the Neumoegen 
Collection has shown us that while the 9 's are normal and typical 
smintheus the $ type is of an aberrant form in which the red ocelli 
of the secondaries are wanting, the costal one being replaced by a 
black ocellus and the discal one being entirely missing; these types 
have recently been figured by Dr. Skinner (1916 Ent. News, p. 
210-16) ; a tendency to such forms is found in all specimens from 
the higher altitudes of Colorado (over 10,000 ft.) and presumably 
other states and the race described by Stichel as mcndica (Gen. In- 
sect. Parn. 20, 1907) from Montana, B. C. and Colorado we do not 
believe can be separated from typical nanus. Another similar form 
is minor Verity from the neighborhood of Laggan. The 5 's of all 
these small races, whether from the far north or from the high 
peaks of Colorado show a marked tendency to become suffused with 
black; the name hcrmodur was given by Hy. Edwards to such a 9 
from S. Colorado and the type which we have examined can scarce- 
ly be separated from the normal 9 smintheus of the Laggan region ; 
it is figured by Dr. Skinner in the above mentioned article. 

Although in our opinion all the above mentioned names are 
practically synonymous in that specimens agreeing with each of the 
types may be picked out of any good series from either Colorado or 
Laggan, still, if it be considered necessary to keep the high altitude 
form of Colorado separate from the form of the Canadian Rockies, 
the name hcrmodur Hy. Edw. might be correctly used for this Col- 
orado race ; nanus Neum. may be applied in sens, strict, to the aber- 
rational form of typical smintheus, whilst mendica Stichel and minor 
Verity must fall to either hcrmodur or nanus. We figure two pairs 
of hermodur from Silverton, Colo. (10,000 ft.) which will serve to 
illustrate the great variability found in the species even in one local- 
ity; the dark 9 is Verity's nigerrima. 

For the form common in the lower altitudes of Colorado and 
adjoining states which is figured by Edwards as typical smintheus 
and which is distinguished by its larger size and pale white 9 's the 
name sayi Edw. may apparently be used. The type of sayi is lost 
but the description points to this form in the measurements given 
(2y 2 in.), and Edwards himself states (Butt. N. Am. Parn. II) 
that he considers it to be merely an extreme form with the red costal 



56 

spots of primaries lacking. We figure a $ and $ of this race from 
Provo, Utah. 

In the central regions of Brit. Columbia at lower altitudes and 
extending down through Eastern Washington, Idaho, and Montana 
we find a very large form with the 2 's more heavily marked with 
black than in sayi Edw. and tending towards hcrmodur in everything 
except size. This has been named magnus by Wright in his Butter- 
flies of the West Coast and renamed pscudocorybas by Verity (Rhop. 
Pal. 107, 1909) ; the specimens figured by Wright as hermodur (1. c. 
PI. II, Fig. 6) are typical pscudocorybas but we cannot separate this 
from magnus (which is figured on the same plate) ; in the series from 
various localities before us we have specimens which would fit either 
figure equally well. 

In the Southern Sierras the form bchri Edw. with yellow or 
orange spots instead of red seems fairly constant; niger Wright may 
be an extreme aberration of this race, although superficially it agrees 
with nanus or mcndica. 

In the light of the above remarks we offer the following group- 
ing:— 

smintheus Dbl. & Hew. Can. Rockies. 

ah. nanus Neum. 
mcndica Stichel 
minor Verity 
form alt. hermodur Hy. Edw. Rocky Mts. of Colorado (high al- 
titudes). 
ab. nigerrima Verity. 
a magnus Wright. Cent. B. C, Idaho, Mont. 

pscudocorybas Verity. 
b sayi Edw. Colorado (low altitudes) Utah. 

c behri Edzv. High Sierras, Calif. 

ab. niger Wright, 
d. apricatus Stichel. Alaska. 

P. clodius Men. 

Stichel's arrangement of this species seems in general satisfac- 
tory; the type form is the large Californian race taken at medium 
altitudes ; this grades into the high altitude form baldnr Hy. Edw. 
of the Sierra Nevadas which is considerably smaller in size and tends 
to a reduction of the red spots of secondaries (form menetricsi Hy. 
Edw.) culminating in ab. lusca Stichel in which the posterior spot is 



57 

a mere black dot. The large race from Vancouver Is. and Wash- 
ington State with prominent subterminal lunules on the secondaries in 
the $ sex has been named claudianus Stichel and this form seems 
to intergrade in Washington with a race from Montana called by 
Stichel gallatinus and based on Elrods's figures (Butt. Mont. p. 16, 
Fig. 15/16) ; we have no Montana material but doubt whether the 
character mentioned by Stichel vis. that in the $ the postdiscal costal 
streak is joined by a band to the black spot of the inner margin, will 
hold good for all Montana males. Altaurus Dyar is based on speci- 
mens from Alturus Lake, Idaho with yellow instead of red spots ; 
whether this is mere individual aberration or a race such as behri 
of smintheus remains to be determined. Immaculata Skin. (Ent. 
News XXII, 108) is probably an aberration with red spots of sec- 
ondaries lacking and lorquini Oberthur a still more extreme aber- 
ration with great reduction of the black patches on primaries as 
well as on secondaries. 

PIERIDAE 

Pieris napi. L. (PI. VI, Figs. 1-10; PI. VII, Figs. 1, 2). 

Verity has lately (Rhop. Pal. Vol. I) dealt at considerable length 
with the various races and forms of this species ; we offer the fol- 
lowing remarks as to an arrangement of our North American races as 
it is probable that Verity's work is inaccessible to the majority of Am- 
erican entomologists. 

It is doubtful if napi as typified by the central European spring 
form and as figured in Seitz Fauna Pal. Vol. I, PI. 21, b is found in 
this country; specimens from the higher altitudes of Colorado (Sil- 
verton 10,000 ft.), where it is single brooded, are however very close, 
although in the 9 's the black dots of primaries are practically obsolete. 
For this race, which seems to warrant a name, we would propose 
using pseudonapi and figure the type $ and 9 taken at Silverton, 
Colo. (Figs. 1, 2) in the last week of July; the 9 's of our series are 
variable in the amount of black markings, tending in this respect to- 
ward cruciferarum Bdv. ; we figure one of the palest ones (Fig. 3). 

In the extreme north three distinct forms are separable ; in the 
inland Arctic region (Barren Plains) we have the form arctica Verity 
with strongly blackish marked veins on the underside in both sexes 
and on the upper side in the 9 ; there is however no suffusion of black 
and the markings are clear cut ; we figure a $ and 9 from Chatanika, 
Alaska (Figs. 6,7). Along the Alaskan coast we meet with the form 



58 

pscudobryoniae Verity which is what has been considered until re- 
cently to be bryoniae Ochs., a race now restricted to the Alps of 
Europe; Wright's figures (Butt. W. Coast PI. VI, Fig. 43b and 42bb) 
are typical of the variation of the 9 . On the numerous islands of 
the Behring Sea and Alaskan coast the form hulda Edw. is found in 
which the secondaries on the under side are almost totally suffused 
with greenish in the $ sex, leaving only dashes of yellowish ground 
color ; the 9 's are usually less suffused and on the upper side are 
intermediate between arctica and pscudobryoniae ; we figure a S 
underside and 9 upperside (Figs. 8, 9). 

Three forms have been described from the north eastern coast, 
viz. frigida Scud., borcalis Grt. and acadica Edw. According to speci- 
mens in the Scudder Collection at Cambridge from Labrador labelled 
frigida this form is the spring generation of the race of which acadica 
Edw. is the partial second generation ; we have specimens of frigida 
from Newfoundland captured in July and figure a $ and 9 (PI. VII, 
Figs. 1, 2) ; the specimen figured by W. H. Edwards (Pap. I, PI. II, 
Fig. 4) as 9 bryoniae from Newfoundland is really the 9 of frigida 
of which Scudder only had $ 's. Borealis Grt. is said by the author 
to differ from frigida by the less elongate hind wings ; we do not know 
the form nor have any information regarding the location of the 
types; if Edwards' figure is correct (1. c. Fig. 9) it must be very close 
to frigida. 

The spring race oleracea Harr. and its summer form crucifer- 
arum Bdv. {oleracea-acstiva Edw.) are too well known to need dis- 
cussing; we might remark that we have forms from high altitudes 
in California which cannot be well separated from oleracea, lacking 
as they do the heavy black spot of vcnosa, the usual spring form of 
the west coast. 

Marginalis Scud, has for some reason or other been sunk as a 
synonym of rapac although the original description states that the 
underside is as in venosa, a feature which cannot possibly apply to 
rapae; it was described from two specimens, the $ from the Gulf of 
Georgia and the 9 from Crescent City, Calif. ; the $ will hold the 
name and the type locality will be either in the vicinity of Victoria 
or Vancouver, B. C, or possibly on the north coast of Washington 
State ; we do not know the exact localities in which Agassiz collected 
his material labelled 'Gulf of Georgia' ; pallida Scud, from the same 
locality appears to be a form of marginalis with only slight traces of 



59 

dark markings on the veins of underside; it is probable that these 
two forms represent the spring and summer generations, but our 
dated material from the type localities is too scanty to settle this 
point. Wright's figures (1. c. PI. VI, Figs. 45b and 45c) possibly 
represent marginalis as they were captured in May ; they are certainly 
not venosa as he lists them ; his figures 45 and 46b represent the two 
sexes of pallida. 

In Utah we meet with a second generation (July, August) which 
is extremely pale, being practically immaculate in both sexes on both 
sides; the underside is tinged with pale yellow on secondaries and 
apex of primaries and the 9 on the upperside of primaries shows 
faint traces of upper black spot; it is a further development of cas- 
toria apparently differing from both this form and pallida in the re- 
duction of the black spots in the 9 ; we propose the name pallidissima 
for the race and figure the type $ and 9 from Provo, Utah (Fks 
4, 5, 10). 

P. NELSONI Edw. 

This appears to us, after an examination of the type, to be nothing 
but a northern form of occidentalis Reak. ; the maculation of the un- 
derside of the secondaries is practically identical with that of the 
spring form calyce Edw. and the gray-brown color emphasized by 
Edwards in his description is largely due to the worn nature of the 
single specimen from which the description was made. The only 
marked point of distinction for nelsoni is the narrowness of the discal 
black mark on the primaries and a small series from Alaska before 
us shows considerable variation in this respect, some specimens hav- 
ing the mark as broad as in calyce and others agreeing with the figure 
of nelsoni (Butt. N. Am. II, Pieris I.). 

Euchloe creusa Dbldy. 

This species and its various forms are extremely difficult to 
elucidate and it is impossible for us to satisfactorily establish at the 
present moment whether we are dealing with several forms or races 
of one species or several closely allied species. The misidentification 
of the true creusa is responsible for a good deal of the confusion in 
nomenclature ; the types of this species are in the British Museum and 
were taken by Lord Derby in the Canadian Rocky Mts. ; they are 
figured by Verity (Rhop. Pal. Vol. I, PI. 68, Figs. 8-10) and a recent 
examination by ourselves confirms Verity's opinion that these are the 



60 

true types; as Butler has already pointed out (Can. Ent. XXXI, 19, 
1899) this is exactly the same form as that described and figured by 
Beutenmuller in his revision of the genus Euchloe (Bull. Am. Mus. 
N. Hist. X, 243, 1898) as elsa; it is apparently a northern race dis- 
tinguished by its heavy green markings on underside of secondaries 
leaving only traces of the white ground color visible. Creusa, being 
the oldest name, must be used for the species collectively. 

Since Beutenmuller's revision of the group Verity has attempted 
to deal with our North American forms in his Rhop. Pal. Vol. I, pp. 
181 and 338/9 but, apart from overlooking Beutenmuller's paper, he 
has, we fear, only added to the confusion by describing several forms 
as new which have already been named ; he attempts to divide the 
group into spring and summer generations following the example of 
the European belia and ausonia, but from the fragmentary accounts 
we have been able to glean in the literature the general consensus of 
opinion among collectors is that the American forms are single brooded 
(vide Edwards, Can. Ent. XXIV, 109; Butt. N. Am. Vol. II, Antho- 
charis ausonides, text). 

Hyantis Edw. (creusa Beut. et Auct.) appears to be the Calif or- 
nian race of creusa; it was originally described from Mendocino Co., 
but apparently occurs through a good proportion of the Sierras ; Dr. 
McDunnough took it sparingly in the Shasta region in June and Dr. 
Barnes in the Lake Tahoe region in June and July ; Verity has re- 
described it as pseudoausonides, regarding it as the spring form of 
ausonides; this opinion is evidently refuted by the dates above men- 
tioned and further by the fact that no second generation nor any 
specimens of ausonides at all were taken in the above localities ; Ver- 
ity's orientalides, said by the author himself to be very close to pseu- 
doausonides, we cannot separate by Verity's figures alone and pre- 
sume it to be a slight varietal form only ; however an examination of 
the type material will be necessary to correctly place it. Hyantis may 
be separated from creusa by the much greater proportion of white on 
the underside of the secondaries ; in the 2 the general rule seems to 
be for the discal spot of the primaries to be much larger and more 
quadrate than in the $ ; Beutenmuller's figure (1. c. PI. XIV, Fig. 2) 
gives a very accurate idea of this form of which we have a specimen 
compared with the type; Holland's figure of creusa (Butt. Book PI. 
32, Fig. 23) presumably refers to this form, his figure of the under- 
side however (PI. 34, Fig. 2) is probably referable to lotta Beut. 



61 

Wright's figures (PI. VII, Figs. 54, 54b, 55, 55b, 55c) we think may 
all be referred here. The larva of hyantis has been briefly described 
by Mead from the Yosemite Valley (Psyche, Vol. II, p. 183) and 
seems to show points of distinction from the description of the larva 
of ansonidcs found in Edward's Butt. N. Am., Vol. II. ; careful breed- 
ing and observation by collectors on the spot is however very essen- 
tial to establish the relationship of the forms and the number of yearly 
broods. 

Lotta Beut. is in our opinion a race of this same species from 
Utah, Arizona and the Rocky Mt. region in which the discal spot of 
the primaries has become greatly enlarged and quadrate; Verity has 
redescribed it under the name of bclioidcs; in Utah it occurs from the 
end of April to the beginning of June and we have a few specimens 
from Glenwood Spgs., Colo., taken in May; our Arizona material is 
unfortunately undated ; these Arizona specimens are intermediate 
between hyantis and Utah specimens of lotta in the size of the discal 
spot and the amount of green on underside of secondaries; they are 
figured by Wright (1. c. PI. VII, Figs. 54a, 56b). 

E. ausonides Bdv. 

Although it is extremely difficult to point out any definite means 
of separation between this species and crcusa we incline to think it a 
distinct species and not a summer form of the preceding as surmised 
by Verity. The larger size, greenish white ground color in the $ in 
contrast to the pure white of crcusa, the tendency in the $ 's to show 
ochreous tinted secondaries and the narrower and yellower character 
of the markings on the underside of the secondaries with less of the 
pearly hue on the white portions all point to a specific distinctness; 
we have further the fact that the larvae as described by Mead and 
Edwards do not appear identical ; our dated specimens from the lower 
regions of California (Alameda Co.) show no date later than May; 
specimens from Mineral King, Tulare Co., at an altitude of about 
10,000 feet, were captured in the first week of July, but it is extremely 
improbable that they were preceded by a spring generation. The 
species is well figured by Holland (1. c. PI. XXXII, Figs. 24/25) and 
Wright's figure (PI. VII, Fig. 57c) evidently represents this species 
also; the type from Coll. Oberthur is figured by Verity (1. c. PI. 37, 
Fig. 20). The species extends northward into Alaska and eastward 
into Colorado where it has received the name coloradensis Hy. Edw. of 



62 

which Montana Verity from Hall Valley, Colo., is apparently a syn- 
onym; this Colorado race can in our opinion scarcely be separated 
from the Californian form. 

ANTHOCHARIS STELLA Edw. 

This form is characterized in the original description as having 
the $ pale lemon yellow but the series in the Edwards Collection at 
Pittsburgh is very varied, both white and yellow forms being labelled 
Stella in Edwards' handwriting. A $ from Yosemite however agrees 
with the description and is further labelled 'type' in red ink so we 
would restrict the type to this specimen as the locality is mentioned 
in the original description. We doubt if the form is constant. 

Callidryas eubule L. 

As stated in the Biologia (p. 141) Linne evidently described this 
species from a 9 from Carolina and his sennae from a $ from 
Jamaica. Butler, in his revision of the genus (Lep. Exot. p. 58) re- 
gards them as two species and his figures are quite accurate; he sep- 
arates them mainly on the heaviness of the purplish markings on the 
underside in sennae as compared with eubule and the deeper tone of 
the ground color. In a pair from Jamaica before us this is certainly 
very evident, especially in the 9 sex. 

Typical eubule is the form with the 9 the same yellow color as 
the $ and with the marginal dark spots confined generally to the ends 
of the veins and not continuous; this form seems to be the only one 
in Florida, judging by a long series before us from Palm Beach, 
Chockoloskee, and Glenwood and extends northward through the 
Eastern and Middle States. In Texas we meet with a 9 form which 
has much heavier marginal markings and is either yellow in color 
with the secondaries considerably tinted with orange or else a very 
pale whitish ; in Arizona this latter seems to be the usual form. These 
9 's approach very close to our Jamaica 9 of sennae; although the 
ground color of the underside is rather paler, the maculation is just as 
heavy; the pale 9 may be yamana Reak, but we do not know the 
type nor where it may be found. In the $ sex the form can scarcely 
be separated from typical eubule; in general the maculation is heavier 
and some Arizona specimens agree exactly with our Jamaican $ ; 
there is also a tendency for the discal spot on underside of primaries 
to become decidedly larger and more figure-of-eight-shaped ; other 



63 

Arizona and Texan $ 's from the same localities cannot be separated 
from $ 's from Florida or the Eastern States ; it is quite possible that 
the variation is seasonal as we have noticed in the little dated material 
we possess, that the most heavily marked forms have all been cap- 
tured in September whilst those from the same region (Huachuca 
Mts.) taken in July are all more lightly marked. Careful breeding 
will be necessary to settle the number of generations of this species 
in the south and the possible variation between the various genera- 
tions as well as in each generation, nothing definite having to our 
knowledge ever been published on this subject. We think in view of 
the fact that Florida 9 's vary so constantly and markedly from the 
western 9 's that the name sentiae, which, in sens strict, is only appli- 
cable to the Jamaican race, might for the present with a fair degree 
of accuracy be applied to the race of eubule from Southern Texas 
and Arizona. It would be interesting to learn from what further 
localities the sennac form of 9 is known. 

Kricogonia lyside Godt. 

After careful examination of a very long series from Browns- 
ville, Texas, we have come to the conclusion that this is an extremely 
variable species and that the various names included as species under 
this genus are in reality merely 3 or ? forms. 

Typical lyside is the form with deep yellow base to primaries and 
no maculation with the exception of a small black streak at base of 
inner margin on primaries in the $ ; terissa Luc. is the form with a 
black streak from costal margin of secondaries % across the wing; 
although Lucas mentions the 9 sex we have only seen $ 's and im- 
agine it is a male form entirely ; Aaron calls this the summer form 
(Pap. IV, 174) but all our dates of capture are March which would 
rather point to its being a spring form; it is figured by Holland (PI. 
34, Fig. 20) as lyside. Fantasia Butl. is a 9 form with smoky apex 
of primaries, the ground color varying from white to yellow ; the base 
of the wing is generally not noticeably yellow ; this form intergrades 
with another 9 form, imicolor G. & S., which is entirely immaculate 
yellow, and which has been redescribed and figured (PI. 26d) as xan- 
thopsia by Rober in Seitz Macrolepidoptera. 

Lattice Lint, was a mixture of two forms; the $ as stated by 
Aaron (1. c. p. 174) is evidently lyside Godt. and the 9 belongs to 



64 

fantasia Butl. ; the following arrangement seems to be more correct 
than our present one : 
lyside Godt. 

$ lanice Lint. 

form $ ( ? gen. vern.) terissa Luc. 
form 9 unicolor G. & S. 

xanthophila Rob. 
form ? fantasia Butl. 
2 lanice Lint. 

EURYMUS EURYTHEME Bdv. (PI. VII, FigS. 3-5). 

Verity has figured the type $ and 2 of this species from the 
Oberthur Collection in Rhop. Pal. Vol. I, PI. 49, Figs. 42, 43 ; the $ 
is distinctly what has heretofore been known as ariadne Edw. 
(Wright PL X, Fig. 77) although Verity states it is keewaydin Edw. 
This $ does not entirely fit in with Boisduval's short description 
(Ann. Soc. Fr. 1882, p. 386) which is largely comparative with the 
Russian chrysotheme and it is possible that his specimens were not all 
exactly alike; as however he immediately follows the description of 
eurytheme with that of amphidusa from Northern California, which 
he compares with the European cdusa (an orange species) and the 
types of which Verity also figures (1. c. Figs. 44/45) and as amphi- 
dusa is clearly the eurytheme of Edwards and later authors, it would 
seem reasonable to suppose that there was really some noticeable dif- 
ference between eurytheme and amphidusa or Boisduval would 
scarcely have described them so close together and that therefore the 
specimens figured by Verity are correct representations of what Bois- 
duval intended to describe under these two names. 

Having determined that eurytheme Bdv. is the ariadne of Edwards 
and that amphidusa Bdv. must be used for the eurytheme of various 
authors there remains the form keewaydin Edw. to be correctly placed. 
This form was described in Butt. N. Am., Vol. I, Colias, PI. IV, text, 
Figs. 1-4; the main description appears to have been drawn up from 
specimens from California and Texas with varieties from Illinois, 
but at the close Edwards states that the species is found 'in the valley 
of the Mississippi from Nebraska and Illinois to Texas and westward 
to the Pacific' so that he evidently had a large and possibly mixed 
series before him. The original description states 'upper side sulphur 
yellow the disk of the wings more or less tinted with orange' which 
certainly reads like something very close to eurytheme (ariadne); the 
figure however (Fig. 1), represents a small form much closer to 



65 

amphidusa but somewhat paler in color with costa rather broadly yel- 
low. In his volume II of Butt. N. Am. Edwards again deals with 
keewaydin figuring it on Colias PI. IV, Fig. 7, but this figure can 
scarcely be distinguished from his figure of eurytheme on the same 
plate except by its smaller size and certainly does not agree well with 
his former figure. In the text to this plate he states that 'keewaydin 
was originally separated as a species from examples received princi- 
pally from Texas and Mississippi' and treats it as an early summer 
form of ariadnc with eurytheme as a late fall generation ; from notes 
he publishes received from Hy. Edwards it would seem that San 
Francisco collectors were accustomed to refer to the true amphidusa 
as eurytheme. We have a series of typical amphidusa from Siskiyou 
Co., N. California, captured in June and July, and some specimens 
cannot be separated from the type of keewaydin as figured by Edwards 
in Volume I; in Southern California the same form occurs along with 
eurytheme (ariadne) and intergrades. In Arizona and Texas the late 
summer generation {eurytheme Edw.) as a rule is considerably larger 
and the orange quite vivid, but specimens occur which are paler and 
tend towards keezvaydin and in a long series of $ 's from Decatur, 
111., taken in the early part of August, we have color forms ranging 
from deep orange to quite pale yellow with only a slight orange suf- 
fusion. It appears to us therefore that keewaydin Edw. represents 
no definite race or generation but is rather a form, somewhat inter- 
mediate between eurytheme and amphidusa, found flying with typical 
specimens of these two forms wherever the species occurs and usually 
most common in the early summer generation ; on the one hand it may 
intergrade with eurytheme , many specimens showing only traces of 
orange on the secondaries, and on the other hand it may approach 
amphidusa in being almost entirely suffused with orange; the name 
seems scarcely worthy of retention. 

With regard to the yellow forms it seems fairly well established 
{vide Edwards, Can. Ent, XIX, 170) that in Colorado at least the 
yellow form is polymorphic ; the early spring brood and apparently 
occasional late fall specimens are distinguished by the narrower bor- 
der on the primaries, smaller size and heavier sprinkled underside ; 
these have been called autumnalis Ckll., the name being rather unfor- 
tunately chosen as the form is only occasionally met with in the fall, 
single specimens of the brood that would normally hibernate as pupae 
emerging under favorable conditions earlier than usual. The second 
brood of early summer is hageni Edw. of larger size and broader 



66 

black borders, the 9 's especially heavily black ; Edwards' original 
description leaves no doubt that it was this form that he had before 
him when he proposed the name hageni; the type locality may be re- 
stricted to Pueblo, Colo., as he had received numerous specimens from 
Mr. Nash of this town. 

Until quite recently we had been of the opinion that eriphyle 
Edw. described from Lake Lahache, B. C, could be held separate from 
hageni and was the same form as that described later by Cockle as 
kootenai; an examination and comparison of the type material in the 
Edwards Collection has however led us to revise our opinions ; there 
seems to be no doubt that eriphyle and hageni both are summer forms 
and personally we utterly failed to separate them. Kootenai Cockle 
is evidently the spring form of British Columbia, distinguished by its 
pale lemon yellow color and heavily sprinkled underside ; it approaches 
very close to autnmnalis, but the yellow has a greener tinge and the 9 's 
have no complete submarginal band of yellow spots owing to the 
obsolescence of the inner black shading; this form extends northward 
into Alaska where it is probably single brooded. Apparently Wright's 
figures under the name emilia (1. c. PI. XI, Fig. 92) refer to this 
form; we figure a $ and 9 from Okanagan Falls, B. C, (May) and 
the underside of a $ from Atkin, B. C, on the Alaskan border (Figs. 
3-5). Much breeding and study will be necessary before all these 
forms and their interrelationship are satisfactorily placed but for the 
present we offer the following synonymy: 
eury theme Bdv. 
ariadne Edw. 
gen. aest. amphidusa Bdv. 

keeivaydin Edw. 

calif omiana Men. 

ab. 9 fumosa Stkr. 
form eriphyle Edw. 

hageni Edw. 
gen. vern, autumnalis Ckll. 

ab. intermedia Ckll. 

ab. 9 pallida Ckll. 
gen. vern. kootenai Cockle. 

E. BARBARA Hy. Edw. (PI. VII, Fig. 9). 

This species, which was described from 2 9 's from Gilroy, Calif., 
and Santa Barbara, Calif., has generally been accepted as the 9 of 
harfordi Hy. Edw. A recent examination of the types in the New 



67 

York Museum has convinced us that this is incorrect; harfordi in 
both sexes shows very little black at the base of the wings on the 
upper side, is a deep yellow color and apparently closely related to 
interior Scud ; the species is common in S. Calif, and is figured by 
Wright on PI. X, Figs. 84 and 85 under both harfordi and barbara, 
the latter species having been misidentified by him. The true barbara, 
just as stated in the author's description, has a strong sprinkling of 
black at the base of the wings extending on the secondaries along the 
inner margin to almost the anal angle ; the types are in wretched con- 
dition but in our opinion bear a close relationship to occidentalis and 
chrysomelas of which variable species barbara will probable prove to 
be a southern race; we figure a $ from Santa Rosa, Calif., which 
approaches the closest to our idea of barbara of any specimens we 
have seen; the great similarity to Wright's figure of occidentalis (1. c. 
PI. XI, Fig. 86) should at once be evident. 

E. pelidne Bdv. (PI. VII, Figs. 6-8). 

After a careful comparison of a long series from Labrador with 
Boisduval's figures both in Lep. de l'Am. Sept. PI. 21 and Icones PI. 
8 we must agree with Scudder (Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. 1862, p. 105/6) 
that the figures were certainly not drawn up from Labrador speci- 
mens and as Iceland and Greenland are mentioned among the type 
localities, were probably taken from specimens from one of these 
localities. Possibly an examination of the material in the Boisduval 
collection now in the possession of M. Oberthur would throw some 
light on the matter ; for the present we think it advisable to apply the 
name labradorensis Scud, to the Labrador race the $ 's of which ap- 
pear to be constantly smaller than Boisduval's figures. 

In Labrador specimens (Fig. 6) the discal dot of the forewing 
is either entirely absent or only very faintly outlined by a few scat- 
tered dark scales ; in specimens from Laggan and from Saskatchewan 
(Fig. 7) this mark is present as a distinct but fine dash and the sec- 
ondaries are very heavily black-sprinkled; this form is minisni Bean 
which has usually been regarded as an Mss. name but which appears to 
be sufficiently, if rather poorly, characterized by Bean himself in a 
paper on C. hecla and meadi in Psyche, Vol. VII, p. 228; Verity refers 
to the same form as menisme in his Rhop. Pal. Vol. I, p. 218. 

Skinncri Barnes from Yellowstone Park (Fig. 8) is close to 
minisni but is considerably larger and yellower with a still more dis- 
tinct discal dash, in fact apart from this dash this form looks much 
more like Boisduval's figure of pelidne than any Labrador specimens 



68 

we have seen ; it also has a certain percentage of the 9 's yellow. We 
figure $ 's of all three forms for comparison. 

Gigantea Stkr. described from Hudson Bay and at present placed 
as a form of pelidne seems to be the same species as that named 
pelidneides by Staudinger from material from the same locality. We 
have recently examined the type series of gigantea in the Strecker 
Collection and believe that it represents in reality the yellow form of 
christina rather than a race of either pelidne or palaeno ; the size and 
maculation of the underside point very decidedly to this and the 9 's 
can scarcely be separated from the paler forms of christina 9 . Mr. 
Wolley Dod mentions this yellow form in his List of Alberta Lep- 
idoptera (C. Ent. XXXIII, 169, 1901) and besides a series from Cal- 
gary we have before us specimens of both sexes from Chatanika, 
Alaska which agree excellently with Strecker's specimens. It is very 
possible that the Ft. Simpson specimens mentioned by Scudder in his 
description of occidentalis really belonged to this yellow form of 
christina and for this reason we would restrict the name occidentalis 
to the Vancouver Is. form which, while close, can at once be distin- 
guished by the much greater suffusion of black at the base of both 
wings on the upper side, approaching in this respect chrysomelas Hy. 
Edw. We figure both sexes of gigantea from Chatanika, Alaska. 
(PI. V, Fig. 7-9.) 

EUREMA GUNDLACHIA Poey. 

Holland's figure of this species (Butt. Book, PI. 37, Fig. 1) rep- 
resents the 9 , not the $ as stated. The S is very similar to pro- 
terpia but generally lacks all trace of the black on the veins and has 
the tailed secondaries. It seems to occur in the same localities as 
proterpia and specimens of this latter species without the black vein- 
ing (as sometimes occurs) are very apt to be confused with gund- 
lachia; the 9 proterpia has usually considerable black marginal bor- 
dering on the secondaries but is otherwise similar to gundlachia apart 
from the wing shape. 

E. blakei Mayn. 

We cannot see why this should be made in Dyar's list a form of 
gnathene Bdv. (not gnat heme) a species described from Yucatan 
which is white with a complete black border to both wings, broaden- 
ing out on the apical portion of primaries to twice the width of the 
lower portion. Maynard's description states 'greenish white above, 



69 

narrow border to apex of fore wings and a spot on upper angle of 
hind pair dusky', which certainly leads one to expect an entirely dif- 
ferent species to gnathcne; it was described from material from the 
Bahama Islands and a single 5 from Sandford, Fla. The descrip- 
tion agrees admirably with Boisduval's translation of the description 
of mcssalina Fabr. (Sp. Gen. I, p. 679) and as both Kirby and Seitz 
list this species from Jamaica we imagine that blakei will become a 
synonym of messalina Fabr. ; not possessing the species however we 
leave the decision to those who have access to material from the 
Bahama Isles. 

DANAIDAE 

Danaus plexippus L. 

In view of Linne's original description in the tenth Edition of 
his Systema Natura we do not see how it is possible to apply this 
name to the American species in spite of the locality 'North America' 
given by the author. 

The description reads : 

'P. D. alis integerrimis fulvis, venis nigris dilatatis, margine nigro 
punctis albis.' 

This is all very excellent but unfortunately for those who con- 
tend that the name applies to the N. American form Linne adds : 
'Alae primores fascia alba ut in sequente, cui similis', the following 
species being chryssipus. This does not apply at all to the N. Amer- 
ican form but does to the Asiatic and would bear out Aurivillius' 
statement that the only specimens in the Linnaean Collection were of 
the latter form. 

Apparently the locality given and the references to Catesby and 
Sloan are the only reasons for holding the name to the North Amer- 
ican species; opposed to this we have the direct contradiction of the 
diagnosis and it would seem to us that this is far too weighty a point 
to be overridden; it is known that Linne frequently has given erron- 
eous references and localities in connection with other species so we 
see no reason for not supposing that such was the case in this instance. 
The Fabrician name archippus would be the correct one to use for 
the N. American species in our opinion : Fruhstorfer in Seitz Mac- 
rolepidoptera also applies plexippus to the Asiatic Species and archip- 
pus to the American one. 



70 
SATYRIDAE 

COENONYMPHA CALIFORNIA West. & Hew. 

Edwards treats California, or, as it is usually misspelled, calif or- 
nica, as the summer generation of the spring form galactimis Bdv. ; 
unfortunately for Edwards' reasoning a recent examination of the 
types of California in the British Museum by Dr. McDunnough has 
shown that these represent the form with dark underside, i. e. the 
spring form. What galactimis Bdv. really is we are unable to say not 
having seen the type which should be with M. Oberthur; Boisduval 
evidently only knew California from Hewitson's figure which is poor 
and described his galactimis as being of a white color a little yellower 
than that of California but the description cannot be definitely inter- 
preted to refer to either the spring or the summer form ; on the face 
of it Dr. Skinner in his revision of the genus (Tr. Am. Ent. Soc. 
XXVI, 301 ) would seem to be correct in claiming the name galactimis 
for the summer form but the type locality given by Boisduval (Moun- 
tains of North California) would possibly preclude a second genera- 
tion. Dr. Skinner places ceres Butl. as a synonym of galactimis; ac- 
cording to Sir Geo. Hampson (in litt.) the type of ceres agrees exactly 
with that of California. 

Eryngii Hy. Edw., described from Soda Spgs., Siskiyou Co., 
Calif., represents a race without ocelli on the underside; Dr. McDun- 
nough, who spent the season of 1915 collecting in this locality, found 
the species rare during the first half of June but all specimens cap- 
tured showed either no ocelli or the mere traces of them so we imagine 
the form is fairly constant and the name should be retained; it is true 
that the number of spots on the underside of Coenonympha species is 
very variable and unspotted specimens doubtless occur in other locali- 
ties, making the presence or absence of such spots a poor means of 
differentiation, but where the unspotted form has become more or 
less constant and has developed therefore into a race such a change 
should not in our opinion be disregarded. 

Pulla Hy. Edw. which is described as being of a dark fawn color 
above and a dull brown beneath is another form about which little 
is known. 

Wright's figures (Butt. W. Coast, PI. XXV) of this entire group 
are quite unreliable and should be completely disregarded by collectors 
trying to identify their material. 



71 

C. AMPELOS Edw. 

This species was originally described from a $ and 9 from 
Oregon, but the specimen labelled 'type' in the W. H. Edwards Col- 
lection is from Vancouver Is. and the name has been pretty generally 
applied to specimens from this locality. There is nothing in the de- 
scription that would contradict such an association, but we would 
point out that this Vancouver Is. specimen must not be held to be the 
type, the whereabouts of which is unknown to us. We should not be 
surprised if ampelos proved to be a form of ochracea Edw. in which 
the ocelli of the underside had become regularly obsolete ; occasional 
specimens, particularly in series before us from Plumas Co., Calif., 
and Ft. Klamath, Oregon, show traces of ocelli on both fore and hind 
wings. 

C. INORNATA Edw. 

We cannot agree with authors who sink this species as a synonym 
of laidion Bork. on the strength of a paper by Dr. Bucknell in Ent. 
Rec. Vol. IX, 1897. Laidion which is figured by Borkhausen and de- 
scribed from specimens taken at Gladenbach, in the vicinity of Frank- 
furt on the Main, in Germany, is recognized by all prominent contin- 
ental lepidopterists as being merely an aberration of typhon with the 
normal number of six well defined and white ringed ocelli on second- 
aries reduced to one or two. Dr. Bucknell, who applies the name 
laidion to a Scotch form with reduced ocelli, which is in any case not 
the true laidion but the race scotica Staud., has himself been forced 
to admit that our N. American form shows points of distinction as 
compared with this Scotch race. Dr. Bucknell has been followed by 
most English entomologists, including Tutt and Rowland-Brown, in 
calling the Scotch form laidion and in a recent paper on the species 
(Oberthur, Etud. de Lep. Comp. Fasc. VII, 1913, p. 85) the latter 
author quotes Tutt, and agrees with him in censoring Staudinger for 
creating the name scotica for the Scotch form which is excellently 
figured on PI. 195 by M. Oberthur. Both these gentlemen have over- 
looked the vast disparity in the type localities for laidion and scotica 
which amply confirms Staudinger's judgment; it is very questionable 
whether an aberrational name may be properly used for a racial form 
from another locality. In our opinion inornata, while doubtless re- 
lated to tiphon and its forms, is distinct enough in any case to war- 
rant the retention of the name. It is typical in the region about Lake 
Winnipeg and is well figured by Skinner in his revision (PI. VII, Figs. 



72 

10, 11) ; occasional specimens lack the apical ocellus on underside of 
primaries but normally this is well developed. 

C. ochracea Edw. 

The species was described from specimens from Lake Winnipeg, 
California, and Kansas ; the common species from the Lake Winnipeg 
region is inornata according to information received from Mr. Wallis 
of Winnipeg but there is a 9 type of ochracea in the Edwards Coll. 
labelled Winnipeg and we also have a 9 from Cartwright, Man., 
which agrees with the description ; we do not know the species from 
California. The main home of the species is the Rocky Mt. region 
of Colorado, Utah and adjoining states; it may be generally recog- 
nized by the white blotches at base of secondaries on underside and 
by the usually well developed ocelli, especially noticeable in Utah 
specimens (vide Skinner, 1. c. Fig. 14) ; inornata may prove to be a 
dark form with reduced ocelli on secondaries ; we have specimens of 
ochracea from Colo, which lack the basal blotches and merely differ 
from inornata in the paler color. Brenda Edw. described from some 
of Reakirt's material, ostensibly from Los Angeles, Calif., is a typical 
ochracea as a study of the types in the Strecker Collection has shown 
us ; the locality was very possibly erroneous as we know of no authen- 
tic records for ochracea from this region; Wright's figures of brenda 
should be referred to one of the summer forms of California. 

Cercvonis oetus Bdv. (PI. VIII, Figs. 5-7). 

We cannot, after a careful study of both types, separate charon 
Edw. from this species ; it has a wide range over all the western high 
mountain regions and extends far into the north, phocus Edw., de- 
scribed from specimens taken at Lake Lahache, B. C, proving to be 
a form of this species with dark, almost immaculate underside. Ed- 
wards (Can. Ent. XII, 55) has referred oetus to silvestris on the 
strength of a so-called 'type' received from Boisduval; the real type 
however remained in the Boisduval collection and has recently been 
figured by M. Oberthur (Et de Lep. Comp. IX (2) PI. 264, Figs. 
2203/4). The specimen referred to by Edwards we have recently 
seen in Pittsburgh and it proves a misidentification on Edwards' part ; 
this specimen agrees with Oberthur's figure of oetus type but the re- 
mainder of Edwards' series labelled oetus are pure and simple silves- 
tris. The distinctness of the median band on the underside of the 
hind wings is very variable but usually sufficient is present for one to 



73 

recognize the characteristic jagged nature of the bounding dark lines, 
especially on the basal side; another feature which will generally 
serve to separate it from sihestris and its forms is the fact that the 
$ sex has usually only a single ocellus on upper side of primaries, 
although this is not an absolutely infallible rule as occasional speci- 
mens show traces of a second. We figure $ and ? and underside of 
both sihestris from Marin Co., Calif., (Figs. 1-3), and oetus from 
Nevada Co., Calif., (Figs. 5-7), as well as the underside of paid us 
from Tulare Co., Calif., (Fig. 4). 

The synonymy of the two species should stand : 

1 silvestris Edwards. 

okius Oberthur. 
form paulus Edwards. 

2 oetus Boisduz'al. 

charon Edwards. 
form phocus Edwards. 

C. silvestris Edw. (PI. VIII, Figs. 1-4). 

The species was described in 1861 from specimens sent by Dr. 
Behr of San Francisco. In the original description the author (Proc. 
Acad. N. Sci. Phil. 1861, p. 162) mentions both $ and 2 , but this 
supposed $ was evidently a $ , as the dark sex patch is mentioned, 
and may presumably be referred to oetus Bdv., the type 5 of which 
is figured by Oberthur (Etud. de Lep. Comp. IX (2) Figs. 2203/4) ; 
a characteristic feature of the $ sex of oetus is the single ocellus on 
the upper side of primaries, a point referred to by Edwards as dis- 
tinguishing his supposed 5 from $ silvestris. Only very occasionally 
do we find $ oetus with two ocelli on the upper side of the primaries. 
The $ silvestris, which will hold the name, is described as pos- 
sessing two ocelli on upper side of primaries ; in the Edwards Collec- 
tion are two $ 's, one marked 'silvestris $ type' (in black ink) from 
California, the other 'charon var. silvestris, type' (in red ink) also from 
California; this latter is probably the one figured in Butt. N. Am. Ill, 
Satyrus III and mentioned in the text as being only a variety of 
charon Edw.=o^M.s' Bdv. ; the first specimen may be the original 
S type of silvestris and is a different species, being apparently a form 
bearing the same relation to paulus that boopis does to ariane Bdv. i. e. 
a form with reduced ocelli on the underside of secondaries ; this form 
is common around San Francisco Bay and we have a long series from 
Marin Co. 



74 



The form paulus Edw. described from Nevada (Morrison) 
(probably east slope of Sierras) is found all through the Sierras from 
Mt. Whitney southward and also in Oregon and Washington States; 
the specimens marked type in the Edwards Collection are a $ and 9 
labelled W. T. (Morrison), evidently those spoken of in Can. Ent. 
XII, 54, and cannot be considered more than typical in any case. The 
figure given by Oberthur (1. c. Fig. 2184) under the name of okius 
is a typical $ of silvestris Edw. 

NYMPHALIDAE 

Argynnis nitocris Edw. 

This species was described from a single $ from the White Mts., 
Arizona. We have a long series of both sexes from this locality taken 
by Mr. R. D. Lusk; we also have a series of the so-called var. nigro- 
caerulea Ckll. from the type locality, Beulah, Sapello Canon, N. M., 
and can see absolutely no difference between the two series. In our 
opinion nigrocaerulea should fall as a direct synonym of nitocris 
which is figured by Holland, PL XIII, Fig. 4. Caerulescens Holl. is 
easily distinguished by the dark basal area on both wings on the upper 
side. 

A. nausicaa Edw. (PI. IX, Fig. 1). 

The species is listed by Dyar as a synonym of aphrodite but can 
at once be distinguished, apart from wing shape, by the fact that the 
veins of the primaries in the $ beyond the cell are distinctly and 
broadly enlarged by black scaling whereas in aphrodite the scaling is 
scarcely perceptibly present. The exact relationship of nausicaa is 
doubtful to us; it shows certain affinities to halcyone and perhaps 
might be better placed in this group. We figure a typical S and 
comparison with our figure of the following species will readily show 
our point in connection with the veins of the forewing. 

A. Columbia Hy. Edw. (PI. IX, Fig. 2). 

A careful examination of the type $ in the Hy. Edwards' Col- 
lection forces us to the conclusion that Columbia is nothing but a small 
northern form of aphrodite Fabr. Its relationship is clearly shown 
by the fact that the veins on the primaries in the S sex are not at all 
enlarged by black scales, at once separating it from atlantis with which 
it has often been associated. This form seems to extend right across 



75 

the northern part of the Continent and specimens before us from 
Nepigon, Ont., one of which we figure, are quite indistinguishable 
from specimens from Northern B. C. Atlantis appears to occur in 
practically the same region but the $ 's at least should be separated 
without much difficulty on account of the thickened veins on pri- 
maries. 

A. chitone Edw. (PI. IX, Figs. 3, 4). 

This species was described from specimens taken by Neumoegen 
in S. Utah and N. Arizona. In the Edwards' Collection \ $ \ 9 
from S. Utah bear type labels, but unfortunately 1 $ 3 9 from Weber 
Mts., Utah, which are not the same species, also bear type labels al- 
though they cannot possibly be considered types. This has doubtless 
led to the confusion that exists concerning the identity of chitone. 
The true species is scarcely to be separated from what is generally 
known as cornelia Edw. and the two will probably prove to be forms 
of one species ; it shows considerable variation in the amount of sil- 
vering of the spots on the underside, series before us from S. Utah 
and Provo, Utah ranging from well-silvered specimens to those with 
scarcely a trace of silver ; we figure both sides of typical $ specimens. 

A. ELECTA Edw. 

This species was described from 12 <3 4 9 , some taken in N. 
Colo, by Mead in 1871, others in S. Colo, by Morrison in 1877; it is 
evident by the description that the specimens showed considerable 
variation and a recent examination of the series in the Edwards' Col- 
lection has confirmed our suspicion that several forms at least (if not 
species) were included under the one name. A $ in the series la- 
belled 'Colo., Mead, 71' is marked type and as the label clearly shows 
that it must have been one of the type lot we consider it would be 
advisable to restrict the name to this specimen. The $ type of Cor- 
nelia Edw. from Ouray, Colo., proves to be absolutely identical with 
this type of electa and cornelia will therefore sink as a synonym. The 
species is well illustrated by Holland (Butt. Book, PI. XI, Fig. 8); 
we do not know what his figure of so-called electa (1. c. PI. X, Fig. 8) 
represents ; it looks more like a his or aphrodite form. 

A. BREMNERI Edw. 

Wright's figures of this species (1. c. PI. XIII, Fig. 119) are 
incorrect ; they represent rhodope Edw., the underside of the S being 
much more typical than the figure given under the name rhodope 



76 

(Fig. 124a). The true bremneri is probably figured by Wright as 
carpentcri (PI. XIII, fig. 112) from Vane. Is., B. C. The form called 
var. sordida by Wright we cannot place without seeing the type ; 
Wright makes it a variety of his bremneri and if this be correct sor- 
dida must then be referred to rhodopc. 

A. hippolyta Edw. 

The species was described from several specimens taken in Ore- 
gon by Mr. Dodge ; no further locality is given but very possibly the 
specimens were taken in the vicinity of Portland. In the Edwards' 
Collection is a single $ type from Oregon ; it appears to us to be a 
rather dwarfed form of bremneri; apart from the smaller size the 
types cannot be separated, agreeing in the maculation and color of 
the underside excellently. 

A. zerene Bdv. 

A great deal has already been written about this species and 
monticola Behr. Behr claimed that under the name serene Boisduval 
had two species mixed and diagnosed them as No. 8 and No. 9 (Proc. 
Cal. Acad. Sci. II, 175, 1862) ; later (1. c. Ill, 84) he gave the name 
monticola to No. 8. Edwards claimed (Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil. Ill, 436, 
1864) that Behr's action therefore restricted the name serene Bdv. to 
Behr's species No. 9 and figures monticola in Butt. N. Am. I, Arg. 

VIII. In 1869 (Lep. de la Calif., 60) Boisduval described hydaspe 
which Edwards, when figuring serene Bdv. (1. c. PI. XIII, Arg. 1870), 
claims becomes a synonym of serene owing to Behr's previous limita- 
tion; Edwards even states in the text that Boisduval "intimates that 
his former diagnosis of serene includes two species and he applies 
that name to monticola Behr, giving to the other that of hydaspe. 
Nevertheless according to the recognized rule in such cases, the names 
monticola and serene will remain as Dr. Behr determined them." We 
have gone into the matter rather carefully with the following results : 

(1) After reading Boisduval's original description we can see 
no reason for Behr's supposition that Dr. Boisduval's series of serene 
was mixed ; it is true that the short diagnosis would include both 
species equally well, but that is no proof of a mixed series ; in the 
Oberthur Collection the types of serene which we have seen certainly 
do not indicate this and the specimens figured in Etudes de Lep. Comp. 

IX, (2) Fig. 2168/9 as certainly belong to the same species as does 
the type $ of monticola Behr in the Strecker Collection. Boisduval's 



77 

specimens were evidently captured by Lorquin in the mountains of 
Central California (which he calls Juba Mts.) at low elevation. 

(2) Behr did not restrict the name serene to his species No. 9; 
he simply gave the name monticola to his species No. 8 and it was 
Edwards himself who applied the name serene Bdv. to 'No. 9' (Proc. 
Ent. Soc. Phil. Ill, 436) without any definite knowledge apparently 
either of it or that such a form was actually included among Boisdu- 
val's types of serene. 

(3) Edwards' statement in the text to his figure of serene, as 
quoted above, is erroneous. Boisduval did not describe hydaspc from 
specimens separated from his former series of serene but from speci- 
mens collected by Lorquin in the south of California (sud de la Cali- 
fornie) at a date much later than 1852 so that his series of serene 
could not possibly have contained the types of hydaspe; it is true that 
Boisduval makes the statement that hydaspe may be a local variety of 
serene but this can hardly be construed to mean that he had confused 
them when describing serene. It seems to us therefore that monticola 
Behr must be made a synonym of serene Bdv. the types being almost 
identical. 

Wright's figures (1. c. PI. XIV, 120 and 122) both refer to serene 
Bdv. 

A. HYDASPE Bdv. 

As stated under serene Bdv. this name will replace serene Edw. 
nee Boisduval, typical specimens being found in the Yosemite Val- 
ley and other valleys leading up to Mt. Whitney and the High Sierras ; 
further north in Plumas County and Siskiyou Co. it is a very com- 
mon species and is considerably darker on the underside than the 
southern form. In our opinion it is a distinct species from serene 
{monticola) ; Dr. McDunnough had the opportunity of observing 
it during a season's collecting in the Upper Sacramento Valley where 
it flies together with serene Bdv ; on the wing it can soon be distin- 
guished by its smaller size and darker brown color; it is also much 
more heavily black on the upper side, due largely to the great extent 
of the black sexual scales along the veins of primaries in the $ ; on 
the underside of secondaries the color tends more towards brick- 
red than purplish and there is often a good deal of blackish suffu- 
sion ; the spots are usually larger and yellower and the marginal 
lunules are more triangular surmounted by a narrozuer but much 



78 

deeper shade of brown than is found in zerene ; in fact in hydaspe 
this shade at times is almost black; a comparison of Holland's fig- 
ures of monticola Behr (serene Bdv.) PI. XIII, Fig. 7 and zerene 
(hydaspe Bdv.) PI. XI V, Fig. 9 will show these points of distinction. 

A. purpurascens Hy. Edw. 

An examination of the types in the American Museum proves 
that the $ and 9 types do not belong to the same species. The 
single $ type from Soda Spgs., Siskiyou Co., Calif, (the other $ 's 
from Sierra Nevadas cannot be considered as types) is undoubtedly 
the dark form of hydaspe mentioned above; the 9 types from the 
same locality on the other hand are 9 's of zerene (monticola) ; 
they are partially silvered on the underside, a point mentioned in 
the original description, whereas the true 9 's of purpurascens are, 
as far as we can judge, quite unsilvered. From personal exper- 
ience we know that in the type locality the 9 's of zerene fly at the 
same time that the $ 's of hydaspe are on the wing, the 9 hydaspe 
emerging two or three weeks later; the error is therefore easily ex- 
plained. The $ type will hold the name and purpurascens will be- 
come a racial form of hydaspe Bdv., connecting up the paler nimo- 
typical southern form with the extremely heavily marked form of 
Vancouver Is., B. C, rhodope Edw. 

A. IRENE Bdv. 

This seems to be a good species and not a variety of ritpestris 
Behr. Dr. McDunnough has taken it at Castle Lake, Siskiyou Co., 
Calif, in the early part of August at an altitude of about 6000 ft. 
but it was not seen in the upper Sacramento Valley where rupestris 
was taken flying in June ; it is apparently confined to higher altitudes ; 
we have series from Truckee and Plumas Co., Calif. Wright's figure 
under inornata of the underside of a 9 from Mt. Shasta (1. c. PI. 
XVI, 137c) is this species but figures 137 and 137b of a $ and 9 from 
Tenino, Wash, refer to some other species, probably the true hippolyta 
Edw. The upper side rather resembles egleis in the paucity of black 
markings but the maculation of the underside would apparently throw 
it into the rhodope group. 

A. HALCYONE Edw.. 

The types of this species, 2 $ 's from Colo., are stated in the 
original description to be in the collection of B. D. Walsh which was 
destroyed in the Chicago fire ; the specimens labelled type in the Ed- 



79 

wards' Collection were collected at a later date in Colorado, probably 
by Morrison, and cannot be considered to be more than typical; Ed- 
wards' figure (Butt. I, PI. 28) should be sufficient to identify the 
species ; typical specimens with the basal area of hind wings to sec- 
ond row of silver spots deep reddish-brown are taken in the canons 
near Denver, Colo. Specimens from Glenwood Spgs., Colo, and 
Southern Utah are apparently intermediate between halcyonc Edw. 
and snyderi Skin, some of the 5 's being scarcely distinguishable from 
snyderi 2 's, but in general they show more ruddy suffusion on the 
underside of secondaries, typical snyderi being very pale greenish. We 
imagine that the form of the Sierra Mts., Calif, which is generally 
known as coronis (Wright, 1. c. PI. XIV, Fig. 126) and which seems 
to extend along the whole range into Oregon is a race of snyderi rather 
smaller than typical specimens but otherwise with no marked points 
of distinction ; it is apparently rather common around Quincy in Plumas 
Co., Calif. ; our series, mostly $ 's, shows a great deal of variation in 
the color of the underside of secondaries, from pale greenish to rather 
bright pinkish-brown. 

A. atossa Edw. 

We imagine this will prove to be a rare unsilvered form of semi- 
ramis Edw. with the upper side paler and with reduced markings. 
This latter species also flies at Tehachapi, the type locality of atossa, 
and we have specimens of both forms before us ; the general wing 
shape of both sexes and type of markings certainly points to a very 
close relationship between the two. Adiaste Behr. (adiante Bdv.) is 
a third species that by its reduced maculation on upper side shows 
close affinity to semiramis Edw. and may prove to be a northern un- 
silvered race ; the fact that a form like atossa occasionally occurs with 
typical semiramis would certainly support this view as the under sides 
of the secondaries in atossa and adiaste are strikingly similar. 

A. rupestris Behr. 

The types in the Strecker Coll. agree with the specimens figured 
by Edwards (1. c. II, PI. VII, Argynnis). Dr. McDunnough has taken 
the species sparingly in the Upper Sacramento Valley in several local- 
ities north of Dunsmuir but the species is very local and hard to cap- 
ture ; it occurs earlier in the season than any of the other Argynnids 
taken in the same neighborhood, flying during the early part of June ; 
occasional partially silvered specimens are found. Wright's figure 



80 

(1. c. PL XV, 132) is again quite erroneous and should be referred 
to hydaspe Bdv. as far as we can judge. 

A. juba Bdv. 

Judging by the figure of the type published by M. Oberthur (1. 
c. PI. 262, Fig. 2197) and our knowledge of the type of laura Edw. 
the latter name will fall as a synonym of juba. The two other speci- 
mens figured as juba (Figs. 2198 and 2199) are however not this 
species but probably the Sierran race of snydcri, to which we have 
already referred. Juba occurs in both silvered and unsilvered forms 
as is shown by a small series before us from Placer Co., Calif, and 
this latter form bears such very close resemblance to rupestris that we 
should not be surprised to find that these two so-called species were in 
reality forms of one species. Inornata Edw. belongs also without 
doubt in this group and is possibly the unsilvered form of juba or 
merely a large rupestris, but our material is too limited to have exact- 
ly matched the type with any specimen in our series and we must leave 
the matter undecided for the present. Edwards' figure (1. c. II, Arg. 
PI. V) gives the impression of a rather larger species than juba but 
this size of course may be merely individual. All three forms were 
described from the same general locality, viz. the Central Sierras. 

A. macaria Edw. 

This is placed in Dr. Dyar's list as a synonym of curynome Edw. 
which is entirely erroneous. The species was described from ma- 
terial taken at Havilah, Kern Co., Calif, and the types are in the 
Edwards' Collection ; it is very closely related to laura Edw. and the 
two are possibly northern and southern races of one species ; we have 
long series from both Havilah and Tehachapi before us ; Wright's fig- 
ures of laura and macaria (PI. XV, 133, 135) both refer to this spe- 
cies, his laurina being the unsilvered form which is quite commonly 
met with. The true laura, which is a synonym of juba Bdv., as we 
have already pointed out, is a darker, more heavily marked insect than 
macaria, although the marking of the underside would point to the two 
being but forms of one species bearing to each other a relationship 
similar to that existing in our opinion between montivaga and oweni. 

A. coronis Behr. 

In the Strecker Collection is a pair purporting to be the types of 
this species and regarding these and other Argynnis types of Behr's 
describing Strecker states (Lep. Rhop. Het. Suppl. 3, p. 22) that they 



81 

were sent him by Dr. Behr in 1876 along with other typical examples 
with a letter saying "I send you all my Argynnides in their doubtful 
state and with your better collections and literature you can do far 
more than I with my limited opportunities." Under these circum- 
stances we see no adequate reason why we should not accept these 
specimens as the types. Edwards first applied the name coronis Behr 
with Dr. Behr's consent to the species "No. 2" of Behr's paper in 
Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. II, 173, 1862 (Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., Ill, 435) ; 
the species figured by Edwards as coronis in Butt. N. Am. Ill, 
Argynnis IV was determined as such by him from a colored figure re- 
ceived from Dr. Behr and this conception of the species has evidently 
been generally accepted since then. 

We have examined the Strecker types extremely carefully, com- 
paring them with a long series of specimens and find them absolutely 
identical with the species known as liliana Hy. Edw. and not the same 
as the species figured by Edwards. One of the main points of distinc- 
tion is the narrowness of the yellow subterminal area on the under- 
side of the secondaries which in Edwards' figures is relatively broad. 
Dr. Behr in the original description states that the species is veri- 
similar to callippc Bdv. but actually differs in the lack of the pale 
markings of the upper side and this statement is perfectly true as 
callippe possesses the same narrow band on the underside as does 
coronis (liliana), which is additional proof that the Strecker "types" 
are more to be relied upon than Edwards' determination from a fig- 
ure. The species is said by Dr. Behr to frequent several localities near 
the bay of San Francisco and this would therefore be in the same 
general region as the type locality of liliana Hy. Edw. which is St. 
Helena, Napa Co. 

A. mormonia Bdv. (PI. X, Fig. 2). 

The species has been confused with montivaga Behr but is ap- 
parently a good one and may be distinguished from this latter species 
by the fact that in the $ sex the branches of the median and cubital 
veins of primaries are never enlarged by black scales as is the case 
with montivaga ; our figures of both species bring out this point of dis- 
tinction. Arge Stkr. is a synonym and erinna Edw. a very closely 
allied form hardly worthy of a name ; however, as it was described 
from Spokane, Wash., the name erinna may be used to indicate the 
northern race, mormonia applying to the Calif ornian and South Oregon 
form. Oberthur's figure of mormonia (Etudes de Lep. Comp. IX (2) 



82 

Figs. 2192/3) should make the species readily recognizable; it is ap- 
parently much rarer than montivaga although occurring in the same 
localities. Whether eurynome Edw. and its various forms should be 
considered as races of mormonia is doubtful ; personally we consider 
that the presence of considerable green scaling on the underside would 
point to a distinct species showing much greater affinities to the Alas- 
kan bischoffi Edw. than to mormonia ; we have already offered a few 
notes on this species (Cont. N. Hist. N. Am. Lep. II, (3) p. 93) and 
have nothing further to add. 

A. montivaga Behr. ( PI. X, Fig. 1 ) . 

There seems no doubt but that egleis Bdv. is a synonym of this 
species ; we have examined the Boisduval types in the collection of 
M. Oberthur and also the specimens in the Strecker Collection pur- 
porting to be the types of montivaga and these both are similar ; the 
species shows all grades of variation on the underside from well-sil- 
vered forms to those without any trace of silver ; we have a series 
taken in Truckee, Calif, as early as May 9th and another series taken 
in the same locality in the first week of July but cannot find any good 
point of distinction between the two. The species is common all 
through the higher altitudes of the Sierras. From a study of some 
of the original type material of oweni Edw. from Mt. Shasta, Calif, 
it would seem to us that this species is more closely related to mon- 
tivaga than to hippolyta, as it is now placed, and would represent a 
darker heavier marked form from the northern end of the same chain 
of mountains which has gradually developed, due to its isolation, into 
practically a good species. It is very possible that Behr's series of 
montivaga contained specimens of mormonia Bdv. ; at any rate mon- 
tivaga Behr as identified by Edwards, who makes arge Stkr. a synonym 
(Can. Ent. XI, 52), was evidently mormonia Bdv.; in the same paper 
Edwards claims to have received the "types" of egleis and mormonia 
from Boisduval and declares them $ and 9 of one species ; we doubt 
if these were more than specimens from the type lot, or "cotypes" , as 
Boisduval would hardly part with his actual types ; in any case it would 
seem to be both just to Dr. Boisduval and more scientifically correct 
to consider the specimens still contained in the Boisduval Collection and 
marked "type" as being the originals of the description ; these have 
been figured by M. Oberthur (Etudes de Lep. Comp. IX, (2) Figs. 
2192/5) although it would seem that the figures of egleis are 9 's and 
not S 's as stated ; there is however no difficulty in determining, by 



83 

careful comparison, to which of the two closely allied species each 
name should be referred. Wright's figures of arge, erinna and egleis 
(Butt. W. Coast, PL XVII, 143-145) all refer to montivaga Behr, as 
well as the figure on PL XVI, 142 ; his identifications of nearly all of 
the Argynnids are hopelessly mixed. Nenoquis Reak. listed by Dyar 
as a synonym has been referred by Strecker, who had the type, to the 
European dia Linn. (Lep. Rhop. Hist. Suppl. Ill, p. 22) ; we think this 
action is correct. 

Genus Melitaea, Fabr. 

Being forced to reject the genus Lemonias Hbn. which is a 'Ten- 
tamen' genus and regarded at the present time by the majority of 
workers as unpublished (c. /. Prout, Hampson, etc.) we have recent- 
ly made a short study of the various generic names involved with a 
view to deciding which can be used for our American forms. 

The genera available are as follows : 

Melitaea Fabr. 1807. 
According to Scudder the type was fixed by Westwood in 1840 
as cinxia L., Dalman's fixation in 1820 of athalia as type being errone- 
ous as athalia was not included in the original list of species. 

Schoenis Hbn. 1818. 
Sole species and therefore type, cinxia L. 
The genus falls before Melitaea Fabr. 

Cinclidia Hbn. 1818. 
Scudder specifies phoebe Wien. Verz. as type in 1875 (Buff. Bull. 
II, 266) ; later in the same year (Proc. Am. Acad. Arts & Sci.), fol- 
lowing an erroneous reference by Kirby of phoebe Wien. Verz. to 
athalia, he gives athalia as type but his text readily shows that phoebe 
Wien. Verz. is meant under athalia. In any case his previous action 
of designating phoebe as type will hold. 

Mellicta Bill. 1820. 
Scudder, without specifying any type, says this will fall before 
Lemonias, Schoenis and Cinclidia. In order to avoid any later mis- 
understandings we specify the type as cinxia L. and Mellicta will there- 
fore fall before Melitaea. 

Limnaecia Scud. 1872. 
Type specified as harrisi Scud. 



84 

Thessalia Scud. 1875. 
Type specified as leanira Feld. 

EUPHYDRYAS SCUD. 1872. 

Type specified as phaeton Drury. 

Having established the available genera and their types we have 
examined the $ genitalia of cinxia and phoebe, the two European spe- 
cies which are the respective types of Melitaea Fabr. and Cinclidia 
Hbn. We have further examined the genitalia of practically all our 
N. American species and find that they may be divided very readily by 
this means into two main groups, the first group including phaeton, 
chalcedona and all the species listed in Dyar's catalog under Lemonias 
as far as helvia (No. 160) and the second the remainder of the species 
included in the same list under Lemonias, Cinclidia, Thessalia, and 
Schoenis. The first group, which also would include the European 
matnrna and probably allied species which we have not examined, 
shows a marked similarity in pattern among the included species and 
would admirably bear out the conclusions of Mr. Bethune Baker in 
a recent paper (Ent. Record, XXVI, 177, 1914) where he claims that 
a correlation of structure and pattern is to be met with all through the 
Rhopalocera; for this group the only generic name available seems to 
be Euphydryas Scud, which we propose using. We have not extended 
our studies further than the genitalia but imagine other structural 
characters may be found bearing out the above results. With re- 
gard to the second group the genitalia show considerable affinity to 
those of the European phoebe and cinxia; it is true that the genitalia 
of cinxia vary from those of phoebe in the form of the claspers but 
the general type is the same and we would not for the present separate 
these two species into different genera. Our N. American species, es- 
pecially in the palla group, show distinctly a further development of 
the phoebe type ; we think therefore that the genus Melitaea Fabr. may 
safely be used for all the members of this group; neither harrisi nor 
leanira, the types respectively of the genera Limnaecia Scud, and 
Thessalia Scud., shows any peculiarity which would warrant a separa- 
tion either from each other or from the remainder of the species, and 
these two genera would therefore fall. If it be considered necessary, 
after further study, to separate our N. American forms from the Euro- 
pean the genus Limnaecia Scud, would still be available. In the minuta 
group we find the greatest points of difference from the general type 



85 

of genitalia common to the genus; it appears to have a tendency to- 
wards the Euphydryas group, almost forming a connecting link be- 
tween this genus and Melitaea. 

Euphydryas chalcedona Dbldy. 

The type specimen as figured by Doubleday and Hewitson (Gen. 
Diur. Lep. PI. XXIII, Fig. 1) is a $ and shows no trace of red on 
the upper side; it is erroneously listed as from Haiti but Boisduval 
corrects this later to California and it is probable that the specimen 
in question came from the neighborhood of San Francisco as the ma- 
jority of specimens from this region before us either show no red or 
only weak red marginal spots with occasional red spots in and beyond 
the cell. Both Dr. Behr and Hy. Edwards agree in stating that the 
larva is found feeding principally on Scrophularia and is black with 
a dorsal row of orange tubercles and the base of the second lateral 
row of tubercles also orange, no mention being made of pale dorsal 
or lateral stripes (Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 1863, Vol. Ill, p. 90; 1873, 
Vol. V, p. 167) ; their material was probably collected around San 
Francisco. W. H. Edwards, however, describes the larva of chalce- 
dona (Pap. IV, 63) from material received from W. G. Wright of 
San Bernadino as feeding on Pentstemon and having a double whitish 
dorsal stripe and a macular whitish stripe in line with the second 
lateral spines the remainder of the description agreeing with that of 
the above mentioned authors; this larval description exactly agrees 
with that given by Rivers (Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 2nd. Ser. I, p. 
103, 1888) of the larva of the species he separates from chalcedona as 
macglashani from material taken at Truckee feeding also on a Pent- 
stemon sp. ; the imago differs from typical chalcedona according to 
Rivers in having the marginal red spots always well developed and 
very frequently with prominent red spots in and beyond the cell of 
primaries between the ordinary yellow patches ; a large series before us 
from the type locality confirms this diagnosis ; specimens from Havilah 
and S. Bernardino Co. in our collection agree with Truckee specimens 
in showing generally this greater development of red color although 
specimens occur from both localities that can scarcely be separated 
from San Francisco Bay material. In the summer of 1915 Dr. Mc- 
Dunnough found exactly similar larvae to those described by Rivers 
and W. H. Edwards very common in the neighborhood of Duns- 
muir, Siskiyou Co. on a Pentstetnon sp. and these also produced 
imagines with strong tendency to develop the red markings although 



86 

again specimens occurred which were almost typical chalcedona. Mr. 
Jas. Cottle of San Francisco, who was at Dunsmuir at the time, stated 
emphatically that these larvae differed from those of chalcedona he 
had collected at San Francisco. 

It is evident then that we have two larval forms ; one lacking the 
dorsal and lateral pale stripes and producing an imago almost wholly 
black and yellow which frequents the low lying coast land particularly 
around San Francisco and feeds on Scrophularia species ; the other 
very similar, with the addition of a geminate dorsal and a lateral pale 
stripe, found on Pentstemon species throughout the whole Sierra 
range at moderate altitudes and producing an imago with generally 
well defined red marginal spots and often red spots in the discal cell ; 
we imagine they are merely forms of a single species, the differences 
in both imago and larva being due largely to environment but they cer- 
tainly represent good geographical races and as such should be kept 
separated. For the former the name chalcedona (not chalcedon as 
generally written) will be used; for the latter we believe the correct 
name to be dwinellei Hy. Edw. ; this was described as a variety of 
chalcedona (Pap. I, 51, 1881) from McCloud fishing station at Baird, 
Shasta Co. and specimens of our bred series from Siskiyou Co. have 
been compared with the type and agree exactly; the red suffusion of 
the yellow spots mentioned in the description is not nearly so marked 
in the types as one would be led to suppose but the red marginal 
spots are well defined and the specimens as a whole cannot be separ- 
ated from a series from Truckee, the type locality of macglashani 
Rivers. Dwinellei Edw. will have priority over this name in our 
opinion but if desired macglashani may be employed for the Truckee 
form which is scarcely distinguishable but does in general, as noted by 
Rivers, show a more checkered appearance than either the San Fran- 
cisco or Shasta Co. specimens ; San Bernardino specimens are also 
very close to macglashani; it is possible that specimens from the 
coast region of southern California may approach typical chalcedona 
but this is a point for our entomological enthusiasts on the spot to 
settle as we have no authentic material from this region before us. 

Wright figures what we consider almost typical cJwlcedona as 
colon (PI. XVIII, Fig. 154) his quino (Fig. 155) is also we think the 
same species; his chalcedona (Fig. 157) is the San Bernardino race, 
almost inseparable from macglashani which is correctly figured (Fig. 



87 

159) ; the figures of dwinelli are merely those of stained specimens of 
the same thing. 

E. cooperi Behr. 

This species has never been satisfactorily identified ; it was de- 
scribed from Clear Lake, Lake Co., Calif, and separated from chal- 
cedona largely on the strength of the very different larva which ac- 
cording to Behr is 'brimstone yellow with a dorsal and lateral black 
stripe' and feeds on Scrophidaria; the imago is said to be similar to 
chalcedona but lacking 'the yellowish halo around the lunules of the 
brown band on the underside' of secondaries, the red portions of both 
being more somber and less of a fiery red than in chalcedona. Our 
Calif ornian entomologists should be able to solve the puzzle by search- 
ing in the type locality for the larva which seems readily recognizable. 
In the Edwards' Collection are two specimens labelled cooperi and 
purporting to have been bred by Dr. Behr and sent to Edwards in 
1863 as types; we were utterly unable to separate these from chal- 
cedona, the wing shape and type of maculation being the same in both 
species. 

Perdiceas Edw., described from Tenino, Wash., has been placed 
as a synonym of cooperi; in the Edwards' Collection are 2 $ 1 2 
labelled 'Puget Sound, Wash.' 'cooperi=perdiceas' and several other 
specimens from the same region simply labelled cooperi; these seemed 
to us distinct from Behr's two specimens but we had no material that 
would exactly match the perdiceas types and do not therefore feel com- 
petent to decide the point. 

E. baron i Edw. 

This species is usually credited to Hy. Edwards with the descrip- 
tion published in Papilio, Vol. I, 52, 1881, but the name baroni was 
first used by W. H. Edwards in 1879 (C. Ent. XI, 129) the larva being 
described and a very short diagnosis of the imago being given at the 
close of the article; the species was figured in Butt. N. Am. Ill, Mel. 
PI. I. We recently discovered two of the presumable types which 
served for Hy. Edwards' description mixed up with the types of E. 
rubicunda in the Hy. Edwards' Collection; they are from Mendocino 
Co., Calif., the type locality, and agree with W. H. Edwards' figures so 
that it is evident that whichever author receives the credit for the 
specific name there will be no mix-up regarding the species itself. 
Wright's figures of the upper-side of baroni (PI. XVIII, Fig. 156) 



88 

seem to be that of colon Edw. but his underside figure is correct ; what 
he figures as rubicunda (Fig. 162) is really the true baroni. 

E. rubicunda Hy. Edw. (PI. X, Fig. 3). 

In the original description (Papilio I, p. 52, 1881) the type local- 
ity is given as the Sierra Nevada Mts. at from 2500-7000 ft. elevation. 
In Butt. N. Am. Vol. Ill, Mel. II, W. H. Edwards quotes Henry Ed- 
wards as stating that Mendocino Co. is the home of rubicunda and a 
specimen is figured taken by Mr. O. Baron in the Comptche district 
of Mendocino at an altitude of less than 2000 ft; we cannot see that 
this specimen is any other than baroni; it is a little larger than the 
specimens figured as baroni by W. H. Edwards on the previous plate 
but Edwards' specimens were probably undersized, due to breeding ; 
both W. H. and Henry Edwards state that the types of baroni came 
from Mendocino Co. and in a long series before us from the same 
locality we can match either of the figures excellently. We have re- 
cently, through the kindness of Prof. E. T. Owen, seen a series of a 
Mclitaea taken by Prof. Rivers at Tulare, Calif., which proves, after 
a comparison with the type in the Hy. Edwards' Collection, to be the 
true rubicunda; it is very similar to baroni on the upper side and can 
very readily be confused with this species ; it is however rather larger 
with considerably more red on the secondaries, resembling in this re- 
spect nubigena Behr, just as stated by Henry Edwards in his original 
description ; on the underside of the secondaries the outer fourth of 
the median yellow band, beyond the dividing black line, is the same 
color as the inner portion whereas in baroni it is generally distinctly 
red, the same color as the submarginal row of spots. It is probably 
this species which Behr called anicia Dbldy. and to which he compared 
his nubigena in the original description (Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. Ill, 91, 
1863). The home of the species seems to be the valleys of the High 
Sierras between the Yosemite Valley and Mt. Whitney ; it is extreme- 
ly close to augusta Edw. (quino Behr) and will probably prove to be 
merely a local form of this species. We figure a $ which agrees 
almost exactly with Hy. Edwards' type. 

E. quino Behr. 

In 1907 Fordyce Grinnell, in a paper in the Can. Ent. Vol. 39, 
p. 380, claims that this much disputed and misidentified species is the 
same as that described later by W. H. Edwards as augusta; there is 
a good deal in favor of this suggestion which is further supported by 



89 

the fact that a so-called 'type' of quino in the Strecker Collection 
bears out this theory as well as a specimen we have recently received 
from Prof. Owen which was identified by Behr himself as quino for 
Prof. Rivers. On the other hand there are several points that un- 
fortunately lead in a different direction. (1) The original descrip- 
tion distinctly states that in the difference of wing shape between the 
$ 's and 9 's the species closely approaches chalcedona; this is not 
very clearly borne out by the San Diego series of augusta before us ; 
there is of course a difference but not nearly so marked as in chalce- 
dona and in fact several $ 's have almost as rounded an apical area as 
the 9 's. 

(2) The underside of the primaries is said to closely resemble 
that of chalcedona in showing little indication of the markings of the 
upper side, being almost entirely of a reddish-brown color; this also 
does not apply at all well to our S. Diego specimens which generally 
have distinct yellow quadrate patches in and beyond the cell whereas 
in chalcedona the cell is practically unicolorous with the rest of the 
wing. 

(3) Behr's description is largely comparative with anicia Dbldy. 
but we do not know definitely what species Behr had identified as 
anicia; he certainly had not the true anicia before him which was de- 
scribed from material taken in the Canadian Rockies by Lord Derby, 
notwithstanding Grinnell's statement that California is the type local- 
ity of the species (1. c. p. 382). Behr claimed to have anicia from 
Mariposa and we suspect that what he calls anicia^ is the rubicunda of 
Hy. Edwards. 

In the first two points mentioned quino would be much more 
closely duplicated by sierra Wright than by augusta and if it were not 
for the fact that sierra is a form of the High Sierras whereas quino 
is stated to have been collected near San Diego, we would almost advise 
this reference. Is it possible that the locality is erroneous and that Dr. 
Cooper, who evidently, judging by Grinnell's statement, travelled in 
various regions of California, got his labels mixed? 

For the present, however, we accept Grinnell's synonymy but we 
imagine the last word in connection with quino has yet to be spoken. 

E. nubigena Behr. (PI. X, Figs. 8-10). 

The correct identity of this species is very puzzling. It was de- 
scribed from the head waters of the Tuolumne River and the descrip- 
tion is largely comparative with what Behr called M. anicia but which 



90 

we have already (under quino) stated could not be this species, which 
is not found in California, but might possibly be rubicunda. Nubigena 
is said to differ from Behr's anicia in having the club of the antennae 
blackish, not orange, and the portion of the median band on the un- 
derside of secondaries beyond the black dividing line not yellow but 
orange ; Behr was of the opinion that it might prove to be a high al- 
titude form of his anicia. With regard to the two points of distinc- 
tion mentioned by Behr we do not believe that the first can be used 
with any certainty at all as we have observed that the club of the an- 
tenna in most Melitaea species is variable in color between the two ex- 
tremes of yellow and black ; with regard to the second point this seems 
to be of greater value but not infallible as is shown in the case of 
baroni in which the outer portion of the median band is generally suf- 
fused with red but is occasionally yellow like the inner portion. We 
have before us a few specimens from Mineral King, Tulare Co., taken 
at a high altitude, and also some specimens from some of the higher 
points around Lake Tahoe and some of these distinctly show the 
peculiarity mentioned by Behr ; they also bear a great resemblance to 
rubicunda Hy. Edw. {anicia Behr) on the upper side, being however 
rather smaller in size; for the present and until careful collecting can 
be done in the type locality of nubigena we are inclined to place these 
specimens as the true nubigena; they probably will prove to be a high 
altitude form of either rubicunda or quino (augnsta) as all three are 
very closely allied ; the former two however do not as far as we have 
observed show the tendency to the red suffusion of the outer portion 
of the median band on the underside of secondaries. We imagine that 
the specimens referred to anicia by Grinnell in his article on quino are 
also nubigena Behr as we identify it. Colonia Wright, (1. c. PI. 20, 
Fig. 180) described from Mt. Hood, Ore. seems to be a northern race 
of nubigena; the red outer portion of the median band beneath is 
present and much more constant than in southern nubigena; we have 
long series from Crater Lake, Ore. and Mt. Ranier, Wash, taken by 
Dr. McDunnough on the highest points where vegetation occurred ; 
the most northerly form and the smallest one is we believe beani 
Skin, which was described as a variety of anicia from the high peaks 
around Laggan, Alta. but really belongs here as an examination of 
the type has shown us. Wright's figure of beani (Fig. 168) should 
be referred to anicia; Hollands figure (PI. XVIII, Fig. 13) seems cor- 
rect. 



91 

Since writing the above notes we have received a long series of 
nubigena taken this summer (1916) by one of our collectors in the 
type locality (Tuolumne Meadows) ; these specimens, of which we 
figure three, corroborate our identification. 

E. anicia Dbldy. 

This species was described from specimens taken in the Canadian 
Rockies by Lord Derby who we believe was one of the members of 
the Boundary Commission ; the types are in the British Museum and 
specimens from the neighborhood of Laggan and Banff are typical; 
the species extends down through the Rockies into Colorado and has 
been described from there by Edwards as brucei but there is practical- 
ly no difference between these high altitude Colorado specimens and 
the Canadian ones and the name is scarcely worth retaining. A 
much larger and brighter form which occurs in Colorado at lower al- 
titudes than anicia has been named capella Barnes ; it was described 
as a variety of nubigena but we think it is probably the form of anicia 
which occurs in lower altitudes. Wright figures this form as nubigena 
(PI. XIX, Fig. 171). 

E. wheeleri Hy. Edw. 

We do not believe that this is a form of nubigena as at present 
listed. It was described from S. Nevada and the description is very 
poor; we have however exactly matched the types with specimens 
from Glenwood Spgs., Colo, and have others from Utah so that the 
species would appear to be one of the Great Basin inhabitants. It is 
more closely related to sierra Wright, in our opinion, than to anything 
else but is duller in color and sufficiently distinct to warrant a name. 
Wright's figure (PI. XIX, Fig. 166) is correct and his anicia (Fig. 
165) probably refers to the same species. 

Melitaea palla Bdv. 

We believe that ivhitneyi Behr will prove to be merely the high 
altitude form of palla, distinguished in general by the greater amount 
of red on the upper surface especially of the 9 . In the coast region 
of California (Alameda Co., etc.) the black 9 (eremita Wright) 
seems to predominate ; in the valleys of the interior at 2-3000 ft. al- 
titude both forms of the 9 are found in about equal numbers; in a 
long series before us taken by Dr. McDunnough at Shasta Retreat, 
Siskiyou Co. some of the specimens are typical palla and others again 
match well with ivhitneyi. The true home of whitneyi is apparent- 



92 

ly the region around Lake Tahoe and the High Sierras and all the 
9 's we have seen from such localities are red and very similar to the 
$ 's having generally however the median row of spots of a paler 

color than the other rows. 

M. ARACHNE Edw. 

There has been considerable confusion between this species and 
minuta Edw. due to misidentifications by W. H. Edwards himself. 
Arachne was described from a 9 from Colo, received from Reakirt 
and the type, which we have examined, is in the Strecker Collection. 
Minuta was described from a specimen from Texas in the collection 
of J. W. Weidemeyer and Edwards states in his description of arachne 
that the type is no longer in N. America and that he only has pre- 
served a coarsely executed lithograph of it, a fact which is probably 
responsible for the confusion; Mead in the Wheeler Report (PI. 
XXXVI, Figs. 1, 2) figures as minuta what is really arachne, an error 
which led Strecker to redescribe the true minuta as approximata; in 
the Edwards' Collection at Pittsburg the species are reversed, $ and 
9 specimens from Colorado being labelled 'minuta, type' and speci- 
mens from S. Colo, bearing the label 'arachne, type' which in view of 
the localities given in the original description clearly brands these 
types as spurious. 

Pola Bdv. described from Sonora will take priority over arachne 
Edw. the figure of the type being excellently depicted by M. Oberthur 
in Et. de Lep. Comp. IX, 2, Fig. 2188; the species occurs with ap- 
parently very little variation in Arizona, New Mexico and Colorado. 

Minuta Edw. {approximata Stkr.) is seemingly much more 
restricted in its distribution ; we have only seen the typical species 
from Kerrville, Texas but it is quite possible that nympha Edw. from 
Arizona is merely a brighter and more varicolored race of minuta; 
the maculation of the underside would certainly point to this. Hol- 
land's figure (PI. XVIII, Fig. 11) is that of pola (arachne) ; we figure 
upper and undersides of the true minuta (PI. X, Figs. 4, 7). 

M. callina Bdv. (PI. X, Fig. 11). 

After a careful study of the figure of the sole remaining type 
from Mexico (Oberthur, Et. de Lep. Comp. IX, (2), Fig. 2185) we 
have found that the species agreeing best with this figure is the Texan 
one known heretofore as ulrica Edw. (imitata Stkr.) ; we had suspect- 
ed from the localities that it would have been the Arizona species 



93 

that would best agree, i. e. perse Edw., but this latter form shows cer- 
tain features of maculation, notably on the underside of primaries 
that do not fit in at all well with Oberthur's figure ; we figure a $ from 
Kerrville, Texas which seems to be typical callina. It is possible of 
course that Boisduval had two forms before him at the time of de- 
scribing but the Sonoran types being lost we think it advisable to re- 
strict the name to the Mexican type especially as the original descrip- 
tion not only does not contradict this but rather seems to point in this 
direction. It is possible that elada Hew. may take priority over cal- 
lina Bdv. but we only know the species from Godman and Salvin's fig- 
ure and M. Oberthur is of the opinion that the true elada is something 
different from Godman and Salvin's conception of it (Et. de Lep. 
Comp. IX (2) p. 80) which to us looks more like perse than callina; a 
study of the type in the British Museum will be necessary to settle the 
matter. Socia Feld. is another very closely related form which may 
supplant one of our present names but a careful study of the type, 
which is possibly in the Tring Museum, is also necessary in this case. 

M. bolli Edw. (PI. X, Figs. 5, 6). 

This species was described from a single 2 from San Antonio, 
Texas ; in the Edwards' Collection the only specimens of both bolli 
and thekla are from Arizona and cannot be considered as types ; in 
Philadelphia we discovered however a 2 labelled in Edwards' hand- 
writing 'M. bolli, S. Ant., Tex.' which is without much doubt the true 
type. The type of thekla from S. Calif, which should be in the Smith- 
sonian Inst, we were unable to find ; it is probably lost. These two 
are very closely related and are without doubt forms of one species ; 
the Texas form (Fig. 6), to which the name bolli will apply, is dis- 
tinguished from the western form thekla (Fig. 5) (Ariz. S. Calif.) by 
the fact that on the underside of primaries the yellow submarginal and 
discal spots are not so sharply defined but tend to merge into the 
ground color of the wing. Both are closely allied to the Central Am- 
erican theona Men. ; we figure the underside of both forms. 

Phyciodes gorgone Hbn. 

Figs. 1 and 2 of Hubner's Samml. Exot. Schm. PI. 41, as stated 
by Scudder (Buff. Bull. II, p. 266), certainly refer to the species at 
present listed as ismeria Bdv. whilst Figs. 3 and 4 are as plainly the 
2 of phaon Edw. If the name be held to the $ sex, gorgone Hbn. 



94 

will have priority over ismeria Bdv. and the synonymy of the two spe- 
cies will be: — 

gorgone Hbn. 

ismeria Bdv. & Lee. 

carlota Reak. 
phaon Edw. 

gorgone Hbn. 9 (nee S ). 

If it be contended that Boisduval by his description of ismeria 
limited gorgone to the $ sex (Figs. 3 and 4) then phaon must fall. 

P. vesta Edw. 

In Butt. N. Am. II, Phyc. II, Edwards proposes the names hiema- 
lis and aestiva for the two broods of this species. Hiemalis will sink 
however as a direct synonym of vesta, which leaves aestiva Edw. to 
apply to the summer generation. 

P. phaon Edw. 

In the same work mentioned in our note on the preceding species 
Edwards proposes the same two names to separate the spring and sum- 
mer forms. In this case however aestiva represents the typical phaon 
and will sink into the synonymy whilst the name hiemalis Edw. is free 
to be used for the spring form. 

P. tharos Drury. 

According to the original figures and descriptions both tharos 
Dru. and morpheas Fabr. were described from specimens of the sum- 
mer brood with pale underside of secondaries and morpheas Fabr. 
must therefore sink as a synonym. Marcia Edw. is the name to be 
retained for the spring form. Pascoensis Wright is the western form, 
distinguished in general by the lack of black markings in the extra 
discal area of both wings; packardi Saund. is a melanic aberration. 
The synonymy would therefore stand as follows: — 

(a) tharos tharos Dru. Eastern States to Rocky Mts. 

cocyta Cram. 
morpheas Fabr. 
form vern. marcia Edzv. 
ab. packardi Saund. 
ab. reaghi Reiff. 

(b) tharos pascoensis Wright. Western States beyond the divide. 



95 

P. campestris Behr. 

This species and pratensis Behr, both described in the same paper 
(Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. Ill, 86) have generally been considered as 
referring to the 9 and $ respectively of one species, although Behr 
apparently had both sexes of each and gives the habitat of the for- 
mer as "marshy places where Hemitonia abounds" (presumably in 
the vicinity of San Francisco Bay) and of the latter "grassy hillsides" 
around San Francisco. A careful comparison of his descriptions with 
numerous specimens before us fails to show any definite points of dis- 
tinction and we concur for the present with the synonymy as gen- 
erally adopted. We would point out however that campestris has 
"line" priority over pratensis and if the two names do actually refer 
to a single species this should be designated as campestris Behr. It is 
a matter we will have to leave to our Californian lepidopterists to 
determine whether the marsh form and the hill-side form show any 
material points of distinction. Wright's Fig. 201 as well as his figures 
202, 202b, and 202c (as orseis) are all campestris (pratensis) ; his 
figure 201b should probably be referred to pallida Edw. 

P. camillus Edw. 

Emissa Edw. is at present listed as a variety of this species but 
apparently is only the 9 and should fall into the synonymy. The 
types on which both names were founded were taken in Colorado by 
Mr. Mead. The species is probably merely the Rocky mountain form 
of the California campestris Behr; in fact specimens from Northern 
B. C, Idaho, and Washington before us could as well be referred to 
the one name as the other. 

The other two names, pallida Edw. and mata Reak., at present 
placed as forms of camillus, presumably on the authority of Edwards' 
Catalogue, we treat as forms of mylitta Edw. for reasons stated below. 

P. orseis Edw. 

This was described from Mt. St. Helena, Napa Co., Calif., and 
is stated to be the largest of the Californian species. It is at present 
doubtfully listed as a form of pratensis Behr. We have two speci- 
mens from Sonoma Co. which we have identified as this species from 
a comparison with the types in the Hy. Edwards' Collection ; we be- 
lieve it will prove to be a good species ; besides its larger size, it is 
very heavily black on the upper side, the fore wing is distinctly emarg- 
inate below the apex and the scallops of the outer edge of secondaries 



96 

more pronounced than in other species; Holland's figure (PI. XVII, 
Fig. 31) seems correct although a poor specimen. 

P. mylitta Edw. 

This species was originally described (1861 Proc. Acad. N. Sci. 
Phil., p. 161) from specimens from Texas, Kansas, and California; 
later (1864 Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil. II, 504) Edwards claims that collina 
Behr, described from California, is a synonym and states that he had 
several specimens included under mylitta as varieties which were ap- 
parently good species ; two of these Behr had described as campestris 
and pratensis and Edwards (p. 505) now describes a fourth as pallida 
from Texas and Kansas which to use his own words "I also supposed 
to be a variety of mylitta;" it would seem therefore that by this action 
Edwards restricted his mylitta to the Californian specimens. Recently 
we examined the series of mylitta in the Edwards' Collection with a 
view to determining just what his conception of this species might be; 
the series is very mixed ; a specimen from S. Colo, which we consider 
to be pallida Edw. is labelled ' 2 type' but this must be rejected as 
such as the locality is not mentioned in the original description ; sev- 
eral specimens from various localities are present representing the 
usual conception of mylitta (Holland, Butt. Book, PI. XVII, Fig. 41), 
one from Mt. Hood being labelled type ( !), and finally a $ labelled 
'mylitta, Calif, type' which is neither of the above forms but appar- 
ently a peculiar race of montana, possibly from a lower altitude. 
There is nothing definite to prove that this specimen was one of the 
original types and as it is well known that Edwards never marked 
his specimens at the time of description as types but very often at a 
later date wrote 'type' in red ink on some other specimen which he 
considered typical (a fact abundantly proved by numerous specimens 
in his collection) we consider it the safest policy to follow Edwards' 
own statement that mylitta was identical with collina Behr and leave 
the conception of the species unchanged; it seems fairly evident from 
the description of collina Behr and Oberthur's figure of epula Bdv. 
that these two names refer to the same species. 

P. pallida Edw. 

The species was described in 1864 from Texas and Kansas ; in 
the Edwards' Collection the only specimen we could find in which the 
locality agreed with the description was a 5 labelled 'type $ camillus 
v. pallida, Texas'. This label must obviously have been put on at a 



97 

later date as camillus was not described until 1871 ; the specimen ap- 
peared to us to be an ordinary ? camillus and did not agree at all 
well with the original description of pallida; Edwards' statement, 
'upper side fulvous, the markings disposed in spots and bands which 
nearly cover the whole surface, the black shade being mostly confined 
to the costal edge, hind margin and narrow spaces between the trans- 
verse bands', hardly applies to camillus but does apply much better to 
the large form of mylitta common in Colorado ; the size mentioned by 
Edwards {V/z in.) also points to this species. We imagine therefore 
that the specimen so labelled can hardly have been the true type. As 
further proof that pallida is rather a race of mylitta than of camillus 
(over which in any case it would have priority) is Scudder's state- 
ment (Buff. Bull. II, 267) that Edwards considered mata Reak. a 
synonym of pallida; we have seen the type of mata in the Strecker 
Collection and it is certainly the Colorado form of mylitta; it is a very 
worn and faded specimen, the white color mentioned by Reakirt being 
due in our opinion to the age of the specimen when captured and not 
to albinism; it is figured by Strecker (Lep. Rhop. Het. PI. VIII, Fig. 
II) and we would call particular attention to the size and shape of the 
three ochreous submarginal bands on both wings as compared with 
those of camillus. 

In the light of the above remarks we believe that the following 
grouping is advisable. 

mylitta mylitta Edw. Calif. 

collina Behr. 
epula Bdv. 

mylitta pallida Edw. Rocky Mt. region. 

mata Reak. 

P. barnesi Skin. 

This is probably a large form of mylitta pallida with reduced 
black markings on both wings above ; some of our 9 's from Glenwood 
Spgs., the type locality, are very close to 9 's of pallida from the vicin- 
ity of Denver. 

Anthanassa texana Edw. 

We cannot see how cincta Edw. has been listed as a synonym of 
this species. The original description states that it is allied to leuco- 
desma Feld. a species figured in Reise Nov. Lep. PI. 50, Fig. 11 and 
totally unlike texana. 



98 

The localities given are Texas and Florida but we doubt very 
much that this is correct and imagine the species will prove to be 
South American. 

Chlosyne lacinia Geyer. 

We doubt if any typical specimens of this species as figured by 
Godman and Salvin (Biol. Cent. Am. Rhop. PI. XIX, Fig. 6) have 
ever been taken in the United States ; it seems to be confined to the 
southern portion of Mexico and Central America. The species as it 
occurs in our territory can easily be separated into two forms. 

(1) The Southern Texas form characterized by broad orange 
bands on both wings more or less tinged with pale ochreous. In long 
series from various Texan localities before us we fail to find any 
great variation on the upper side; what variation there is consists in 
the reducing of the band of primaries to more or less ovate spots ; we 
have seen no specimens to which the name saundersi Dbldy. and Hew. 
could be applied ; in this form described from Venezuela the whole 
basal area of the secondaries is orange and the band on the primaries 
broader with scarcely any ochreous tint. Scudder (Buff. Bull. II, 269) 
has proposed the name adjutrix for this Texan form which seems to 
us to be an excellent geographical race. 

(2) The Arizona form which Edwards described as a separate 
species under the name crocale (Tr. Am. Ent. Soc. V, 17) ; this form 
typically has no trace of orange in the median band on upper side 
which is punctiform on primaries and narrow but continuous on sec- 
ondaries ; a variety in which the band is tinged with orange is com- 
mon and has been named rnfescens by Wright ; another variety with 
more or less total loss of the band on upper side of secondaries 
Wright has called nigrescens, but with numerous intergrades these two 
names are hardly worth holding. We have seen no specimens with 
total loss of band on both upper and under side of secondaries to 
which the name adelina Staud. has been given ; this form is figured 
in the Biologia (PI. XIX, Figs. 16, 17) and is evidently a race not 
occurring in our territory. 

As far then as our N. American forms are concerned we would 
suggest the following tabulation : — 

(a) lacinia lacinia Geyer. not U. S. 

(b) lacinia adjutrix Scud. S. Texas. 

(c) lacinia crocale Edw. Ariz. 
form rufescens Wright. 

form nigrescens Wright. 



99 

California Wright we prefer to treat for the present as a separate 
species as the base of the primaries on underside is orange. It extends 
from Western Arizona to the San Bernardino Mts., Calif. 

POLYGONIA SATYRUS Edw. 

Chrysoptera Wright (Butt. West Coast PI. XXII, Fig. 222) 
seems to be nothing but a slight variety of this species in which the 
subterminal markings are more or less obsolete especially in the 9 ; 
this form occurs with satyrus together and is quite common among 
Arizona specimens. 

P. marsyas Edw. 

We are in doubt as to just what this species is ; the original de- 
scription was drawn up from a pair from California in Coll. Reakirt; 
later (Butt. N. Am. II, PI. 3, Grapta) Edwards figures the species 
stating that the type pair, the only specimens known, were collected 
by Mr. Lorquin in the Rocky Mts. and sent to Mr. Reakirt. The 
specimens under marsyas in the Edwards' Collection are from Mendo- 
cino Co., Calif., and are absolutely identical with satyrus but no type 
is to be found ; Scudder claims that it is a dimorphic form of satyrus 
but Edwards disapproves of this reference and in his original descrip- 
tion calls it a small form of comma. Usually a dark form of satyrus 
from Vancouver Is., B. C, has been considered to be this species and 
Wright (Butt. W. Coast, PI. 22, Fig. 214) figures such a specimen. 
We have seen nothing that entirely corresponds with Edwards' figures 
among our British Columbia series so cannot say if this reference is 
correct. 

P. silvius Edw. 

This species has caused a good deal of perplexity. In the orig- 
inal description both $ and 9 from California (Hy. Edw.) are de- 
scribed. Later (Butt. N. Am. II, Grapta III) Edwards states that his 

9 silvius was bred from a larva taken on Azalea occidentalis in the 
Yosemite Valley and is merely a slight aberration of rusticus. This 

2 we have been seen in the Edwards' Collection and concur with his 
reference. The S type of silvius has been destroyed unfortunately 
(Butt. N. Am. II, Grapta III, foot note) and the original description 
makes it very doubtful whether the $ also can be referred to rusticus; 
we would call particular attention to the description of the underside 
where among other things we read, 'common series of extra discal 



100 

spots complete and consist of dark brown scales on an ochraceons 
ground, those next inner margin of primaries enlarged and the interior 
scales replaced by ochraceous; the submarginal lunules on incision of 
primaries indistinct and on secondaries obsolete.' This hardly applies 
to rusticus, no mention being made of the green color of the sub- 
marginal dots and lunules so noticeable in this latter species ; it does 
however apply excellently to the underside of zcphyrus Edw. and we 
believe that silvius may possibly be a form of this species. In the Hy. 
Edwards' Collection is a $ with a printed 'Co-type' label and a writ- 
ten label 'silvius' which bears out this association ; the ground color 
of the underside is however a peculiar deep brown color such as we 
have never seen in any other specimen. 

P. rusticus Edw. 

We fail to separate this from f annus, but if desired the name 
may be retained for the western coast form of this species, the type 
specimens being collected by Hy. Edwards in Vancouver Is., B. C, and 
at Big Trees, Calaveras Co., Calif. The types are missing in the 
Edwards' Collection with the exception of a possible single 9 labelled 
"California" and marked 'type'. In the Henry Edwards' Collection 
is a $ from each of the above localities and these are probably the 
types. 

P. oreas Edw. 

This is listed as a variety or dimorphic form of silenus Edw. on 
the strength of Scudder's remarks in Buff. Bull. II, 252. If this be 
so, according to the rules of nomenclature oreas must be used as the 
specific and silenus as the varietal name, the former having a year's 
priority. The types of oreas, which came from Dr. Behr, were pre- 
sumably returned to him and lost with the rest of his collection in 
the San Francisco earthquake ; the S and 9 now marked type in the 
Edwards' Collection are labelled "N. Calif. O. B." (O. Baron) and 
cannot be considered more than typical in any case. The species is 
one of the doubtful ones whose biology needs clearing up. 

P. silenus Edw. 

The species was described from a $ taken by Hy. Edwards in 
Oregon; the specimen marked type in the W. H. Edwards' Collection 
is labelled W. T. (Wash. Terr.) probably one of Morrison's captures. 
It can only be considered as typical, not a type. The true type is in 
the Hy. Edwards' Collection in New York. 



101 

Junonia genoveva Cram. (PI. IX, Fig. 6). 

We have received from our collector in Chokoloskee, Fla., a few 
specimens of what seems to be genoveva Cram, listed by Kirby as a 
West Indian species ; these specimens differ from coenia in the form 
of the large black eye-spot on primaries; in coenia (PI. IX, Fig. 5) 
this is encircled with gray-brown of various shades which is well- 
defined outwardly by a black line ; beyond this towards the base of the 
wing the white subapical banding extends downward almost to the 
anal angle; in genoveva the black eye-spot shows none of this but is 
merely surrounded by a rather suffused orange shade on both upper 
and under sides. The white subapical patches are also more or less 
tinged with orange. In our present lists the species is placed as a 
synonym of coenia, although having many years priority; we think 
however it represents a good species and would list it as such. We 
have several specimens from Miami, Fla., where typical coenia also 
occurs. Apparently genoveva is confined to subtropical Florida. Our 
figures illustrate the above-mentioned differences. 

Basilarchia arthemis Drury. 

It seems to have been generally overlooked by authors that the 
type locality of this species as given by Drury is New York, which, 
if we have regard to the time of the description (1773), probably 
means the vicinity of New York City; Scudder in his Butt. East. 
States, Vol. I, p. 299 states that it has not been taken south of Mass- 
achusetts and but rarely in this State; Newcomb, in his description 
of albofasciata states that most of the Massachusetts records of ar- 
themis as well as those from Long Is., Staten Is. and Jersey City 
refer to albofasciata and not arthemis. What then did these authors 
consider to be the true arthemis? 

Drury's figure in Westwood's edition shows a white banded form 
with distinct red submarginal spots on secondaries preceded towards 
the base of the wing by green lunules ; on the under side these red 
spots appear as on the upper side and are separated from the white 
band and from the marginal green lunules by broad black spaces ; 
the basal area is reddish tinged. We have before us a series of speci- 
mens received from a dealer, some simply with the State label New 
York, others purporting to have been taken in Sullivan and Ulster 
Co's. ; others from Woodland, N. J., and Passaic Co., N. J., and six 
bred specimens from Scranton, Pa., sent us as albofasciata; besides 
these we have one pair of the types of albofasciata, a $ from Sharon, 



102 

Mass., (A. C. Sampson) showing a tendency towards an elimination 
of the white band of secondaries and a 9 from Bedford, Mass., (L. 
Swett). Half of these specimens are without red spots on secondaries, 
others show traces of same and several, notably one of the bred speci- 
mens from Scranton, Pa., a S from Woodland and 2 $ 's from Ulster 
Co., N. Y., have well defined spots as in Drury's figure; in the speci- 
mens without red spots the green lunules have become as a rule much 
broader and more prominent, in many of the specimens there is also 
a distinct greenish cast in the basal area of the upper side. 

With regard to the status of alb of as data Newc. we are unable to 
separate it satisfactorily from our New York and New Jersey speci- 
mens which in view of the locality should be typical arthemis; we do 
not however feel that the last word has by any means been said re- 
garding the relationships of arthemis and astyanax and their various 
forms and we would emphasize the necessity for Eastern collectors 
occupying themselves in securing exact data concerning the localities 
where any or all of these forms occur, and endeavoring by rearing the 
larvae to ascertain how true to type they breed. 

We figure the underside of the recently described race, rubro- 
fasdata B. & McD. (PI. IX, Fig. 7). 

B. lorquini Bdv. 

The northern race of this species from Vancouver Is. and sur- 
rounding territory seems quite separable under the name of burrisoni 
Mayn. ; it is distinguished by the small amount of orange at the apex 
of primaries as well as by the almost entire lack of submarginal white 
lunules on the under side and a general deeper brown color ; specimens 
similar to burrisoni occur sparingly along with typical lorquini in some 
of the higher regions of California. 

Libytiiea carinenta Cram. (PI. VIII, Fig. 8). 

Larvata Stkr. seems to be only a ? form of this species in which 
the three whitish subapical spots of primaries have become more or 
less coalescent forming an irregular and partially interrupted band 
across the wing; we have several such specimens, one of which we 
figure, from Brownsville, Tex., which agree with the types in the 
Strecker Collection. 



103 

RHIODINIDAE 

Apodemia cythera Edw. 

This species was described from 3 $ 's captured in Arizona by 
Lieut. Wheeler's expedition ; judging by an account of the route taken 
by this expedition the specimens were captured in the western por- 
tion of the state near the California boundary. Mead figures the 
species from one of the types on PI. 36, Figs. 3 and 4 of the Report 
of this Expedition ; this figure leaves little doubt in our mind but that 
cythera must sink as a synonym of virgulti Behr described from S. 
California ; the small size, the sharp contrast between the dark base 
and the subterminal orange band on secondaries with scarcely a trace 
of white spots on the basal edge of this band and the small size of the 
white subterminal spots as well as the very dark under side all point 
to its identity with virgulti and the type localities of the two species are 
not at all divergent. In the Edwards' Collection the specimens stand- 
ing under this name are forms of the variety duryi of mormonia in 
which the whole hind wings are more or less suffused with orange ; 
such a form is figured by Wright as cythera (PI. XXVII, Fig. 295). 
Our Arizona localities for mormonia and its forms are all from the 
southeastern portion and it seems quite possible that duryi is a syn- 
onym of mejicanus Behr (Proc. Cal. Ac. Sci. Ill, 178) ; an examina- 
tion of Mexican material will be necessary however to settle this. The 
types of cythera which should be in the National Museum are presum- 
ably destroyed. 

Calephelis nemesis Edw. 

We can see nothing that would separate australis Edw. from this 
species. Nemesis was described in 1871 from a $ taken in Arizona 
by Dr. Palmer and the type which should be in the National Museum 
has probably been lost before the collection of the Agricultural Dept. 
was transferred. In the Edwards' Collection are several specimens, 
all poor, from Arizona and S. California under this name; they can- 
not be separated from other specimens from S. Calif, and Texas placed 
under australis; this latter species was described in 1879 from speci- 
mens received from Boll in San Antonio, Texas, and at about the same 
time Strecker described guadcloupe from material received from the 
same source, antedating his paper in order to secure priority. We 
have seen Strecker's types and also the specimens from Texas in the 
Edwards' Collection under australis which are probably types although 



104 

not labelled and as already stated cannot distinguish them from nem- 
esis. The species seems to occur commonly all along our southern 
border. 

LYCAENIDAE 

Strymon calanus Hbn. 

Lorata G. & R. has been placed as a variety of this species with 
a black transverse line on the underside near base of wings. An ex- 
amination of the type specimen in the American Museum at New 
York very clearly shows that this line has been painted on the speci- 
men which is calanus pure and simple. Inorata Grt. the type of which 
we also examined is a slight varietal form of calanus with the inner 
white border line to the transverse dark band on underside of fore 
wing obsolete ; in our opinion the name is not worth retaining. 

S. AURETORUM Bdv. 

In our paper in Ent. Record XXVI, 195 (1914) we expressed our 
inability to identify this species but associated it doubtfully with 
tacita Hy. Edw. Since writing the above article we have received a 
pair of Theclas from Sonoma Co., Calif., the $ of which agrees with 
the description of tacita Hy. Edw., described from Mendocino Co., 
excellently ; it also approaches very close to Oberthur's figure of 
auretorum, only differing in possessing some slight blue scales on the 
underside of secondaries near the anal angle which in a single (and 
possibly worn) specimen might easily be missing. Both Boisduval 
and Hy. Edwards in their descriptions mention that on the upper side 
near the anal angle of secondaries are some faint ochraceous or red- 
dish scales ; these are also very faintly present in our S from Sonoma 
Co. Boisduval in his introduction states that the insects described in 
this first paper on Californian Lepidoptera were collected by Lorquin 
either in the placer mining districts, i. e. Placer, Eldorado, and Nevada 
counties chiefly, or the northern portions of California; at all events 
we can accept the type locality for auretorum as north of an imaginary 
line drawn between San Francisco and Virginia City, Nevada. 

Skinner (Ent. News, XXV, 47) and Comstock (Jour. N. Y. Ent. 
Soc. XXII, 34) list spadix Hy. Edw. as a synonym of auretorum 
Bdv. Spadix was described from 2 9 's from Tehachapi Pass, Kern 
Co., S. Calif. ; we have a series of both sexes before us including speci- 
mens from the type locality and find that the $ 's certainly approach 



105 

very closely to auretorum Bdv. (tacita Hy. Edw.) ; none of our series 
of eight specimens however shows any trace of fulvous at anal angle 
and the markings of the underside are still more obscure and the 
ground color more ochreous. Our single 9 of auretorum is the same 
color as the $ on the upper side whilst spadix ? 's are largely suf- 
fused with fulvous. Spadix is probably merely a southern race of 
auretorum but we think the name should be held for this southern 
race, the type locality for auretorum being distinctly northern as we 
have already shown. Regarding tetra Behr, which Comstock also 
lists as a synonym of auretorum, we know nothing further of this 
species but are inclined to agree with the reference after carefully 
reading the description ; it was described from a single 9 (no locality 
given) received from Dr. Behr, which is said to be 'uniform light 
brown' on upper side ; just what color Edwards meant by this is doubt- 
ful, if it is gray-brown then tetra probably should be referred to the 
true auretorum, if ochreous brown then possibly it takes priority over 
spadix although we have seen no 9 's of this latter form of a uniform 
color; they all have considerable dark gray brown scaling at base and 
apex of wings. 

Wright's figures of tacita are incorrect ; they probably should be 
referred to one of the calif ornica forms but the underside figure is too 
poor to make identification certain ; his figures of spadix look like 
very worn adenostomatis but are certainly not spadix. We figure the 
underside of a $ spadix from San Bernardino Co., Calif., (PI. X, Fig. 
12). 

Genus Mitoura Scud. 

The genus as listed in Dyar's Catalogue comprising the three 
species damon Cram., simaethis Dru. and acis Dru. seems mixed ; the 
latter two species should be removed as they do not appear to be closely 
associated with damon which is the generic type. In our opinion the 
following species should be added as the type of maculation in all of 
them shows great affinity to damon: — 

castalis Edw., loki Skin., xami Reak. (blenina Hew.), nelsoni 
Bdv., siva Edw. and probably spinetorum Bdv. and johnsoni Skin. 

Blenina Hew. (PI. XI, Figs. 19, 20). 

With regard to this species there is not much doubt but that it 
sinks to xami Reak. (1866, Proc. Ac. Sci. Phil. p. 332) ; we have a 
specimen compared with Hewitson's type and it agrees perfectly with 



106 

Reakirt's description of xami, the type of which we could not find, 
although we searched in the Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and Chicago 
Museum collections; siva Edw. at present listed as a synonym of 
blenina, must be removed, it seems very closely associated with nel- 
soni Bdv. or rather with its form muiri Edw., practically the only dif- 
ference being the green color of the underside ; that this color is how- 
ever very fugitive is shown in certain Utah specimens before us in 
which one side is green, the other brown, probably due to moisture in 
relaxing the specimens ; we should incline to list siva as the Rocky Mt. 
race of nelsoni Bdv. We figure both sides of xami (Figs. 19, 20) 
from specimens from Brownsville, Texas, and the underside of siva 
(Fig. 21) from Redington, Ariz., for comparison. 

Castalis Edw. 

We are unable to separate this form from damon Cram, and it 
has already been listed as a synonym by Scudder (Butt. II, 861). The 
species was described from specimens received from Belfrage col- 
lected near Waco, Texas ; there are no types of the species marked in 
the Edwards' Collection, but under this name are 3 specimens from 
Texas, apparently all 5 's, which cannot be separated from damon by 
the markings on the underside. Skinner's variety discoidalis was also 
described from presumable $ 's from Blanco Co., Texas, a locality but 
little removed from Waco. If a name is to be used for the Texan 
form, which as a rule has the yellow color on upper side in the $ sex 
paler and more extended (this is however not entirely constant) and 
the tails considerably longer it seems to us that castalis Edw. will take 
priority over discoidalis Skin. ; the Texan 9 's in our series from 
Shovel Mt. and Kerrville vary from specimens strongly overlaid with 
chestnut brown scales to entirely sooty brown forms, these latter speci- 
mens agreeing with the form described as pater sonia by Brehme (Ent. 
News, XVIII, 82) and which is now considered to be a seasonal form 
of damon. 

Heodes florus Edw. 

The species was described from specimens received from Capt. 
Geddes collected on the Red Deer River, Alta., presumably south of 
Edmonton ; the specimens in the Edwards' Collection under this name 
are from Laggan, Alta. so cannot be considered as types. Through 
the kindness of Mr. A. Gibson we have recently had the opportunity 
of examining a $ specimen of florus from the Geddes Collection at 



107 

Ottawa taken by Capt. Geddes in Aug. 1883 in the Crow's Nest region 
of the Canadian Rockies; this agrees with the Laggan specimens in 
the Edwards' Collection and in our opinion represents a form of 
helloides in which the orange submarginal band on the upper side of 
secondaries is greatly reduced ; such forms occur occasionally among 
typical helloides in California and Colorado and develop apparently 
into a constant race in the northern Rockies ; we have a number of 
such specimens from Yellowstone Park, Wyo. 

Leptotes striata Edw. 

We have examined the types of this species in Pittsburgh and find 
they are the same as the type of cassius var. floridcnsis Morr. (Buff. 
Bull. I, 187) the 9 type of which is in the Edwards' Collection; both 
names will probably fall to theonus Luc. but one may possibly be re- 
tained if the Floridan and Texan form proves distinct from the Cuban 
one. 
Brephidium isophthalma H. S. 

According to genitalia the species is identical with e.vilis Bdv. 
and this is borne out by the pattern ; isophthalma should probably be 
considered as the Floridan and West Indian race of exilis, this latter 
name having priority ; we found it fairly common in a salt marsh in 
S. W. Florida in April. 

Hemiargus hanno Stoll. 

In the synonymy of this species as given in Skinner's list there 
are apparently several species involved. The species, as usually identi- 
fied, occurs in Florida and is well figured on the underside by Holland 
(Butt. Book, PI. 32, Fig. 3) ; it may be distinguished by the single 
large black ocellus sprinkled with metallic scales between veins 2 and 
3 on underside of secondaries. Stoll's figure of hanno is very crude 
and the upperside does not agree at all well with our Floridan $ 's, 
showing no trace of the black border or slight black spot on upper 
side of secondaries between veins 2 and 3; the underside does how- 
ever show the single black anal spot and the two small costal dots so 
that the lack of the dark border might perhaps be attributed to inac- 
curacies of the artist ; the species is stated by Stoll to occur in Surinam 
and Cape of Good Hope, so that in all probability, if the localities given 
are correct, two species were involved. For the present we can see 
no reason why the name should not be applied according to the pre- 
vailing custom. Hubner's figure of Rusticus adolescens hanno (Exot. 



108 

Schm. I, PI. 98) although agreeing fairly well in the $ upper side 
shows great dissimilarity on the underside ; there is no black anal spot 
at all, but merely a double series of marginal lunules; it seems hardly 
probable that Hubner would overlook such a prominent feature es- 
pecially as according to Boisduval (Lep. Am. Sept. p. 115) he was 
noted for his accuracy so we imagine some other allied W. Indian 
species has been figured ; gyas Edw. approaches much closer to Hub- 
ner's figure than does the true hanno. Lucas' hamo (Sagra, Hist. Cuba 
VII, p. 612) probably refers to the same species as Hubner figures as 
there is also no mention made in the diagnosis of the black anal spot. 
Astenidas Bdv. (Lucas in Sagra, Hist. Cub. VII, p. 613) must also be 
rejected from the synonymy of hanno as the under side of secondaries 
is stated to possess 3 or 4 black ocelli, margined with fulvous, "tribus 
vel quatuor ocellis, nigris, fulvocircumcinctis." We have not seen the 
figure of Poey's filenus (Cent. Lep. Cuba) but accept Boisduval's word 
that it is the species figured in Lep. Am. Sept. PI. 35, Figs. 5-7 under 
pseudoptiletes; this species certainly is our Floridan one and if hanno 
be accepted as referring to the same insect, filenus and pseudoptiletes 
become synonyms. 

The final name in the synonymy of hanno is H emiargus antibu- 
bastus Hbn. (Zutr. Ex. Schm. I, PI. 18, Figs. 99, 100) from 'Georgia', 
the type of the genus, which Hubner later (Verz. p. 69) apparently 
confuses with bubastus Cram. Taking into account the locality from 
which the species was described and allowing for some slight inaccur- 
acies of the artist we imagine the name to be correctly applied ; it may 
have to be employed instead of hanno Stoll if this prove to be refer- 
able to some West Indian species, but this is a point for some one to 
decide who is more favorably situated with regard to West Indian 
material than we are. 

H. gyas Edw. 

The type of this we have not seen ; it should be in the National 
Museum as it was described from a single $ taken in Ariz, by Dr. 
Palmer, but we could find no trace of it there. The specimens in the 
Edwards' Coll. belong to what has later been described as astragala 
Wright (Butt. W. Coast, p. 232) and florencia Grinnell (Ent. News, 
XXV, 28) and as these specimens fit in well with the original descrip- 
tion they are probably typical. Wright's figure of hanno from Ariz. 
(PI. 30, Fig. 397) should also be referred to this species. The mar- 
ginal spotting on the underside of secondaries is rather variable; in 



109 

our series both from Arizona and S. Calif, specimens of both sexes 
are met with in which the two black spots between veins 2 and 3 and 
3 and 4 are quite evident and also the two smaller silvery spots at the 
anal angle ; other specimens show a reduction of the spot between veins 
3 and 4 which may be carried so far as to leave only a few silver traces 
and no black underlying color at all ; Wright assumed that this dis- 
tinction was sexual but this is not the case. The species is closely 
related to the Florida hanno, in fact the genitalia are practically the 
same, and it is probably only a western race of this species ; it can at 
once be distinguished by its pale violet-blue color in the $ without 
any appreciable dark border. We cannot see any points that would 
separate florencia from astragala and believe that they both fall before 
gyas Edw. 

A fourth name that has been applied to this same species is 
zachaeina Butl. and Dru. The 9 of the original description has been 
referred to isola Reak. by Godman and Salvin but the $ as figured 
in the Biologia (PI. 58, Figs. 36-38) is this species. We have a series 
from Brownsville, Texas and as it differs from the Arizona form in 
the deeper blue of the upper side (the Biologia figure is too pale) 
and the rather broader dark margin, as well as in the apparent con- 
stancy of the two black ocellar spots on the underside the name 
zachaeina may be held as a racial form of gyas occuring in southern- 
most Texas and Mexico. 

EVERES COMYNTAS Godt. 

From a large series of specimens before us from Huachuca Mts. 
and other mountain chains of S. E. Ariz, we should be inclined to refer 
hcrri Grinnell to comyntas rather than amyntula; the original descrip- 
tion is rather vague and we wonder if the $ of herri was not after all 
a $ as we have seen no Arizona 9 's which are all blue with a narrow 
black border; the statement however that herri differs from amyntula 
in the broader black border on the upper side and the better defined 
and larger spots on the under side points to comyntas; further our 
Huachuca Mt. series is distinctly double-brooded while amyntula is 
said to be single brooded (Bethune-Baker, Ent. News, XXIV, 154) 
and most of the specimens show red lunules near the anal angle on 
secondaries above which is not met with in amyntula to our knowledge 
and is supposed to be one of the distinguishing features between 
comyntas and amyntula. Our Arizona specimens average rather larger 
than Eastern comyntas, but large specimens from the East can hardly 



110 

be distinguished from the Arizona race. We imagine that Bethune- 
Baker's series from Ft. Wingate, N. M., which he refers to comyntas 
(1. c. p. 101) is the same as our Arizona form. 

The species described by Wright from a single 2 as sissona 
(Butt. W. Coast, p. 232, PI. 30, Fig. 400) is apparently, to judge by 
the figure, a worn $ specimen of this species ; the wings are decidedly 
rubbed so it is probable the tail has been torn off. Dr. McDunnough 
took a small series of this species during the first week of July at 
Shasta Retreat in the summer of 1915, the $ agreeing excellently 
with Wright's figure ; the $ 's show little or no orange at angle of 
hind wings above but the clearness of the under side maculation and 
the small size would seem to point to comyntas; he also took a single 
fairly typical amyntula in the same locality in the last week of June. 

Plebeius scudderi Edw. 

The name has been applied generally to the form of the Eastern 
States, but the type locality given is Lake Winnipeg; the Edwards' 
Collection contains only N. Y. specimens under scudderi and we could 
find nothing in the Scudder Collection at Cambridge from the type 
locality. The type form according to both the original description 
and Edwards' later statement (Tr. Am. Ent. Soc. IV, 348) has no 
red submarginal lunules on the under side of primaries and to judge 
by a few Nepigon specimens before us which seem to be typical is 
paler and rather rougher looking on the under side with more green- 
ish scaling at base of wings ; Toronto specimens are fairly typical but 
our N. Y. and North Indiana series show considerable red and are 
brighter and more heavily marked. The species extends far into the 
north ; we have a series from Atlin, B. C, near the Alaskan border 
with the $ 's largely suffused with a pale grey-blue, more so than in 
aster Edw. ; this latter name will apply to Newfoundland specimens 
which seem sufficiently distinct to warrant a racial name. Specimens 
from high altitudes in Colorado (Silverton, 10,000 ft.) are intermed- 
iate in the $ 's between scudderi and melissa, some being without the 
red submarginal band on primaries above and considerably suffused 
with blue and others almost as in typical melissa; the $ 's and the 
under sides of both sexes are close to typical scudderi. 

Melissa, judging by the presumable types from Colorado in Pitts- 
burgh, apart from its heavy red submarginal markings on the under- 
side, appears to vary from what we call typical scudderi in having the 
discal row of black spots on the underside distinctly closer to the red 



Ill 

submarginal band ; whether this will prove of specific value or not we 
cannot say, but we mention the fact in the hope that it may prove 
helpful in separating the two forms and elucidating their geographical 
distribution. Typical melissa we possess in series from Colorado, 
Utah, Arizona, and N. Mexico ; a very similar form occurs in S. Cali- 
fornia but further north in the same state we meet with a form, appar- 
ently quite rare, which has a paler and more brilliant blue in the $ 
and an almost white underside (as in anna) with the spots reduced in 
size; this we take to be lotis Lint., described from Mendocino Co., 
Calif., (PL XI, Fig. 12). The types should be in the Edwards' Col- 
lection in Pittsburgh but we were unable to find them there ; however 
in the Henry Edwards' Collection in New York under lotis is a $ 
from the type locality which agrees perfectly with Lintner's description 
and is presumably correctly identified ; we have a few specimens from 
Havilah and Tehachapi, Calif, which agree with it and from which 
we have made the above notes figuring a specimen from the latter 
locality. Wright's figures of melissa (Fig. 379) are apparently cor- 
rect but his lotis (Fig. 383) should be referred to anna. 

Annetta Mead, judging by the $ genitalia, cannot be referred as 
a variety of anna but belongs in the scndderi-melissa group and is 
possibly a race of the former. 

Kodiak Edw., according to Wright's figures (1. c. PL 29, Fig. 
265), which agree well with the description, also falls into this group. 

P. anna Edw. 

This is a good species with the falces of the tegumen in the $ 
genitalia far less developed than in sendderi; it seems prone to diminu- 
tion of the eye-spots of the underside and we consider that Behr's 
cajona is correctly referred as a synonym after examining the type in 
the Strecker Collection. The food-plant is a yellow-flowering species 
of Hosackia common on moist hill sides in Northern California. 
Wright's figures (Fig. 384) are correct; the $ is usually much more 
scantily marked on the underside than in his Fig. 384c. 

P. saepiolus Bdv. 

As already remarked by us (Ent. Record XXVI, 199) the form 
with the 9 scaled with blue at the base is the nimotypical form ; this 
form seems rare in California but Wright figures such a 2 from 
Emigrant Gap (1. c. PL 29, Fig. 363b) and as this locality corresponds 
in a general way with the country collected in by Lorquin before 1852 



112 

it will probably not be far wrong to fix the type locality of saepiolus 
as the high mountains of Placer and Sierra Cos. Long series before 
us from Lake Tahoe region, and Nevada Co. show only the brown 
9 's so that the blue 9 's are either very local or confined to high alti- 
tudes; this latter theory would be borne out by the fact that in the 
north of the continent i. e. Northern British Columbia, Saskatche- 
wan, etc., the blue 9 is apparently the usual and possibly the only 
one; it is also found in the high altitudes of Colorado (Hall Valley, 
Silverton) and in southern Utah and White Mts., Ariz. 

The brown 9 form of northern and middle California may have 
the name rufescens Bdv. applied to it ; it is usually of large size with 
obsolete reddish marginal lunules ; the $ 's cannot be distinguished 
from saepiolus $ 's, the width of the dark border being very variable 
in specimens from the same locality ; the brown 9 extends into South- 
ern British Columbia and is also prevalent in the Yellowstone Park 
region. Holland figures a typical specimen as daedalus (PI. XXXI, 
Fig. 12). 

In the high mountains of Southern California we find a form 
with very heavy spots in both sexes on the underside, with broad dark 
border on upper side in $ and with the 9 's rather small and much 
darker on upper side (usually black-brown) with consequently more 
prominent marginal red lunules; this has been named hilda by Grin- 
nell but we fear this name must fall before aehaja Behr, described 
from the Tuolumne meadows, and compared by Behr to alexis 
(astrarche) of Europe. Behr mentions both sexes as brown but we 
imagine he had only 9 's before him as the description can only apply 
to saepiolus and there is no species of Lycaena known in California 
with brown $ 's (fuliginosa is not a Lycaena but a Thecla). 

After a careful reading of Behr's description of daedalus we can- 
not see how it can be referred to saepiolus as has been done by Wright 
(1. c. PI. 29, Fig. 361). Behr knew saepiolus as he lists it in the same 
paper and states his aehaja was found flying with this species which 
is not to be wondered at when we recognize that the name was based 
on 9 saepiolus; we think daedalus is some aberrant form of icarioides 
with which it was associated in the first place by Behr himself. 

P. podarce Feld. 

What Wright figures as podarce (Fig. 375) is totally wrong; his 
figures apparently represent a form of pseudargiolus. 



113 

Podarce is closely related to rustica Edw. from Colorado differ- 
ing in having the usual bands of black dots on the underside of sec- 
ondaries well defined and not suffused with white as in rustica; these 
along with aqailo Bdv. are North American representatives of the 
European orbitulus. 

P. icarioides Bdv. (PI. XI, Fig. 16). 

As already stated (Ent. Rec. XXVI, 198) we can see nothing, 
after a further careful study of our material and Oberthur's figures 
of the types, by which to separate philcros from icarioides and sink 
the former as a synonym ; fulla Edw. must also fall. Maricopa Reak. 
was presumably described from a 2 specimen although Reakirt (1866 
Proc. Ac. N. Sci. Phil, p. 245) calls it a $ ; Strecker states (Lep. Rhop. 
Het. p. 85) that the type did not come into his possession along with 
Reakirt's other types but later lists the type (Suppl. III. p. 20) as a 2 
in his collection ; this 2 we have seen and it scarcely corresponds to 
the original description which states "upper side brown, glossed with 
violet blue" whilst the 2 of the Strecker Collection is entirely brown ; 
it is probably not a type. The original description so clearly indicates 
a 2 icarioides that we have no hesitation in placing maricopa as a 
synonym of this species; in a previous paper (Ent. Record p. 198) 
we were doubtful whether to associate it with icarioides or pardalis 
Behr, not having seen the original description and relying on Streck- 
er's so-called type, but the reference to icarioides we believe to be cor- 
rect. 

Wright's underside figures of heteronca, fulla, pheres, and 
icarioides (PI. 29, Figs. 355, 358, 359, 360) all refer to this species; 
of his upper side figures we prefer to say nothing without having seen 
the specimens, but heteronca and pheres are certainly misidentifications 
in both sexes. 

Evius Bdv. 

The species was described from Southern California and both $ 
and 2 types are figured by Oberthur (1. c. Figs. 2072/3) ; the original 
description fits in best with figure 2073, the 2 , as both the broad dark 
border of primaries and the discal streak are mentioned ; we have a 
specimen from S. Diego Co. that agrees closely with the $ (Fig. 
2072) but no 2 's. The species will probably prove to be a race of 
icarioides. 



114 

Daedalus Behr we think should be a form of icarioides, possibly 
an aberrant one with transversely drawn out spots on primaries ; Behr 
associates it with icarioides which he had apparently identified cor- 
rectly. 

Mintha Edw. is a doubtful form from Nevada, possibly a well 
marked ardea; we have not been able to find the type either in Pitts- 
burg or New York. 

Helios Edw. is also doubtful and the types are seemingly lost. 

Ardea Edw. 

The species was described from the neighborhood of Virginia 
City, Nevada, and the $ type is in the Hy. Edwards' Collection in 
New York; it is a rather small specimen with greatly reduced macu- 
lation on the underside of both wings, the ground color being a pecu- 
liar light-gray ; we have a series from Pyramid Lake, Nevada, the $ 's 
of which agree closely with the type in ground color of underside, but 
have the spots of the primaries better developed. We think ardea 
will prove to be a race of icarioides from the Great Basin region, with 
paler violet-blue color and very slight dark marginal border; on the 
underside the dark spots tend to become obsolete and appear as white 
spots with faint dark centers ; throughout Utah and in Colorado west 
of the divide we meet with a very similar form showing the same ten- 
dency to reduction of spots, but with slightly more pronounced black 
marginal border; this form has been variously called evins or pheres, 
but we imagine should be rather referred to ardea. We figure the 
underside of a Nevada $ . 

Lycea Edw. 

This is the race from Colorado west of the divide and is typical 
in the canyons around Denver ; rapahoe Reakirt is the 9 of this form, 
a 9 with rather more blue than usual being mistaken by Reakirt for 
the $. 

Pembina Edw. 

The species was described from Lake Winnipeg; we have no ma- 
terial from this locality, but specimens from Calgary and Yellowstone 
Park seem to fit in with the description well ; the types seem to be 
lost. It is a small race with little blue on 9 's and tendency to darker 
color, broader borders and distinct discal dash in $ ; the underside is 
rather brownish with often a reduction of the black spots to mere dots 
and a corresponding increase of white encircling color as in ardea. 



115 

The following synonymy of this involved species is offered : 

icarioides Bdv. Mts. of California. 

maricopa Reak. 

daedalus Behr. 

phileros Bdv. 

fiilla Edw. 

helios Edw. (?) 
a evius Bdv. S. Calif. 

b ardea Edzv. Great Basin Region. 

mintha Edw. ? 
c lycea Edw. Western Rocky Mt. Region. 

d pembina Edzv. Manitoba and Northern Rocky Mts. 

south to Wyoming and Montana. 

P. pheres Bdv. (PI. XI, Figs. 14, 15). 

Typical pheres is only known from the San Francisco Bay re- 
gion; the types are figured by Oberthur (1. c. Figs. 1944/5); Hol- 
land's figure of the $ (Butt. Book PI. 30, Fig. 37) is only doubtfully 
correct, as the color is certainly not sufficiently violet-blue and the mar- 
ginal spots of hind wings less prominent; it probably is from Van- 
couver Island and a variety of icarioides, the underside (Fig. 42) of 
the 2 seems correct; Wright's figures (1. c. PI. 29, Fig. 359) are totally 
wrong and it is hard to say just what they are, owing to the poor con- 
dition of the specimens; judging by the underside they appear to be a 
form of icarioides with reduced spotting; writers generally seem to 
have identified the Vancouver Is. form of icarioides as pheres al- 
though the original description mentions S. Francisco as type local- 
ity. We figure a $ and 2 from the type locality and would call at- 
tention to the white discal spot in the 2 which is quite characteristic. 

In the $ genitalia there is absolutely nothing to distinguish 
pheres from icarioides; it seems to be a race of this species which 
possibly through environment and change of food plant (the food 
plant is Lupinus chamissonis according to Williams, Ent. News, 1910, 
p. 41) has practically become constantly variant and may be desig- 
nated as a species (ride Williams, Ent. News, XIX, 1908, p. 483). 

Orcus Edw. which has generally been considered an aberration 
of xerces should we think be referred to pheres; the 'pruinose blue' 
color of upper side with 'broadly fuscous' margin and the 'grey cinere- 
ous' color of underside with 'scarcely discernible line of submarginal 



116 

points' all point to pheres rather than xerces; we have been unable to 
find the type specimen in either New York or Pittsburg. 

P. SHASTA Edw. 

Minnehaha Scud, described from N. Dakota should be separated 
as a race ; it has much narrower black borders without trace of orange, 
but with white terminal line and distinct black dots on the upper side 
of secondaries ; it is also found on the high mountains of Colorado ; 
typical shasta occurs throughout the Sierra Nevada range as far north 
as Oregon. Wright's figure of shasta may be correct for the S 
(Fig. 378) but the 5 (378b) is doubtful and the underside (378c) 
is certainly not shasta but possibly cnoptes. 

Philotes battoides Behr. (PL XI, Figs. 7, 8, 10). 

We have already expressed the opinion (Ent. Rec, 1914, p. 201) 
that battoides is a species distinct from cnoptes Bdv. and our further 
studies have confirmed this opinion. A comparison of the $ genitalia 
shows that an extraordinary difference exists between the two species, 
more so than between any two other apparently closely related forms 
that we know of, — in fact, the difference is almost generic in char- 
acter. Typical battoides is a high altitude form, originally described 
from specimens taken at the head waters of the Tuolumne River 
(11,000 ft. altitude) ; we have a long series from Mineral King, Tulare 
Co. and also similar specimens from Crater Lake, Oregon (7.200 ft.), 
taken by Dr. McDunnough in 1915 along the rim of the lake wherever 
a small yellow Eriogonum species was growing. In general the species 
is characterized by the heavy quadrate black markings of underside 
on a pale whitish ground heavily dusted with black scales and with 
broad black marginal line on both wings, and broad red submarginal 
band on secondaries ; the fringes on both wings are decidedly checkered. 
On the upper side considerable variation is shown in regard to the 
amount of red on secondaries in $ sex, some specimens showing no 
trace of this color and others again with a distinct band as on the 
underside. 

A much smaller race (20 mm. average expanse) (PI. XI, Figs. 
9, 11, 13) occurs at lower altitudes in the S. Bernardino Mts. and 
around S. Diego with a rather paler ground color and less heavy 
markings on underside, especially on the secondaries which show 
scarcely any of the black dusting so prominent in the type form ; for 
this race we propose the name Bernardino; our type series is from 



117 

Camp Baldy, S. Bernardino Mts., but we have other specimens from 
San Diego, Pasadena and Havilah. We have seen no battoides from 
east of the Sierras and imagine such records refer to enoptes. Wright's 
description of battoides is quite misleading ; he evidently did not know 
the species and his statement that it possesses tails is wrong entirely. 
We figure specimens of both races. 

P. glaucon Edw. (PI. XI, Figs. 2, 5). 

The species was described from $ and 9 taken in Nevada by 
Henry Edwards; in the W. H. Edwards' Collection the series under 
glaucon is very mixed, most of the specimens being enoptes pure and 
simple; a couple of specimens however from Colorado represent a dif- 
ferent form; there are no Nevada specimens present which could be 
considered as types, the only ones from this region having, according 
to the label, been captured by Morrison. In the Henry Edwards' Col- 
lection in New York under glaucon is a 9 from Nevada which agrees 
excellently with the original description and which is very probably 
one of the original types ; the fulvous shading on the submarginal spots 
on the underside of primaries is present, but not at all strongly marked ; 
a $ is also in the collection and is certainly the same species, but 
shows no fulvous shading on primaries beneath, so we would hesitate 
to call it a type. These specimens agree with the Colorado ones in 
the W. H. Edwards' Collection mentioned previously and we think 
without doubt represent the true glaucon; we have the species in series 
from Utah localities and it apparently represents a Great Basin form ; 
in the color of the underside it is close to enoptes, but the black spots 
are rather heavier and the orange band of secondaries much broader, 
making the species intermediate between battoides and enoptes; 
according to our series the fulvous shades on the underside of pri- 
maries are not constant— in fact the majority of our specimens are 
without them; the $ genitalia point to a close relationship with 
enoptes. We figure what we consider typical glaucon from Provo, 
Utah as well as enoptes from Mineral King, Tulare Co. Calif. (PL 
XI, Figs. 1, 4) and our recently described rita from Arizona (PI. XI, 
Figs. 3, 6) for comparison. 

Glaucopsyche xerces Bdv. (PI. XI, Fig. 18). 

It has been pretty well proven as we have already stated (Ent. 
Record 1914, p. 200) that this species occurs in two form i. e. with 
and without black centers to the white spots of the underside ; typical 



118 

xcrces has no black centers and being the oldest description applicable 
to this species (1852 1. c. p. 296) must hold the specific. name. It is 
unfortunate that the next two descriptions referable to this species 
should be of rather abnormal forms; antiacis Bdv. (1852, p. 300) is 
a large form with rather broader borders on the upper side than usual 
and with a slightly different arrangement of black centered spots on 
the underside of secondaries, spot 2 of the postmedian row being absent 
and spot 1 closely approached to the costal spot above the discocel- 
lular; it is figured by Oberthur (1. c. Fig. 1951) ; we have no specimen 
just like it, but have a specimen of typical xerces showing this pecu- 
liarity. Wright erroneously figures the Southern Calif, race of behri 
under this name; his mertila is also not typical but an intergrade 
between polyphemus and xerces. Mertila Edw. (1866) is close to the 
normal black spotted form but between the discocellular lunule and 
the base of wing on primaries is a white dash ; this form occurs in both 
sexes and in both the spotted and unspotted forms. Polyphemus Bdv. 
(1869) is the first name applicable to the normal spotted form; there 
are many intergrades between this and xerces and also towards mertila 
and in one 5 before us which we figure the spots on one side are 
typical xerces and on the other side just as typical polyphemus, a fur- 
ther proof, if needed, that but one species is under consideration ; there 
is also occasionally considerable reduction in the spots, such specimens 
passing under the name of orcus Edw. but as already stated we con- 
sider orcus referable rather to pheres than to xerces. 
The synonymy of the species would be : 

xerces Bdv. 

form ah. antiacis Bdv. 
form ab. mertila Edw. 
form norm, polyphemus Bdv. 

The food plant of the species is given by Williams (Ent. News, 
XIX, 478) as Lotus glaber and the larva is stated to be separable from 
that of behri Edw. The species seems to bear the same relation to 
behri that pheres does to icarioidcs, being a species peculiar to the 
sand dunes of the Pacific coast. 

G. behri Edw. 

After careful study of the original description we agree with 
Williams in adopting this name for the species closely allied to xerces 
found flying around the San Francisco Bay region (vide. Ent. News, 



119 

XIX, 477, 482). Scudder has shown (C. Ent. VIII, 234) that Ed- 
wards later misidentified his own species and this is borne out by the 
specimens in the Edwards' Collection under behri, the $ 's of which 
are distinctly referable to icarioides (mark op a) ; Scudder however has 
identified a Southern California race as behri not having seen any 
specimens from the middle section of the state; in view of the fact 
that Behr was residing in S. Francisco we believe there is more prob- 
ability of typical behri having been captured around this city than in 
Southern California. 

Lycaena pardalis Behr. (PI. XI, Fig. 7). 

We have already referred erymus Bdv. to this species (Ent. Rec. 
1914, p. 199). A study of the $ genitalia shows it referable to the 
genus Lycaena which contains the arion group of European blues; 
Behr's original comparison of the species with the arion group was 
therefore extremely well founded. This species has apparently been 
confused with icarioides as several specimens have come to us bear- 
ing this label. The species is local; the type locality is the Contra 
Costa Coast range and we have specimens from Sonoma Co. and Mill 
Valley, Marin Co. before us. We figure the underside of a 9 show- 
ing the heavy black spotting on a deep brown ground color. 

Lycaenopsis pseudargiolus Bdv. 

Tutt has shown (Brit. Butt. II, p. 405) that Butler's citation of 
ladon Cram, as referring to our N. Am. species is entirely ungrounded 
and that the name pseudargiolus must be retained. We cannot follow 
Edwards' reasoning at all, however, in restricting the name to the 
large, sparsely marked summer form of the Southern Atlantic States. 
He says (1866, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil. VI, 205), following a redescrip- 
tion of pseudargiolus (according to his idea), that Boisduval's descrip- 
tion might apply to either 'this species or to neglecta or to violacea and 
the figure of the male is not pseudargiolus but nearer violacea, being 
same size, very like it beneath but not well colored on the upper side,' 
and then strangely goes on to attempt to prove that pseudargiolus 
should be applied to the large form figured by Smith & Abbot as 
argiolus (PI. 15). Later (Butt. N. Am. I, Lye. II, text) he rejects 
Boisduval's figure of $ pseudargiolus as not coinciding with the text, 
apparently on the sole ground that Boisduval's description states that 
the fringes are checkered and his figure shows only those of the pri- 
maries to be so. If we turn to Boisduval's description which is com- 



120 

parative with the European argiolas we find among other things that 
the size is a little smaller than argiolus, the color of the $ a delicate 
violet-blue above and beneath 'a gray much more obscure than in 
argiolus' and that it may be distinguished from argiolus by the stout- 
ness (grosseur) of the row of black dots on underside, (Edwards' 
translation of grosseur is merely 'size' which might mean larger or 
smaller). We find all these points admirably borne out by Boisduval's 
figure (PL 36, Figs. 1, 2) but not at all by the form to which Edwards' 
would apply the name and which he figures (Butt. N. Am. II, Lye. II, 
Figs. 8, 9) in which the size is larger than argiolus, the underside is 
as pale if not whiter and the spots are more reduced. As Edwards 
himself has said pseudargiolus is nearest violacca and in our opinion 
this latter name should be sunk as a synonym, as it is only to this 
form that both Boisduval's description and plate could possibly be 
referred. Edwards' action was apparently an attempt to retain both 
his names (neglecta and violacca) and at the same time provide a 
name for the large summer form. Tutt (Brit. Butt. II, 405) in his 
discussion of the American forms of C. argiolus offers a good deal of 
criticism on Edwards' grouping of the various generations of this 
species and proposes (p. 407) the name ncglecta-major for the form 
which has been generally regarded as pseudargiolus. 

HESPERIIDAE 

Genus Eudamus Swains. 

We are sorry to say that this genus must fall before Goniurus 
Hbn. ; the type of this latter genus was specified as simplicius Stoll 
by Kirby in 1870 (Ent. Mo. Mag. VII, 56) and the type of Eudamus 
was specified by Swainson as proteus according to Scudder (1875, 
Hist. Sketch p. 169). These two species being congeneric the more 
recent generic name Eudamus will become a synonym of the older 
name Goniurus. Scudder's action in fixing (Hist. Sketch, p. 180) 
coelus as the type of Goniurus was ultra vires and not in accord with 
the present rules governing nomenclature ; he is followed in this by 
Mabille (Gen. Ins. Hesp. p. 23). 

Genus Hesperia Fabr. 

Dr. Dyar in his Revision of the Hesperiidae of the U. S. (1905, 
Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XIII, 117) has confused the three genera 
Heliopetes Billb., Scclothrix Ramb. and Pyrgus Hbn. ; this is in part 



121 

due to an error on the part of Mabille (Gen. Insect. Hesp. p. 82) who 
placed syrichtus Fabr. in his section Pyrgus of Hesperia diagnos- 
ing it as ' $ with costal fold but without hair pencil on hind tibiae' 
whereas as Dr. Dyar has pointed out (1. c. p. 117/8) syrichtus possesses 
both. Unfortunately Dr. Dyar has overlooked the fact that syrichtus 
is the type of the genus Pyrgus and has removed syrichtus to Helio petes 
instead of rather removing the other species from Pyrgus. 

With regard to the fixing of the type of Pyrgus Tutt claims 
(Brit. Butt. I, p. 85) that Stephens in 1834 and 1850 fixed the type as 
malvae L. Both the works cited however are Lists of British Butter- 
flies, the former being 'An Abstract of the Indigenous Lepidoptera 
contained in Hubner's Verzeichniss' and the latter a mere 'Catalogue 
of the British Animals in the British Museum' and we entirely agree 
with Bethune Baker (1914, Ent. Record, XXVI, 133) in not accept- 
ing Stephen's action as being in any way of the nature of a restriction 
but as merely an 'ordinary usage without references'. This would 
render Butler's action in 1870 in specifying syrichtus as the type per- 
fectly valid. With regard to Scelothrix Ramb. Scudder states (1875, 
Hist. Sketch, p. 266), without designating any type, that the name falls 
before Hesperia Fabr. The type of this latter genus must appar- 
ently be accepted as malvae L., due to Cuvier's action in 1799 {vide 
Tutt, Brit. Butt. I, p. 84, 220), the later designation of comma L. as 
type being apparently ultra vires on account of Cuvier's restriction ; 
it would be well then to fix the type of Scelothrix Ramb. definitely as 
malvae L. so that Scudder's action may be substantiated. Dyar states 
that there are no species of Hesperia in N. America but this error is 
evidently caused by his selecting Mabille's first section of Hesperia 
as typical instead of his last section which contains malvae L. ; Dyar's 
genus Scelothrix must therefore be changed to Hesperia; we might 
note that scriptura shows no costal fold in the $ and differs slightly 
from the other N. American members of the genus in the squammation 
of the palpi ; it may fall into one of Tutt's doubtful genera erected on 
p. 218 of British Butterflies, Vol. I. Heliopetes as used by Dyar is 
correct except that syrichtus and philetas must be removed; these 
should be placed in the genus Pyrgus and for the present we feel inclin- 
ed to include with them tessellata Scud, and occidentalis Skin, which 
only differ in lacking the hind tibial pencil of hairs in the $ (Tutt has 
proposed the genus Muschampia (1. c. p. 218) for this group). A bet- 
ter means of separation of Pyrgus from Hesperia (Scelothrix) than 



122 

that given by Dyar, and one that would include both sexes appears to 
be found in the palpi ; in Pyrgus they are only slightly upturned and 
the clothing under a strong lense is seen to be rather even and com- 
posed largely of scales with a few hairs of equal length intermingled ; 
in Hesperia the palpi are strongly upturned and very heavily and 
roughly clothed underneath with long hairs, the scales being confined 
to the lateral basal portion ; syrichtus, philetas, and tessellata are quite 
typical of Pyrgas and centaurcae of Hesperia. 

H. xanthus Edw. (PI. X, Fig. 13). 

In the Edwards' Collection at Pittsburg are four specimens, all 
from S. Colo. (Morr.), labelled xanthus; 1 $ and 2 ? 's of these belong 
to a larger species than the remaining one and would seem by the 
description and measurement given (4/5 in.) to be the true xanthus 
and presumably the types. The smaller species (PI. X, Fig. 14) is 
probably Oberthur's macdunnoughi (1914, Et. de Lep. Comp. IX, (2) 
86) so that in any case the name xanthus would be automatically 
restricted to the large forms ; there is no costal fold in the $ 's of mac- 
dunnoughi but the structure is otherwise identical with that of malvae. 
We figure our conception of both species which are very closely allied. 

Heliopetes nivella Mab. 

We have a specimen of this species from Brownsville, Texas. 
It is close to tnacaira Reak. but larger and with the dark border of 
secondaries on under side more broken and containing white spots ; 
the upper side of secondaries also has black marginal markings. This 
species is new to our fauna. 

Genus Thanaos Bdv. 

Tutt's action (Brit. Butt. I, 85, 260) in sinking Thanaos as a 
synonym of Nisoniades on the ground that the type species of both is 
tages L., is incorrect. Stephens' action in 1834 and 1850 in placing 
tages as sole species under Nisoniades cannot, for the same reasons as 
we have already stated under Pyrgus, be regarded as a restriction or 
a fixation of the type. The first definite type fixation that we know 
of for Nisoniades is by Scudder in 1875 (Hist. Sketch, p. 228) who 
gives bromius Stoll as type; this action is valid and has been followed 
by Watson, Godman & Salvin, and Mabille. 

T. callidus Grinnell. 

Lacustra Wright is made a synonym of this species by Grinnell 
(1905, Ent. News, XVI, 339). Dyar (1905, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 



123 

XIII, 121) places callidus as a small narrowly marked brizo on the 
strength of a presumable S type sent him by Grinnell, and Skinner 
(1914, Tr. Am. Ent. Soc. XL, 202) follows these authors in listing 
callidus, with lacustra Wright as a synonym, as a variety of briso. A 
reference to Wright's figure of lacustra (1. c. PL XXXII, Fig. 480) 
leaves little doubt in our mind that lacustra is properly referred to 
briso, but after reading Grinnell's description we have considerable 
doubt in our minds as to whether callidus can be correctly referred 
here. In the first place the sketch of the $ clasping organs given by 
Grinnell is vastly different from that given by Dr. Skinner of brizo 
and secondly there are points in the description of the $ (which must 
hold the specific name), which almost prohibit an association with 
brizo; for instance Grinnell says the primaries show 'a small white 
discal spot and midway between this and outer margin a group of 
three whitish spots arranged in a diagonal line and close together; a 
somewhat large white spot in the same plane, half way between costal 
and inner margin,' all of which cannot possibly fit any form of 
brizo. The 9 description on the other hand might very readily be 
made to agree with brizo and we wonder if Grinnell has not confused 
two species, the $ being a form of brizo and the $ some species 
related possibly to persius. Specimens distributed later by Grinnell as 
callidus certainly are brizo forms as a $ in our possession fiom San 
Jacinto Mts. shows ; this however does not validate the name which 
must be held to the $ sex. The types should be in the Calif. Acad, 
of Science Coll. in S. Francisco and an examination by some of our 
West Coast collectors is much to be desired. 

T. lilius Dyar. 

The species was described from Kaslo, B. C. ; Dr. Dyar says (Jour. 
N. Y. Ent. Soc. XIII, 122) that the $ genitalia resemble Scudder's 
figure of the genitalia of tibullus but lack spines on the middle lobe 
of the left side piece. Dr. Skinner (Tr. Am. Ent. Soc. XL, 208) states 
that the genitalia are like those of pacuvius Lint, which he figures as 
quite distinct from those of tibullus according to Scudder's figure. Dr. 
Skinner sinks tibullus to propertius, his figure of the genitalia agree- 
ing however closer with Scudder's figure of tibullus than that of the 
same author's figure of propertius. It remains to be seen if Scud- 
der's figures of the genitalia of tibullus and propertius represent specific 
differences or merely slight variations of one species and further it 
will be necessary to decide between Dyar and Skinner regarding the 



124 

identity of lilius as there seem to be two species involved. For the 
present we follow Skinner in making tibullus a synonym of properhus. 

T. pacuvius Lint. 

Godman & Salvin's figure of the genitalia of this species (Biol. 
Cent. Am. PL 91, Fig. 17) agrees with that of scudderi Skin, rather 
than with what Skinner figures as those of pacuvius although Skinner 
places Godman & Salvin's reference under pacuvius. The type $ 
should be in the Edwards' Collection at Pittsburg; we wonder if Dr. 
Skinner has seen it so that we may accept his identification as correct. 

T. tatius Edw. 

The single $ type is in the Neumoegen Collection in Brooklyn ; 
this specimen shows on the underside of the hind wings a partial ter- 
minal border of white blotches; the type series in the Edwards' Col- 
lection of clitus, described from the same locality, contains specimens 
both with and without this white border; otherwise the two forms 
cannot be separated superficially. We do not know if these white 
spots will prove of specific value as we have made no study of the 
genitalia, but it would seem well to restrict the name clitus to the form 
without these white marks. Tatius is probably closely related to albo- 
marginatus G. & S. but the spots do not form a continuous band as 
in the figure in the Biologia (PI. 91, Fig. 20) nor do they extend so 
far toward the costa. 

Genus Carterocephalus Led. 

Dyar's usage of the genus Pamphila for palaemon will not hold, 
the type of Pamphila, as we show later on, being comma L. Tutt uses 
the genus Cyclopides Hbn. for this species, based on a supposed restric- 
tion of Stephens in 1834 and 1850 which we have already criticized; 
Staudinger's action in 1861 (Cat. 15) would seem to be more of a 
restriction as he uses it for a single species morpheas (stcropcs) and 
this is confirmed by Butler in 1870, who definitely names morpheus 
the type of the genus; Scudder's action in 1875 in naming metis as 
type is based on a peculiar system of reasoning, the fallacy of which 
has been shown by Bethune-Baker (Ent. Rec. XXVI, 133). The well 
known name Carterocephalus Led. may once more be used for this 
genus, the type being fixed as palaemon in 1867 by Snellen. 



125 

Adopaea eunus Edw. 

Edwards in his original description gives Mt. Hood as the type 
locality for eunus, but Morrison corrects this (Pap. Ill, 43) stating 
that the specimen came from near Bakersfield, Kern Co., Calif. ; 
wrighti from the Mohave Desert would seem to be a form with imma- 
culate secondaries on underside. 

COPAEODES AURANTIACA Hew. 

We have seen the type of this species in the British Museum; 
there is no doubt that the name is correct for the species generally 
known as procris Edw. Regarding the various synonyms waco Edw. 
was described in 1868 from a single specimen in the collection of Prof. 
Townend Glover from Waco, Texas ; Edwards calls it a $ but we 
imagine that it was one of the immaculate 2 's as no sex mark is 
mentioned ; we do not know where the type is ; in 1871 Edwards 
described procris from several $ 's and $ 's also from Waco, Texas ; 
we have seen the types of this species and they are the same species 
as aurantiaca. Candida Wright is figured by Wright (Butt. W. Coast, 
PI. XXX, Fig. 411) although he has hopelessly mixed his sexes in 
this whole group ; we can see no difference between S. Calif, speci- 
mens and those from Arizona and Texas. 

Chaerephon simius Edw. 

We would remove this from Amblycirtes as the palpi lack the 
long 3rd joint and the antennal knob shows a close relation to 
Chaerephon and Pamphila; it may be necessary to erect a new genus 
for the species as the S stigma is peculiar, but our material is too 
scanty and worn to warrant our doing so and for the present we 
place it in Chaerephon. 

Genus Erynnis Schrank. 

We cannot agree with Dyar's usage of this generic term fol- 
lowing Scudder and Godman & Salvin, the former author having 
erroneously fixed the type as comma L. due to the faulty system of 
reasoning we have already mentioned. According to Tutt, (Brit. Butt. 
I, 84) Oken in 1820 fixed the type as alceae Esp. (malvae L.) and 
this action must hold. Pamphila Fabr., with type comma L. fixed by 
Westwood in 1840, may be used in place of Erynnis, Scudder's action 
in 1875 in specifying palaemon as the type of Pamphila being as we 
have already stated, ultra vires. Tutt claims (Brit. Butt., I, p. 130) 



126 

that Urbicola Barbut (Linn.) takes precedence over Pamphila Fabr. 
but we hesitate to use this generic name as there seems some doubt 
among European authorities as to its validity; we note Tutt's proce- 
dure, however, and would leave the matter for the present open. With 
regard to the position of the genus we incline to placing it imme- 
diately following Clvaerephon G. & S. ; the short point of the antennal 
knob would point to this association. 

P. ATT ALUS Edw. 

According to the type 5 's from Texas in the Edwards' Collec- 
tion this would appear to be distinct, at least as a race, from seminole 
Scud. ; in the Texan form the underside of the hind wings is yellow- 
ish green whilst in the Florida form (seminole) it is dark blackish- 
brown. The type of maculation is the same but the $ 's of attains 
seem to have a greater extent of the yellow area on the upper side 
than is found in seminole; a $ presumably of this species from Black 
Jack Spgs., Texas before us agrees with Scudder's figure of attains 
(Butt. N. Eng. Ill, PI. 17, Fig. 12). 

P. sassacus Harr. 

This seems better placed in Pamphila, as the shortness of the 
point of the antennal knob and the shape of the $ stigma distinctly 
point in this direction ; it is in some things intermediate between the 
two groups. 

P. comma L. 

In view of the fact that Scudder's type specimens of the various 
varieties described by him in 1874 (Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H. Vol. II, 
No. 4) are from widely divergent localities it would seem well to 
restrict each form to a single one of these localities. Nevada the first 
variety described is listed as from South Park, Colo. (Mead) and 
also California, Nevada and Oregon ; the $ 's figured are all from Colo- 
rado (Mead) and the figure of the genitalia is also taken from a 
Colorado specimen ; we would therefore restrict the type locality to 
S. Park, Colo, and Fig. 1 of PL X (Colo., June 12th, Mead) may be 
taken as that of the type, which on a recent visit to Cambridge we 
were able to pick out of Scudder's material. 

Colorado was described from specimens from Georgetown and S. 
Park, Colo. (Mead) and Arizona (Wheeler) ; the figured specimens 
and the specimen serving for the slide of the sexual organs are all from 
Colorado so we may regard Fig. 18 (Colo. July 13, Mead) as that of 



127 

the type which is in Cambridge ; the forms possibly show intergrades 
but may, to judge from the material before us, represent high and low 
altitude forms of one race, typical Colorado apparently not being found 
much below 9000 feet. 

Manitoba Scud, was described from specimens from Colo. 
(Mead) ; Pike's Peak, Colo. (Edwards) ; Lake Winnipeg (Scudder 
and Kennicott) ; Lahache, No. B. C. (Crotch) and Riviere de Loup, 
Que. (Couper) ; both the $ 's figured, as well as the one serving for 
the drawing of the genitalia, are from Lahache, B. C. so we see noth- 
ing for it but to make this the type locality in spite of the name which 
is unfortunately chosen; Fig. 11 will be that of the type, which we 
have found and labelled in the Scudder Collection at Cambridge. We 
cannot separate laiirentina Lym. from this form; both show the same 
dark brownish-green underside in the $ 's and we believe that both 
names apply to a race extending over the entire northern portion of the 
continent ; the 9 's are considerably greener beneath than the $ 's. 

Idaho Edw., described from Oregon, Washington, and California 
is a form with paler, yellowish green underside of secondaries, on 
which the white markings stand out very distinctly ; we would restrict 
the type to the $ from East Calif, in the Edwards' Collection. 

Assiniboia Lyman is a closely related form, but the spots on the 
underside of secondaries are suffused with the yellow ground color and 
rendered quite indistinct ; they are also smaller. 

Oregonia Edw. we would restrict to the four specimens (2 $ 2 ) 
from N. Calif, in the Edwards' Collection ; they have a distinct pur- 
plish tinge to the ground color on the underside of hind wings with 
rather indistinct spots ; we have not seen anything just like them. 

After an examination of the types of c obelus Edw. and harpalns 
Edw. in Pittsburgh we should not be surprised if both these so-called 
species prove to be forms of comma; harpalus approaches close to 
assiniboia Lym. whilst cabelus appears, to be a form in which the spots 
on the underside of secondaries are reduced to mere points ; we only 
offer this as a suggestion at present as we have no material from the 
type locality (Nevada) which matches these types. 

Manitoboidcs Fletch has been separated from comma by Dr. 
Dyar ; we have one of the 9 Cotypes, a very poor specimen, before us 
and think this action is correct. The species seems close to metea of 
which it may possibly prove to be a race, yellower in maculation than 
the typical one. The larvae of both these species, in contradistinction to 



128 

comma, hatch about 10 days after egg laying, whereas comma eggs 
hibernate and hatch the following spring; this fact in itself would be 
sufficient to warrant a separation of manitoboides from comma. 

P. Columbia Scud. 

This species was shortly described in Scudder's Syst. Rev. p. 77, 
attention being called to the difference in the $ sexual organs ; the $ 
type from California, which is in Cambridge, is figured in Scudder's 
paper in Mem. Bost. Soc. N. Hist. (1874, Vol. II, No. 4) as sylra- 
noides Bdv. (PI. 10, Fig. 22) and the genitalia are also figured (PI. 
11, Figs. 15, 17). The species is quite distinct from sylvanoides and 
we think also from comma and its varieties judging by the genitalia. 
Wright has called it California, figuring it on Plate XXXI, Fig. 423, 
his underside specimen having the markings rather more reduced than 
usual; as Columbia he figures (Fig. 426) what is probably sonora 
Scud, and apparently not distinct from his Fig. 425. Dyar has also 
redescribed the species as erynnioides (Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XV, 50) ; 
both Dyar and Scudder note the presence of a blackish patch below 
the stigma; this and the very straight oblique row of white spots on 
underside of secondaries with only a single spot in cell 6 and none in 
cell 7, separate it readily from comma; the dentate inner edge of the 
marginal border on secondaries is also a point of distinction. Scud- 
der's 9 sylvanoides (PI. 10, Fig. 21) is probably not correctly re- 
ferred; the band of spots on secondaries is differently shaped to that 
of the male and a pale spot near the base of the cubital branches is 
shown which is not present in the true 9 's which further agree exactly 
with the $ 's on the under side. W. H. Edwards (Can. Ent. XV, 148) 
discusses the species at length and also considers it a good species ; he 
without a description, for comma Bdv. {nee Linn.) ; the species was 
described from a $ from California (Hy. Edwards) this specimen 
can, at best, be only typical. 

P. juba Scud. 

The name was first used in 1872 in the Systematic Revision, 
without a description, for comma Bdv. {nee Linn) ; the species was 
described and figured in Scudder's paper in 1874 in Mem. Bost. Soc. 
N. Hist., II (4), p. 349, PI. X, Figs. 19, 20 and is stated to occur in 
California and the vicinity of Salt Lake City, Utah; the specimens 
figured are from Utah so this must be regarded as the type locality. 
We have specimens from various localities in the Sierra Nevada Mts., 



129 

Calif., which exactly agree with Scudder's figures, as well as a $ 
labelled Utah (Bruce). The species has generally been considered 
distinct from comma and we think correctly so ; it is most readily dis- 
tinguished by its larger size and strongly dentate inner margin to the 
dark outer border of primaries, this color being sharply defined from 
the bright orange color of the remainder of the wing which projects 
along the veins into the black border, at times almost to the outer 
margin ; the $ stigma, as noted by Dyar, seems to be generally longer 
and often narrower, due to the absence of black scales along its outer 
edge, but this is not so noticeable in typical juba as in what we con- 
sider a variety of this species from Arizona, Texas, and Colorado, 
and which is possibly the viridis of W. H. Edwards. Viridis was 
described from a single $ received from Prof. Snow from Las Vegas, 
N. M., 1882 and the type is not in the Edwards' Collection ; the de- 
scription (C. Ent. XV, 147) is poor and states that the "upper side 
is darker — more fuscous and less fulvous — and secondaries beneath 
and apical area of primaries are densely dusted with golden-green ; 
the spots white and somewhat smaller than in the type." Through 
the kindness of Prof. S. Hunter of Lawrence, Kan., we have seen a 
specimen from the Snow Collection labelled 'juba, Hot Spgs., N. M., 
July 82' which was probably one of the type lot of viridis if not the. 
actual type. The underside of secondaries is a golden-green with 
large, white, more or less coalescent spots which show a tendency to 
curve downward and run parallel to the outer margin ; the species 
seems common in Colorado, New Mex., Ariz, and W. Texas. 

Genus Ochlodes Scud. 

The genus is closely allied to Pamphila, but the pointed end of 
the antennal knob is longer and slightly hooked and the $ stigma is 
not so oblique, crossing the vein Cu 2 considerably further from its base 
than in Pamphila. The species included in the genus are all Western 
and have been considerably confused owing to poor descriptions; now 
that we have M. Oberthur's excellent figures of Boisduval's types 
(1913, Etud. Lep. Comp. IX, (1) PL 211) we are at length able to 
correctly place the species. Sylvanoides Bdv. according to the $ sex, 
has usually been called agricola Bdv. ; Boisduval's 9 sylvanoides looks 
more like a small ? campestris so the name must be held to the $ . 
Wright figures the species as pratincola (1. c. PI. 31, Fig. 433) and his 
first figures of nemorum (Fig. 430) and milo (Fig. 432) are appar- 
ently the same species. Napa Edw, from Colorado is only a local race 



130 

scarcely to be separated, as already mentioned by Dr. Dyar. Agricola 
Bdv. is yreka Edw. and has often been called nemornm Bdv. ; it may be 
distinguished by the rather hyaline spots along the outer margin of 
the stigma and the broad black border ; Wright figures it correctly 
(1. c. Fig. 431b) and we think Fig. 430b is probably this species also; 
the underside of secondaries is almost immaculate deep orange yel- 
low in the $ 's but the 2 's usually show the pale yellow band of spots ; 
milo Edw., judging by the original description must be very closely 
related to agricola. Nemornm Bdv. is also very close to agricola and 
may merely be a local form; it is paler and the hyaline spots are 
scarcely to be traced, being merged in the yellow ground color ; the 
underside is also much paler ; verns Edw. is a synonym ; the species 
is apparently figured by Wright as agricola (Fig. 431) and possibly 
also under milo (Fig. 432b) this latter figure approaching pratlncola 
Bdv. which is we think only a form of nemornm rather more suffused 
with orange than usual ; the 2 pratincola, as figured by M. Oberthur, is 
seemingly better referable to sylvanoides than to nemornm but as in 
the afore mentioned case the $ will hold the name. 

Snotvi Edw. placed doubtfully by Dyar in this genus seems rather 
out of place with the remainder of the group, as the point of the 
antennal knob is quite long and at least equal to the width of the 
same; it would seem to be closely related to verna Edw., which Dyar 
places in the genus Enphyes along with vcstris Bdv. but which must 
be removed from here as the mid-tibiae are strongly spined and in 
metacomet, the type of the genus, we find unspined tibiae. For the 
present both snozvi and verna may be placed in Atrytonopsis G. & S. 
as they do not actually contradict the definition of this genus although 
it is quite possible they may form a new generic unit. 

Genus Thymelicus Hbn. 

This genus as characterized by Dyar (Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XIII. 
127) cannot stand ; it is based on the false selection of vibex Hbn. as 
the type species by Scudder in his Hist. Sketch 1875. The type was 
specified in 1870 by Butler as actaeon Rott. but Scudder overrules this 
action by a peculiar process of reasoning, claiming that actaeon falls 
in the genus Adopaea Billb., of which thaumas had been made the 
type in 1820, and with which actaeon was congeneric. Butler's action 
is however perfectly valid and Scudder's proper procedure would have 
been to have sunk Adopaea to Thymelicus if the two types actually 



131 

proved congeneric; Bethune-Baker has already ably criticised this 
failing of Scudder's in his otherwise excellent sketch (Ent. Rec. 
XXVI, p. 133, 1914). 

Instead of the generic name Thymelicus as used by Dyar, we 
have available Hedonc Scud, (type, brettus Bdv. & Lee), Limochores 
Scud, (type, manataaqua Scud.) or Pyrrhosidia Scud, (type, mystic 
Scud.). For the present however we think it advisable to place all 
these species in the genus Polites Scud, (type, peckius Kirb.) which 
is separated by Mabille and Dyar on the strength of vein 3 of primar- 
ies being further from the apex of cell ; we doubt the value of the 
position of this vein as a good generic character; it seems variable 
and needs further careful study; peckius in other respects seems but 
a further modification of mystic. 

Polites dacotah Edw. 

An examination of the type $ of this species labelled 'napa = 
dacotah, type, Colo.' in the Edwards' Collection shows that the species 
has been wrongly sunk as a synonym of napa Edw. Dacotah is in 
reality the western form of mystic which has been recently described 
by Skinner as pallida; the original description of dacotah appears to 
bear out this reference as it mentions the 'pale fuscous hind margins 
of equal breadth' not dentate as in napa, and makes no mention of 
the black marginal shading on the underside of primaries above anal 
angle, usually quite distinct in napa but wanting in this form of mys- 
tic. The black scaling beyond the stigma is not mentioned, it is true, 
but the stigma is characterized as broad and Edwards might easily 
have regarded this scaling as part of the stigma itself. We see no 
grounds therefore to doubt that the specimen so labelled in the Ed- 
wards' Collection is the true type. 

P. sonora Scud. 

For the species heretofore known as sylvanoides Bdv. we must 
now use the name sonora Scud., the type coming from the Sierra 
Nevada Mts. (Hy. Edwards). Siris Edw., described from Puget 
Sound, Wash, (the original description gives Mt. Hood as type local- 
ity, but Morrison later (Pap. Ill 43) corrects this) we consider a 
synonym. The Rocky Mt. form with white spots on the underside 
of secondaries has been named utahensis by Skinner. Wright figures 
the species as sylvanoides (1. c. PI. 31, Fig. 425). 



132 



Catia otho A. & S. 



Godman & Salvin use the name drnryi Latr. for this species, but 
we see no adequate reason why the older name otho should not re- 
main; the $ figured by Abbot (PI. 16) is easily recognizable by the 
peculiar sex mark ; unfortunately Smith in the text restricts the name 
to the specimen figured in the upper right hand corner in case the two 
figures prove to be those of distinct species; this figure represents a 
2 and leaves a certain element of doubt as to its identity ; however, 
allowing a slight margin for inaccuracies in delineation, we do not 
see that it actually contradicts our usual conception of 2 otho; it is 
rather yellower than usual and the yellow spots at veins 5 and 6 pro- 
ject beyond the costal band of spots more than we have ever seen, 
otherwise it agrees quite well with specimens before us from Texas, 
and until more definite proof can be offered we think it well to accept 
the figures as being the $ and 2 of one species; the amount of yel- 
low is in any case variable and southern specimens frequently show 
considerably more of this color than northern ones; the matter of the 
spots could be put down to an inaccuracy of the artist. In any case 
it is doubtful if Latreille's name can be used at all as it was originally 
spelt Hesperia drury which is certainly not Latin or even a latiniza- 
tion of a foreign name. 

Genus Anatrytone Dyar. 

As Dr. Skinner has pointed out (Ent. News, 1900, p. 317) Dyar 
in his revision has included the type of Scudder's genus A try tone in 
his new genus Anatrytone. As far as we can judge the types of the 
two genera, viz. arogos Bdv. & Lee. (iozva Scud.) and delazvare Edw. 
are conspecific, both lacking the spines on the mid tibiae; Anatrytone 
will therefore sink into the synonymy. The species at present placed 
by Dyar in the genus Atrytone we would place, rather than create a 
new genus, in Poanes Scud, along with massasoit, with which they 
seem to possess considerable affinity. 

A. DELAWARE Edw. 

This name must be superceded by logan Edw. which has page 
priority and will hold the name even though based on a 2 specimen. 
We follow Godman & Salvin in keeping the species separate from 
vitellius Fabr. which probably does not occur in our faunal region. 



133 

A. byssus Edw. 

The species is placed in Limochores by Dyar, a genus, according 
to his conception, with stigma in the $ sex, and in the key to the 
species the form of this stigma is used in separating byssus from other 
species. The true byssus however has no stigma as a reference to 
the original description readily shows and falls apparently into the 
genus Atrytone Scud., the $ 's showing great similarity to the ? 's of 
logan Edw. In the Edwards' Collection the $ 's of arpa Bdv. & Lee. 
are mixed with byssus which may have led to Dyar's misidentification. 

Genus Limochores Scud. 

Dyar diagnoses the genus (which he misspells Limochroes) as 
possessing a stigma in the $ sex, having the point of the antennal 
club long, and lacking spines on the mid tibiae ; these two latter char- 
acteristics are directly contradicted by the type of the genus, man- 
ataaqua Scud, as fixed by Scudder in 1872. Manataaqua has distinctly 
spined mid tibiae and a short point to the antennal club and, as 
pointed out by Dr. Skinner (Ent. News, 1905, 317), is very closely 
related to ccrnes Bdv. & Lee. The remainder of the species included 
in this genus by Dr. Dyar (except byssus and ychl) appear to agree 
with the diagnosis; they form a group related to the genus Atrytone 
Scud, but differing in possessing a stigma in the $ sex ; for the pres- 
ent we would include these along with vestris in the genus Euphyes 
Scud, as the position of vein 3 on primaries, which is used by Dyar 
as a means of separating Euphyes and Limochores, needs further 
study to prove its validity for generic purposes. 

Euphyes conspicua Edw. 

This name has page priority over pontiac Edw. ; although origin- 
ally applied to the 9 sex only, the name conspicua must be used for 
the species and replaces pontiac, which was the name given to the $ 
sex. 

Genus Paratrytone Dyar. 

This genus cannot stand, being preoccupied by Godman & Sal- 
vin (1900, Biol. Cent. Am. Rhop. Vol. II, p. 487) for two new Mex- 
ican species of Hesperiidae, viz. rhexenor and polyclea, the former 
being designated as type. We do not know these species, but God- 
man & Salvin's characterization of the genus does not contradict that 
of Dyar; for the present, therefore we think it wise to follow Dyar's 



134 

use of the genus, but credit it to Godman & Salvin. The genus con- 
tains those species with stigma in $ and long point to antennal club 
as in Euphyes Scud, but differing in having spined mid-tibiae. Dyar 
includes scudderi Skin., howardi Skin, and aaroni Skin, in this genus. 
Removing scudderi from the group along with howardi and aaroni 
we would associate yehl Skinner, which has also spined mid-tibiae. 
Scudderi we would associate with snozvi Edw. and place both for the 
present in the genus Atrytonopsis G. & S. ; we imagine that yuma 
Edw. will take priority over scudderi; the type is apparently lost, but 
the description certainly fits this species excellently. 

Calpodes coscinia H. S. 

Godman & Salvin place this species, as a doubtful synonym of 
ares Feld., in the genus Prenes and are followed in this course by 
Dyar. Our specimens from Brownsville, Tex., which agree well with 
the figure in the Biologia, show spined mid tibiae and would appear 
better referred to Calpodes. Herrich-Schaefer in his description of 
coscinia also mentions the spined mid-tibiae ; possibly two species are 
involved and the unspined form is the true ares Feld. For the pres- 
ent we think it would be wise to retain the name coscinia H. S. in our 
lists. 

Atrytonopsis marginata Skin. 

On examining the type we found that this species could scarcely 
be separated from python Edw. (figured by Wright Fig. 479) and Dr. 
Skinner concurred with us in this opinion ; for the present the name 
may be left and applied to the New Mexican form which may prove 
distinct enough when long series have been compared to warrant a 
racial name. 

A. cestus Edw. 

The single $ type of this species is in the Neumoegen Coll. and 
we were surprised to find that the species passing under this name 
was not the true cestus at all; cestus is closely related to python but 
larger, the spot in cell 2 of the primaries being very large and triangu- 
lar; the underside of the secondaries is marbled with purplish and the 
spots are semihyaline ; the species is apparently rare as we only know 
it from the single type specimen. 



135 

A. edwardsi n. sp. (PI. VIII, Figs. 9, 10). 

For the species passing under the name of ccstus we apparently 
need a name and we would propose calling it edwardsi. The color of 
the upperside is deep black brown, primaries sprinkled with yellow 
scales basally and along the costa and secondaries clothed in basal 
half with long yellowish hairs and also dusted with yellow ; primaries 
with a large hyaline white quadrate spot in the cell, somewhat con- 
tracted in the middle; three small spots below the costa near apex, 
arranged in an oblique row ; three similar spots beyond the stigma 
parallel to outer margin, the lowest is small and triangular, the mid- 
dle one very large and quadrate, the upper one smaller and quadrate 
or round ; stigma faint, narrow, black, extending obliquely from the 
base of vein 3 to vein 1 ; fringes white, slightly checkered. Second- 
aries with a small white spot in the cell and a slightly bent submarginal 
row of three white spots, the upper one largest and apparently com- 
posed of two confluent spots. Beneath, primaries as above, shaded 
apically with blue-gray scaling, the lowest spot of the outer row al- 
most obscured by a whitish cloud, the others as distinct as on the 
upper side; secondaries heavily suffused with blue gray, almost uni- 
colorous, with a curved basal row of three whitish spots and a com- 
plete outer row, parallel to the outer margin of which the spots cor- 
responding to those of the upper side are largest. Expanse 30-35 mm. 
5 similar to $ but rather larger. 

Type $ Redington, Ariz. Coll. Barnes. Paratypes, 3 S S. 
Ariz. (Poling). 

Type 9 Babaquivera Mts., Ariz. Paratypes, 2 9 S. Arizona 
(Poling) ; Babaquivera Mts., Ariz. 

This species is figured by Wright as ccstus (1. c. PI. XXXII, 
Fig. 482). 

A. LOAM mi Whit. 

This species is placed by Dyar in the genus Lcrodea Scud, char- 
acterized by lack of stigma in $ ; as the $ 's show a narrow, distinct 
but rather broken stigma we should be inclined to place the species in 
Atrytonopsis G. & S. along with hianna Scud. 

A. osyka Edw. 

This species has evidently been confused with fitsca G. & R. by 
Dyar. It was described (Tr. Am. Ent. Soc. I, 288) from 1 $ 2 9 
from the vicinity of New Orleans. These three specimens are pres- 



136 

ent in the Edwards' Collection labelled 'Louisiana' ; the $ is a very 
worn specimen and is without doubt referable to vestris Bdv. the head 
showing distinct yellow hairs and the stigma being similar ; the 9 's 
belong to other species, one being eitfala Edw. and the other possibly 
a worn brcttus. We would hold the name to the $ type, osyka thus 
becoming a synonym of vestris Bdv. 

Megistias fusca G. & R. 

Godman & Salvin state (Biologia Vol. II, p. 571) that this species 
falls into the genus Megistias G. & S. Florida specimens are gener- 
ally quite immaculate but Texas ones show a tendency to faint post- 
discal spots on primaries, especially in the 2 . 

Lerodea arabus Edw. 

Arabus is placed by Dyar in the genus Stomyles which has a 
double stigma; our $ specimen shows no trace of a stigma and we 
would place it in Lerodea along with eufala Edw. Judging by the 
figure (Biol. Cent. Am. Ill, PI. 95, Figs. 19/20) dysaules G. & S., if 
not the same species, is extremely close to arabus. 

Genus Amblycirtes Scud. 

Godman & Salvin and Dyar separate the genus Stomyles Scud, 
from Amblycirtes on the strength of the shape of the male stigma ; in 
Stomyles it is said to be divided, one portion extending along the 
cubital vein between Cn x and Cu 2 and forming an acute angle with 
the other portion extending along Cu 2 (vein 2) from the base out- 
wards ; in Amblycirtes the stigma is said to be undivided. As a mat- 
ter of fact the stigma in vialis, the type of Amblycirtes, shows distinct 
scaling along the basal portion of vein Cu 2 but as the angle formed 
with the cubital vein is more or less filled with modified scales this is 
not so apparent as in textor, the type of Stomyles, where the angle is 
left open and the scaling extends further along the vein; the type of 
stigma is on the whole essentially the same and as there is no other 
apparent structural difference we would hardly advocate retaining 
both genera, especially as Godman & Salvin note that the $ sexual 
organs are of the same type in both groups. If any species should be 
separated off it is nanno Edw., which has shorter 3rd joint of palpi 
and a distinct undivided stigma extending below vein Cu 2 but as the 
type of maculation is very similar to that of the other members of 
the group we prefer to retain it here for the present ; oslari Skin, and 



137 

simius Edw. must be placed elsewhere for reasons already stated, the 
remaining species forming a rather compact group, readily distin- 
guished superficially by the checkered fringes. 

A. celia Skin. 

According to a specimen in the Edwards' Collection from Texas 
labelled eos Edw. celia will become a synonym of eos; the description 
of eos, however, reads rather like that of mcridionalis Dyar and it 
will be necessary to examine the type of eos, which should be at Cam- 
bridge, to determine the exact identity of the species. 

A. quinquemacula Skin. 

This proves, on an examination of the type, to be a worn speci- 
men of Amblycirtes comus Edw. ; the fringes being missing, the species 
at first sight presents a somewhat different appearance. 

Mastor oslari Skin. 

Dyar includes this species in Amblycirtes Scud, but from the 
shape of the sex mark and the short 3rd joint of the palpi it would 
seem for the present best referred to Mastor. Superficially it differs 
from the Amblycirtes and Stomyles species in lacking the checkered 
fringes which appear to be quite characteristic and point to a cor- 
relation of structure and pattern so often noted in the Diurnals. 



138 



PLATE IV 

Fig. 1. Papilio americus Koll. 2 Palmerlee, Ariz. 

Fig. 2. Papilio aliaska Scud. 8 Rampart House, Alaska. 

Fig. 3. Papilio glaucus canadensis R. & J. $ Chatanika, Alaska. 

Fig. 4. Papilio glaucus canadensis R. & J. $ , underside. 



Plate IV 










140 



PLATE V 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 



Parnassius smintheus hermodur Hy. Edw. $ Silverton, Colo. 
Parnassius smintheus hermodur Hy. Edzv. $ Silverton, Colo. 
Parnassius smintheus hermodur Hy. Edw. 9 Silverton, Colo. 
P. smintheus hermodur ab. nigerrima Verity 9 Silverton, Colo. 
Parnassius smintheus sayi Edw. $ Provo, Utah. 
Parnassius smintheus sayi Edw. $ Provo, Utah. 
Eurymus christina form gigantea Stkr. $ Chatanika, Alaska. 
Eurymus christina form gigantea Stkr. 9 Chatanika, Alaska. 
Eurymus christina form gigantea Stkr. $ , underside. 



Plate V 






*k v ,"& 



i 




\ / 





142 



PLATE VI 



Fig. 1. Pieris napi pseudonapi B. 

Fig. 2. Pieris napi pseudonapi B. 

Fig. 3. Pieris napi pseudonapi B. 

Fig. 4. Pieris napi pallidissima B. 

Fig. 5. Pieris napi pallidissima B. 

Fig. 6. Pieris napi arctica Verity. 

Fig. 7. Pieris napi arctica Verity. 

Fig. 8. Pieris napi hulda Edw. 

Fig. 9. Pieris napi hulda Edw. 

Fig. 10. Pieris napi pallidissima B. 



& McD. 
& McD. 
& McD. 
& McD. 
& McD. 
$ 
5 



Type, $ 

Type, $ 

Paratype, 

Type, $ 

Type, $ 
Chatanika, Alaska 
Chatanika, Alaska 



Silverton, Colo. 
Silverton, Colo. 
? Silverton, Colo. 
Provo, Utah. 
Provo, Utah. 



$ Pribilof Is., Alaska. 
$ , underside Pribilof Is. 
& McD. $ , underside 



Alaska. 
Provo, Utah. 



Plate YI 




144 



PLATE VII 



Fig. 1. Pieris napi frigida Said. $ 
Fig. 2. Pieris napi frigida Scud. 9 
Fig. 3. Eurymus eurytheme kootenai 



Fig. 6. 

Fig. 7. 

Fig. 8. 

Fig. 9. 



Newfoundland. 
Newfoundland. 
Cockle S Okanagan 



Falls, B. C 
(May 9). 
9 Okanagan Falls, B. C. 

(May 20). 
S, underside Atlin. B. C. 
(Aug.). 
Eurymus pelidne labradorensis Said. $ Hopedale, Labr. 
Eurymus pelidne minisni Bean 8 Laggan, Alta. 
Eurymus pelidne skinneri Barnes Type, $ Yellowstone Pk., Wyo. 
Eurymus occidentalis barbara Hy. Edw. $ Santa Rosa, Calif. 



Fig. 4. Eurymus eurytheme kootenai Cockle 
Fig. 5. Eurymus eurytheme kootenai Cockle 



Plate VII 




146 



PLATE VIII 

Fig. 1. Cercyonis silvestris Edw. $ Marin Co., Calif. 

Fig. 2. Cercyonis silvestris Edw. 2 Marin Co., Calif. 

Fig. 3. Cercyonis silvestris Edw. $ , underside. 

Fig. 4. Cercyonis silvestris paulus Edw. $ Tulare Co., Calif. 

Fig. 5. Cercyonis oetus Bdv. $ Nevada Co., Calif. 

Fig. 6. Cercyonis oetus Bdv. 2 Nevada Co., Calif. 

Fig. 7. Cercyonis oetus Bdv. S , underside. 

Fig. 8. Libythea carinenta ab. larvata Stkr. 2 San Benito, Texas. 

Fig. 9. Atrytonopsis edwardsi B. & McD. Paratype, $ S. Arizona. 

Fig. 10. Atrytonopsis edwardsi B. & McD. Paratype, 2 S. Arizona. 



Plate VIII 





'V- 



1*f 



■ 3 



O 










© o 

O I. % W •" l <= 

7* p. y-^ 










148 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 



PLATE IX 

Argynnis nausieaa Edw. $ Senator, Ariz. 
Argynnis aphrodite Columbia Hy. Edw. $ Nepigon, Ont. 
Argynnis chitone Edw. $ S. Utah. 
Argynnis chitone Edw. $ , underside. 
Junonia coenia Hbn. 9 Long Is., N. Y. 
Junonia genoveva Cram. 2 Miami, Fla. 

Basilarchia arthemis rubrofasciata B. & McD. Paratype, $ Cart- 
wright, Man. 



Plate IX 




150 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 



PLATE X 

Argynnis montivaga Behr. $ Truckee, Calif. 

Argynnis mormonia Bdv. S Mineral King, Calif. 

Euphydryas rubicunda Hy. Edw. $ Calif. 

Melitaea minuta Edw. 5, underside Kerrville, Texas. 

Melitaea thekla Edw. $, underside Redington, Ariz. 

Melitaea bolli Edw. $ , underside San Benito, Texas. 

Melitaea minuta Edw. $ Kerrville, Texas. 

Melitaea nubigena Behr $ Tuolumne Meadows, Calif. 

Melitaea nubigena Behr $, underside. 

Melitaea nubigena Behr $ Tuolumne Meadows, Calif. 

Melitaea callina Bdv. $ Kerrville, Texas. 

Strymon auretorum spadix Hy. Edw. $, underside Loma Linda, 

Calif. 
Hesperia xanthus Edw. $ Silverton, Colo. 
Hesperia macdunnoughi Oberth. S Redington, Ariz. 



Plate X 




152 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


15. 


Fig. 


16. 


Fig. 


17. 


Fig. 


18. 


Fig. 


19. 


Fig. 


20. 


Fig. 


21. 



PLATE XI 

Philotes enoptes Bdv. $ Mineral King, Calif. 

Philotes glaucon Edzv. $ Eureka, Utah. 

Philotes rita B. & McD. Paratype, $ S. Arizona. 

Philotes enoptes Bdv. $, underside Mineral King, Calif. 

Philotes glaucon Edw. $ , underside Eureka, Utah. 

Philotes rita B. &McD. Paratype, $ , underside S. Arizona. 

Philotes battoides Behr $ Mineral King, Calif. 

Philotes battoides Behr 9 Mineral King, Calif. 

Philotes battoides bernardino B. & McD. Type, $ Camp Baldy, 

Calif. 
Philotes battoides Behr $ , underside Mineral King, Calif. 
Philotes battoides bernardino B. & McD. $ , underside Camp Baldy, 

Calif. 
Plebeius melissa lotis Lint. $ Tehachapi, Calif. 
Philotes battoides bernardino B. & McD. Type, $ Camp Baldy, 

Calif. 
Plebeius pheres Bdv. $ San Francisco, Calif. 
Plebeius pheres Bdv. 9 San Francisco, Calif. 
Plebeius icarioides ardea Edzv. $ , underside Pyramid Lake, Nev. 
Lycaena pardalis Behr ?, underside Sonoma Co., Calif. 
Glaucopsyche xerces Bdv. $ ab. San Francisco, Calif. 
Mitoura xami Reak. $ San Benito, Texas. 
Mitoura xami Reak. $ , underside San Benito, Texas. 
Mitoura siva Edw. $ , underside Redington, Ariz. 



Plate XI 



fo*v) c< 




* 3 




" f?.->* 







IT * . »■ Jr < • .*. 

6 



( i* ) 





ii 



i 



If T '^ 



/.a 



/x 



/5~ 



4 >r 






/(c 



f^j^f 



« 






/? 




INDEX 



Page 

acadica Edzv 58 

adjutrix Scud 98 

aehaja Behr 112 

agricola Bdv 130 

albofasciata Newc 101 

aliaska Scud 54 

altaurus Dyar 57 

Amblycirtes Scud 136 

americus Koll 53 

ampelos Edw 71 

amphidusa Bdv 64 

Anatrytone Dyar 132 

anicia Dbldy 91 

anna Edzv Ill 

annetta Mead Ill 

antiacis Bdv 118 

antibubastus Hbn 108 

arabus Edw 136 

arachne Edw 92 

archippus Fabr 69 

arctica Verity 57 

arcticus Skin 53 

ardea Edw 114 

ares Feld 134 

arge Stkr 81 

ariadne Edw 64 

arpa Bdv. & Lee 133 

arthemis Dm 101 

assiniboia Lym 127 

astenidas Bdv. 108 

aster Edw 110 

astragalus Wgt 108 

atossa Edw 79 

Atrytone Scud 132 

attalus Edw 126 

aurantiaca Hew 125 

auretorum Bdv 104 

ausonides Bdv 61 

australis Edw 103 

autumnalis Ckll 65 

baldur Hy. Edw 56 

barbara Hy. Edw 66 



Page 

barnesi Skin 97 

baroni Edw 87 

battoides Behr 116 

beani Skin 90 

behri Edw 118 

bernardino B. & McD 116 

blakei Mayn 68 

blenina Hew 105 

bolli Edzv 93 

borealis Grt 58 

bremneri Edw 75 

brenda Reak 72 

burrisoni Mayn 102 

byssus Edw 133 

cabelus Edw 127 

calanus Hbn 104 

California West & Hew 70 

California Wgt. (Chlosyne) 99 

California Wgt. (Pamphila) 128 

callidus Grin 122 

callina Bdv 92 

camillus Edw 95 

campestris Behr 95 

canadensis R. & J 53 

Candida Wgt 125 

capella Barnes 91 

carinenta Cram 102 

Carterocephalus Led 124 

castalis Edw 106 

celia Skin 137 

ceres Butl 70 

cestus Edw 134 

chalcedona Dbldy 85 

charon Edw 72 

chitone Edw 75 

chrysoptera Wgt 99 

Cinclidia Hbn 83 

claudianus Stich 57 

clitus Edw 124 

clodius Men 56 

collina Behr. 96 

colonia Wgt 90 



Page 

coloradensis Hy. Edw 61 

Colorado Scud 126 

Columbia Hy. Edw 74 

Columbia Scud 128 

comma L 126 

comyntas Godt 109 

conspicua Edw 133 

cooperi Behr 87 

cornelia Edw 75 

coronis Behr 80 

coscinia H. S 134 

creusa Dbldy. & Hew 59 

crocale Edw 98 

cruciferarum Bdv 58 

Cyclopides Hbn 124 

cythera Edw 103 

dacotah Edw 131 

daedalus Behr 114 

delaware Edw 132 

discoidalis Skin 106 

drury Latr 132 

duryi Edw 103 

dwinelli Hy. Edw 86 

dysaules G. & S 136 

edwardsi B. & McD 135 

egleis Bdv 82 

electa Edw 75 

elsa Beut 60 

emissa Edw 95 

enoptes Bdv 117 

eos Edw 137 

epula Bdv 96 

erinna Edw 81 

eriphyle Edw 65 

erymus Bdv 119 

eryngii Hy. Edw 70 

erynnioides Dyar. 128 

Erynnis Schr 125 

eubule L 62 

Eudamus Swain 120 

eunus Edw 125 

Euphydryas Scud 84 

Euphyes Scud 133 

eurytheme Bdv 64 

evius Bdv 113 

exilis Bdv 107 

fantasia Butl 63 

filenus Poey 108 

florencia Grin 108 



Page 

floridensis Morr. 107 

florus Edw 106 

f rigida Scud 58 

iutta Edw 113 

fusca G. & R 136 

galactinus Bdv 70 

gallatinus Stich 57 

genoveva Cram 101 

gigantea Stkr 68 

glaucon Edw 117 

glaucus L 53 

Goniurus Hbn 120 

gorgone Hbn 93 

gundlachia Poey 68 

gyas Edw 108 

hageni Edw 65 

halcyone Edw 78 

hamo Luc 108 

hanno Stoll 107 

harfordi Hy. Edw 66 

harpalus Edw 127 

Hedone Scud 131 

Heliopetes Billb 120 

helios Edw 114 

hermodur Hy. Ediv 55 

herri Grin 109 

Hesperia Fabr 120 

Hilda Grin 112 

hippolyta Edw 76 

hulda Edw 58 

hyantis Edw 60 

hydaspe Bdv 77 

icarioides Bdv 113 

idaho Edw 127 

inorata Grt 104 

inornata Edw. (Argynnis) 80 

inornata Edw. (Coenonympha) . . 71 

irene Bdv 78 

ismeria Bdv 93 

isophthalma H. S 107 

juba Bdv 80 

juba Scud 128 

keewaydin Edw 64 

kodiak Edw Ill 

kootenai Cockle 66 

labradorensis Scud 67 

lacinia Gey 98 

lacustra Wgt 122 

lanice Lint 63 



Page 

larvata Stkr 102 

laura Edw 80 

laurentina Lym 127 

laurina Wgt 80 

liliana Hy. Edw 81 

lilius Dyar 123 

Limnaecia Scud 83 

Limochores Scud 131, 133 

loammi Whit 135 

logan Edw 132 

lorata G. & R 104 

lorquini Bdv 102 

lotis Lint Ill 

lotta Beut 61 

lycea Edw 114 

lyside Godt 63 

macaria Edw 80 

macdunnoughi Oberth 122 

macglashani Rivers 86 

magnus Wgt 56 

manataaqua Scud 133 

manitoba Scud 127 

manitoboides Fletch 127 

marcia Edw 94 

marginalis Scud 58 

marginata Skin 134 

maricopa Reak 113 

marsyas Edw 99 

mata Reak 97 

mejicanus Reak 103 

melissa Edw 110 

Melitaea Fabr 83 

Mellicta Billb 83 

mendica Stick 55 

meridionalis Dyar 137 

mertila Edw 118 

milo Edw 130 

minisni Bean 67 

minnehaha Scud 116 

minor Verity 55 

mintha Edw 1 14 

minuta Edw 92 

Mitoura Scud 105 

montana Verity 61 

monticola Behr. 76 

montivaga Behr 82 

mormonia Bdv 81 

morpheus Fabr 94 

mylitta Edw 96 



Page 

nanus Edw 136 

napa Edw 129 

napi L 59 

nausicaa Edw 74 

neglecta Edw 119 

neglecta-major Tutt 120 

nelsoni Edw 59 

nemesis Edw 103 

nemorum Bdv 130 

nevada Scud 126 

Nisoniades Hbn 122 

nitocris Edw 74 

nivella Mab 122 

nubigena Behr 89 

Ochlodes Scud 129 

ochracea Edw 72 

oetus Bdv 72 

okius Oberth 74 

oleracea Harr 58 

orcus Edw 115 

oreas Edw 100 

oregonia Edw 127 

orientalides Verity 60 

orseis Edw 95 

oslari Skin 137 

osyka Edw 135 

otho A. & S 132 

oweni Ediv 82 

pacuvius Lint 124 

palla Bdv 91 

pallida Edw 96 

pallida Scud 58 

pallida Skin 131 

pallidissima B. & McD 59 

Pamphila Fabr 125 

Paratrytone G. & S 133 

pardalis Behr 119 

pascoensis Wgt 94 

paulus Edw 73 

pelidne Bdv 67 

pelidneides Staud 68 

pembina Edw 114 

perdiceas Edw 87 

phaon Edw 94 

pheres Bdv 115 

phileros Bdv 1 13 

phocus Edw 72 

plexippus L , 69 

podarce Feld 112 



Page 

pola Bdv 92 

Polites Scud 131 

polyphemus Bdv 118 

pontiac Edw 133 

pratensis Behr 95 

pratincola Bdv 130 

procris Edw 125 

pseudargiolus Bdv 119 

pseudoausonides Verity 60 

pseudobryoniae Verity 58 

pseudocorybas Verity 56 

pseudonapi B. & McD 57 

pseudoptiletes Bdv 108 

pulla Hy. Edw 70 

purpurascens Hy. Edw 78 

Pyrgus Hbn 120 

Pyrrosidia Scud 131 

python Edw 134 

quinquemacula Skin 137 

quino Behr 88 

rapahoe Rcak 114 

rita B. & McD 117 

rubicunda Hy. Edw 88 

rubrofasciata B. & McD 102 

rufescens Bdv 112 

rupestris Behr 79 

msticus Edw 100 

saepiolus Bdv. Ill 

sassacus Harr 126 

satyrus Edw 99 

sayi Edw 55 

Scelothrix Ramb 120 

Schoenis Hbn 83 

scudderi Edw 110 

scudderi Skin 134 

seminole Scud 126 

sennae L 62 

shasta Edw 116 

sierra Wgt 89 

silenus Edw 100 

silvestris Edw 73 

silvius Edw 99 

simius Edw 125 

siris Edzv 131 

sissona Wgt 110 

siva Edw 106 



Page 

skinneri Barnes 67 

smintheus Dbldy. & Hezv 54 

snowi Edw 130 

snyderi Skin 79 

sonora Scud 131 

sordida Wgt 76 

spadix Hy. Edw 104 

Stella Edw 62 

Stomyles Scud 136 

striata Edw 107 

sylvanoides Bdv 129 

tacita Hy. Edw , 104 

tatius Edzv 124 

terissa Luc 63 

tetra Behr 105 

texana Edw 97 

Thanaos Bdv 122 

tharos Dru 94 

thekla Edw 93 

Thessalia Scud 84 

Thymelicus Hbn 130 

tibullus Scud 123 

ulrica Edzv 92 

unicolor G. & S 63 

Urbicola Barb 126 

utahensis Skin 131 

verna Edw 130 

verus Edw 130 

vesta Edw 94 

violacea Edw 119 

virgulti Behr 103 

viridis Edw 129 

waco Edzv 125 

wheeled Hy. Edw 91 

whitneyi Behr 91 

wrighti Edzv 125 

xami Reak 105 

xanthophila Rob 63 

xanthus Edw 122 

xerces Bdv 117 

yamana Reak 62 

yreka Edw 130 

yuma Edw 134 

zachaeina But I. & Dru 109 

zerene Bdv 76 



CONTRIBUTIONS 

TO THE 

NATURAL HISTORY 

OF THE 

LEPIDOPTERA 



OF 



NORTH AMERICA 



VOL. Ill 

No. 3 



SYNONYMIC NOTES ON NORTH AMERICAN 
HETEROCERA 

BY 

WILLIAM BARNES, S. B., M. D. 

AND 

J. H. McDUNNOUGH, Ph. D. 



DECATUR, ILL. 

THE REVIEW PRESS 

DECEMBER 14, 1916 



Published 

Under the Patronage 

of 

Miss Jessie D. Gillett 

Elkhart, 111. 



INTRODUCTION 

The following notes are the result of an extended trip made by 
Dr. McDunnough in the early months of 1916 through the museums 
of the East for the purpose of studying type specimens and estab- 
lishing their identity. We would take this opportunity of extending 
our hearty thanks to the curators of the various museums visited for 
their invariable courtesy and kindness in offering every facility pos- 
sible in connection with our work. 



157 



SYNONYMIC NOTES ON NORTH AMERICAN 
HETEROCERA 

SATURNIIDAE 

COLORADIA PANDORA Blake. 

Dr. Dyar after sinking lois Dyar to doris Barnes proposed the 
name loiperda (Proc. Wash. Ent. Soc. XIV, 155) for what he con- 
sidered a form of pandora without pink shading on the secondaries. 
We have compared material with the types of both pandora at Phila- 
delphia and loiperda in the National Museum and find them practically 
identical, the $ type of pandora showing scarcely a trace of pink. 
Personally we do not believe that this pink shading on the secondar- 
ies has any specific value whatever; in series before us from a single 
locality individuals are found with heavy pink shading and others 
with not a trace of the same, but otherwise identical. In any case 
whatever stress may or may not be laid upon this feature, loiperda 
will sink to pandora as both represent the same form. 

ARCTIIDAE 
LITHOSIINAE 

Illice unifascia G. & R. 

We have been unable to locate the types of this species which 
was described from specimens from Florida and Texas. Fortunately 
the figure given by Grote is distinctly good (Tr. Am. Ent. Soc. II, PL 
II, Fig. 63) and the species can be definitely identified as that one 
with a rather broad yellow band crossing primaries, this band being 
somewhat dilated at costal and inner margins and joined to the base 
of wing along inner margin by an evenly broad yellow band ; the $ 's 
are practically similar to the 2 's (the figure being that of a 2 ) and 
are typical members of the genus Hike, the inner margin of the sec- 
ondaries not possessing a projecting tuft of hairs at the anal angle. 
We mention this fact because tenuifascia Harv., which has commonly 
been called a variety of unifascia, appears, if our identification be 
correct, to possess such a tuft in the $ sex and falls properly into the 
genus Ozodania Dyar. The type of tenuifascia appears to be lost; 
the species was described from Bosque Co., Texas, and briefly char- 
acterized as being a little larger than unifascia with a narrower yellow 



158 

band at times broken in the middle; we have a series before us from 
various South Texas localities and also from N. Carolina which shows 
a distinctly narrower band than in unifascia without much dilation at 
costal or inner margins; we think therefore that the identification is 
reasonable sure and would refer tcnuifascia to the Osodania group 
as a good species ; the $ genitalia are quite distinct from those of 
unifascia. 

ARCTIINAE 

Apantesis nevadensis G. & R. 

The synonymy of this species as given in Dyar's list needs con- 
siderable revision. In the first place shastaensis French must be en- 
tirely removed from this association and be sunk as a synonym of 
omata Pack; in the Upper Sacramento Valley, the region from which 
shastaensis was described, the only species of Apantesis known to 
occur is the typical form of ornata without the white lines on the 
veins of primaries or with only traces of the same; our own collect- 
ing experience in this region showed this species to be common and 
San Francisco collectors who have spent many summers there assured 
us that no other species was known from that locality. Although the 
type has been destroyed, the figure given by French (Can. Ent. XXI, 
162) of the type 9 shows pretty clearly that the reference to ornata 
is correct. 

Typical nevadensis, the types of which seem to be lost, has an 
entirely black thorax, but specimens with the usual striped thorax 
appear to be just as common; the secondaries are of a delicate pale 
pink in the $ ; behri Stretch appears correctly placed as a synonym. 

Incorrupta Hy. Edw., listed as a variety, must sink to geneura Stkr. 
The types of the former, as given by Hy. Edwards, were 1 $ from 
Dalles, Oreg. and 3 9 from Prescott, Ariz. ; an examination of the 
Hy. Edwards' Collection showed us that the three supposed 9 's were 
$ 's and one of these specimens bears the type label ; it agrees almost 
exactly with the type $ of geneura Stkr. which we have examined in 
the Field Museum. The name will apply to the larger race with 
bright reddish secondaries common in Arizona and evidently extend- 
ing northward into Colorado. 

Sulphurica Neum. (ochracea Neum.) is simply an aberration 
of (jcnenra with yellow secondaries instead of pink; such forms occur 
sparingly in all the Apantesis species. 



159 

Elongata Stretch, the type of which is in the Neumoegen Collec- 
tion, has nothing to do with sidphnrica but is very possibly a yellow 
winged form of superba Stretch which in our opinion must also be 
removed from association with nevadensis and placed as a British 
Columbia form of blakei Grt. 

A. blakei Grt. 

The type of this species is at Philadelphia; it represents a rather 
small form, apparently typical about Denver, Colo. ; we believe that 
superba Stretch may prove to be a race of this species and that elong- 
ata Stretch and diecki Neum. should be associated closely with superba. 
It would not surprise us at all if williamsi Dodge and its various races 
also proved to be forms of blakei; in a series before us from Glen- 
wood Spgs., Colo., there are specimens which certainly show affinities 
in both directions. Usually williamsi can be separated easily by the 
fact that the transverse white lines of the primaries do not cross the 
white streak in the fold as is usual in nevadensis and blakei but our 
Glenwood Spgs. series, which certainly seems to represent but one 
species, has specimens of both types. For the present, however, until 
careful breeding can be done the two may be kept separate. 

We should also keep bolanderi Stretch separate from blakei; it 
was described from Mt. Shasta, Calif., and it seems a risky proceed- 
ing to sink as synonyms species from two such widely separated locali- 
ties ; we have never seen any authentic specimens of bolanderi nor do 
we know if the types are in existence. 

A. williamsi Dodge. 

We have never seen anything that would just match Dodge's 
figure which seems to be that of a 2 ; it is possible that determinata 
Neum. is merely the $ ; it is usually considered to be the form with 
the hind-wings greatly obscured by black but, although one of the 
types of determinata is such a specimen, the original description 
clearly points to the more normal form with the central area pink and 
the name must be restricted to the type in the Neumoegen Collection 
that bears out this description. 



160 

NOCTUIDAE 

AGROTINAE 

Chlorocleptria felicitata Sm. 

We find on examining the type that this species is the same as 
the one we described recently as C. imperialis, which name will become 
a synonym. We think the reference to Chlorocleptria instead of 
Rhodophora is more correct as the species apparently shows greater 
affinity to simplex than to ftorida. 

POROSAGROTIS TEXANA Grt. 

The types, $ and 9 , are at Philadelphia ; Grote's figure of the 9 
type is rather crude, especially with regard to the s. t. black patches 
which are far too greatly emphasized ; a comparison however between 
this figure and the 9 type shows without much doubt that this speci- 
men actually served as the original for the drawing. The 9 bears a 
label 'Agrotis segetum N. A.' and neither specimen shows anything 
to prove that they came from Texas as stated in the original descrip- 
tion. We can see nothing that would separate the two types of texana 
from the European segetum and believe that some error has been 
made regarding the locality and that texana should be dropped from 
our lists as a synonym of the common European segetum. 

Obesula Sm., at present listed as a synonym, is quite distinct as an 
examination of the single $ type from Montana in the National 
Museum showed us. The species bears some resemblance to a large 
siccaia but is distinct ; besides the type we have seen no other speci- 
mens of this species and must accept temporarily Smith's reference 
of the species to Porosagrotis. Hampson's figure (PI. 61, Fig. 2) of 
the type of obesula is good. 

Agrotis cinereicollis Grt. 

An examination of the type of this species in the Hy. Edwards' 
Collection proves it to be synonymous with congrua Sm., the macula- 
tion of the latter type being only slightly fainter than in that of cin- 
ereicollis. As Mr. Wolley-Dod has already noted (Ent. News, 1913, 
p. 360) vocalis Grt. is another form of the same species, the name 
cinereicollis having priority ; vocalis may be held as a name for the 
Central Rocky Mt. race with invenusta Grt. a dark colored form from 
New Mexico, and planifrons Sm. a rather similar race from the Can- 
adian Rockies. We figured a typical congrua under the name vocalis 



161 

in our Contributions Vol. I, No. 4, PI. V, Fig. 1. The synonymy will 
stand 

cinereicollis Grt. 

pallidicollis Grt. 
congrua Sm. 
a vocalis Grt. 

form invenusta Grt. 
b planifrons Sm. 

Epipsilia okakensis Pack. (PI. XIII, Fig. 5). 

An examination of the type 9 in Cambridge proves that this 
species is the same as cinerea Staud. which name has priority ; in a 
long series before us from Okak, Labrador great variability in color 
and markings is shown, but the proximity of the t. p. and s. t. lines 
is a good distinguishing mark of the species as compared with tecta 
Hbn. (carnea Auct.) which also occurs sparingly in the same region 
and can be readily separated by the genitalia as pointed out by A. 
Dampf (Berl. Ent. Zeitschr, 1909, LIV. 128) ; roosta Sm. described 
from Alaska proves to be a form of tecta, rather brighter colored than 
any we have seen from Labrador. We give figures of both tecta (PI. 
XIII, Fig. 4) and cinerea which should illustrate the points of dis- 
tinction. 

Mesogona olivata Harv. 

Through the kindness of Sir Geo. Hampson, who has examined 
the type in the British Museum at our request we are able to state 
that the tibiae of this species are spined and that it falls into the genus 
Mesogona (Pseudoglaea), the name olivata having priority over blanda 
Grt. 

HADENINAE 

SCOTOGRAMMA INCONCINNA Sm. 

According to the type in the National Museum Hampson's figure 
(Cat Phal. Brit. Mus. PI. 80, Fig. 1) is entirely erroneous. Our 
notes say that the species is rather closely related to oregonica in 
maculation, the hind-wings showing a distinctly paler inner area and 
broad darker outer border. We think it should be removed from 
Lasionycta and placed again in Scotogramma as employed by Hamp- 
son. 



162 

POLIA UMBROSA Sm. 

The types in the National Museum are 2 $ 's, one from Colorado, 
the other from Arizona. As we are not quite certain that these rep- 
resent a single species, we would propose restricting the type to the 
Colorado 9 . 

Polia occluna Sm. (PI. XII, Fig. 5). 

This is a synonym, along with Perigea latens Sm., of alfkeni 
Grt. ; the species seems best placed in Polia along with nipana Sm. 
and montara Sm. all three species being characterized by very min- 
utely haired eyes, the hairs being very easily overlooked. We figure 
a typical specimen from S. Arizona. 

Polia rectilinea Sm. (PL XII, Fig. 7). 

The only types we have found of this species are 2 9 's from Van- 
couver Is. in the National Mueum; these are not identical and it is 
probable that one of them represents a species described by Smith in 
his paper on olivacea and its allies. We would restrict the name rec- 
tilinea to the type with rigidly oblique t. p. line and considerable olive- 
green suffusion above the anal angle but without pink shading. We 
figure a fairly typical 9 from the type locality. 

Eriopyga serrata Sm. 

An examination of the type of this species shows that we had 
misidentified the species ; the true serrata is the species redescribed 
by ourselves as dubiosa and figured in our Contributions, Vol. II (3) 
PI. V, Fig. 1. The Arizona form, characterized by smaller reniform 
and greater distance between it and the t. p. line, as figured by Hamp- 
son and ourselves (1. c. Vol. I (4) PI. II, Fig. 17) under serrata Sm., 
is really without a name and we therefore propose for it the name 
jocosa, the type from Redington, Ariz., being the specimen figured by 
ourselves as mentioned above. 

BOROLIA TEXANA Mori". 

We have seen the type specimens of this species at Cambridge; 
they have nothing to do with phragmatidicola of which Morrison 
made texana a variety, but are in reality the same species as that 
described a year later by Grote as ligata from the same general locality. 
Grote remarked in the original description that ligata possibly might 
be texana and we are now in a position to verify the truth of this 
statement. We are not sure that extincta Gn. from Florida is the 



163 

same species, as listed by Hampson; it may at least represent a good 
racial form but our material is too scanty to decide at present. 

CUCULLIINAE 

Euros proprius Hy. Edw. (PI. XIV, Fig. 2). 

This species is extremely close to the one described later by the 
same author as Herrichia cervina and for which Hampson creates 
the genus Protophana; this genus will fall to Euros Hy. Edw. and it 
is quite possible that cervina may prove to be only a form of proprius 
but an examination of the type of the former in the British Museum 
will be necessary before we can decide this question. We figure typ- 
ical proprius. 

Cucullia aribac Barnes. 

We had considered this species identical with strigata Schaus, but 
on a recent comparison of the two $ types we find that the latter 
species is considerably darker on both wings and is we think arizona 
Sm. and not aribac Barnes, which latter species we figured in our 
Contributions Vol. I, No. 4, PI. VI, Fig. 15. 

Oncocnemis deserta Sm. 

An examination of the type of this species in the Hy. Edwards 
Collection showed that it possessed a tibial claw which has been over- 
looked by Smith when he drew up the description; the species must 
therefore be removed from Homohadena and placed in Oncocnemis 
next to punctilinea Hamp. to which it is very closely allied. 

Oncocnemis chandleri Grt. 

The species was described in Buff. Bull. I, 107 from several 
specimens taken in Colorado by Mr. Mead and is excellently figured 
on PI. Ill, Fig. 9 of the same volume. Hampson based his determin- 
ation of chandleri on a specimen marked 'type' in the British Museum 
which was evidently the aberrant specimen mentioned by Grote in the 
original description in which the blackish hind border of secondaries 
'does not contrast greatly with the rest of the wing', and which is 
really a specimen of the species described later by Smith as Colorado 
as an examination of the specimen in the British Museum proved to 
us. In view of Grote's figure, which is unmistakable, and according 
to the existing rules of nomenclature we do not believe that Hamp- 
son's action in holding the name chandleri to this so-called type and 



164 

redescribing the true chandleri as poliochroa will be valid; the only 
course open to us seems to be to sink poliochroa to chandleri and 
leave Colorado Sm. for the other closely allied species. 

HOMOHADENA INCONSTANS Grt. (PI. XIII, Fig. 10). 

An examination of the $ and 9 types of this species in the 
Neumoegen Collection showed that they represented two distinct 
species. The type 9 had no tibial claw, a rather ochreous collar, 
with chocolate front and pronounced streaks on the veins; the type 
S from Prescott, Ariz., showed only faint streaks on the veins and a 
very marked contrast on the collar between a deep chocolate brown 
lower portion and a whitish upper portion; the fore tibiae were miss- 
ing, but as Grote placed the species in Oncocnemis originally we may 
presume the existence of a claw. The $ we believe to be what we 
described recently as Oncocnemis astrigata from Utah and figured in 
Contributions Vol. I, No. 5, PI. II, Fig. 4; we have also a $ from 
White Mts., Arizona. The name inconstans must therefore be re- 
stricted to the species represented by the 9 type which will fall into 
Homohadena close to incomitata Harv; we figure a S taken in 
Yavapai Co., Ariz., by Mr. Buchholz. 

EUTOLYPE DEPILIS Grt. 

The species was described from a single 9 from Columbus, 
Ohio, which is now in the Neumoegen Collection ; following the de- 
scription of depilis Grote mentions a 9 from Texas (Belfrage), close 
to depilis, which possibly represents a distinct species. Later Smith, 
associating the name depilis with this Texan 9 which Grote had 
labelled depilis, described as bombyciformis what was actually the 
true depilis. We have seen the types of both depilis Grt. and bomby- 
ciformis Sm. and they represent to us a single species. Hampson fig- 
ures a Texan 9 under depilis which certainly looks distinct and may 
prove to be an unnamed species, but we have no material from this 
locality before us; the typical form is well figured by Holland (Moth 
Book PI. 21, Fig. 13). 

Parastichtis insipida Stkr. (PI. XIV, Fig. 1). 

This species proves on an examination of the type to be the same 
as inops Grt. which has priority; we are a little in doubt as to the 
correct position of the species but for the present it can remain as 
placed by Hampson ; we figure a 9 from Omaha, Nebr. 



165 

Parastichtis (Orthosia) fornica Sm. 

This species appears, after a careful examination of the type to 
be nothing but a rather undersized purpurea Grt. ; the color is pinkish 
but in respect to color purpurea is a most variable species. 

ACRONYCTINAE 

Luperina relicina Morr. (PI. XIII, Fig. 6). 

An examination of the type material showed us that migrata Sm. 
is the same species as relicina Morr. We think that Smith's reference 
of the species to Luperina should be followed rather than that of 
Hampson who places it in Septis (Parastichtis) ; the maculation and 
color of both primaries and secondaries point to a close relation with 
burgessi. We figure a Cotype of migrata from New Jersey. 

Perigea lucetta Sm. 

This species, which, according to Hampson, is the same as roxana 
Druce from Mexico, we imagine should be excluded from our N. 
American lists; the locality is given as Colorado (Barnes) but the 
probability is that the specimen came with other material from a for- 
mer New York dealer who was very inaccurate in labelling his speci- 
mens and had included a Mexican specimen in error. 

Namangana tapeta Sm. 

This species, described as an Hadena from a single 6 from 
Cocoanut Grove, Fla., is placed by Hampson in Oligia. We recently 
saw the type in the National Museum and find the species is so close 
to Namangana continens Hy. Edw. from Arizona that if it were not 
for the widely different type localities we should be strongly inclined 
to believe that both names referred to a single species. For the present 
and until more material from Florida is available they may at least 
be regarded as geographical races. 

Cerma olivacea Sm. (PI. XII, Fig. 6). 

The type must be restricted to the Colorado $ in the National 
Museum, the California type specimen in the same collection is very 
worn and not the same species but probably fascia Sm. or cuerva 
Barnes. We figure typical olivacea as thus restricted. 

Acronycta frigida Sm. (PI. XIII, Figs. 1, 2). 

The type is a $ in the National Museum labelled Alameda Co., 
Calif. ; the type of pacifica Sm. is a $ in the Hy. Edwards' Collection 



166 

labelled 'Calif. No. 9615'. These two types represent but a single 
species and unfortunately pacifica, the much more appropriate name, 
must sink as a synonym. A bred series before us from Alameda Co., 
Calif., shows that considerable variability occurs in the distinctness 
of the orbicular and reniform which may or may not be outlined in 
black. It is quite possible that the 5 cotype of frigida in the Smith 
Collection should be referred to felina Grt. as it is labelled 'Sierra 
Nevadas', also the specimen from Truckee received from Prof. French 
which has probably been destroyed by Anthrenus larvae. Felina is 
evidently a high altitude species distinguished by its heavier gray scal- 
ing on primaries and of which cyanescens Hamp. is probably the north- 
ern form and turpis Sm., metra Sm., and amicora Sm. various Rocky 
Mt. races of rather dubious value. Our figures show typical $ and $ 
of frigida and a 9 of felina (PI. XIII, Fig. 3). 

A. arioch Stkr. 

The type specimen of this species, described ostensibly from New 
Orleans seems to be nothing but a slightly suffused specimen of the 
common European megacephala; there was presumably some error in 
labelling or else the specimen was brought over in the pupal state with 
shrubs or fodder. In any case we see no reason for retaining the 
name on our N. American list. 

Arzama obliqua Wlk. 

In the summer of 1915 we received pupae of an Arzama species 
from the vicinity of Newark, N. J., sent by Mr. H. Brehme of that 
city. The resulting series of specimens showed certain constant points 
of difference as compared with obliqua Wlk. which led us to suspect 
that an undescribed species had been unearthed. Again this summer 
(1916) Mr. Brehme sent us further specimens as well as two pairs 
of typical obliqua taken in a slightly different locality near Newark. 
It seems fairly evident that owing probably to certain local conditions 
(which we must leave to Newark collectors to investigate) that a 
rather well defined race or species has developed for which we would 
propose the name Arzama brehmei in honor of its discoverer. 

The type of maculation is essentially the same as in its ally obliqua 
but the general color of the primaries is much deeper brown, the basal 
area less strikingly white and the median shade is always well defined 
whereas in obliqua it is very faint and often entirely lacking ; the shape 
of the primaries is rather chunkier and less pointed at the apex in both 



167 

sexes. The secondaries are also much deeper smoky brown than in 
obliqua and show very little of the ruddy tinge found in the latter 
species, especially in bred specimens. The size is considerably smaller, 
the $ 's averaging 38 mm. and the 2 's 47 mm. as compared with 45 
mm. and 53 mm. respectively for obliqua. 

Our type series consists of 6 $ and 6 9 , one pair of which we 
figure (PI. XII, Figs. 1, 2) as well as a pair of obliqua (Figs. 3, 4) 
from Long Island, N. Y., for the sake of comparison. Cotypes (2 $ 
2 2 ) are in the collection of Mr. Brehme. 

Nocloa pallens Tepper. (PI. XIII, Fig. 9). 

This species was placed by Smith in the genus Aedophron Led. 
although at the time he stated that it differed in having no claws on 
the front tibiae. It was characterized as possessing heavy wooly 
thoracic vestiture, unspined tibiae and a conical frontal projection. 
Tepper's description (Tr. Am. Ent. Soc. X, 215/16) states that 'the 
wings are dirty white with a narrow smoky median band and a fine 
dark t. p. line; the secondaries are of a uniform pale color.' Judging 
by this description and the structural characters given we believe that 
pallens can be none other than a rather worn specimen of nesaea Sm., 
placed by Hampson in the genus Nocloa Sm. which is characterized 
by conical frontal protuberance and unspined tibiae without claws ; 
fresh specimens of nesaea are olive green but worn and faded ones 
are a dirty white color just as Tepper states; the median band agrees 
and in some specimens a fine dark t. p. line (which is really the outer 
border of a pale line in fresh specimens) is faintly visible. The type 
of pallens should be in the Tepper Collection, but a list of types we 
have received from the Michigan Agricultural College makes no men- 
tion of this so it is possibly destroyed. Pallens is a desert species, 
described originally from S. Calif., but extending north on the eastern 
side of the Sierras as far as Pyramid Lake, Nevada and possibly even 
into Eastern Oregon. We figure a 9 from the borders of the Mohave 
desert. 

RODRIGUESIA ORNATA Ottol. 

We have carefully examined the type in the National Museum and 
find that in maculation, squammation, and structure it is an exact match 
of Chalcopasta hozvardi with the exception of the palpi which are 
strongly upturned and entirely different to those of howardi. Although 
we could find no trace of glue or shellac we strongly incline to the 



168 

opinion that the head has been neatly glued on the specimen in ques- 
tion, as we cannot believe that two species could resemble each other 
so exactly in every detail except the palpi. It would be necessary for 
the specimen to be relaxed to prove our contention and we must leave 
this to one of the curators of the Museum. Until it is proved to the 
contrary we believe we are justified in assuming that the head is that 
of another species and in sinking ornata to howardi. 

Stiria hutsoni Sm. (PL XIV, Fig. 3). 

We cannot separate this from fuliginosa Sm. after a comparison 
of the types in the Smith Collection. The series of both species vary 
in coloration, good specimens being greenish and worn specimens 
tending towards brown; the maculation is identical. We figure a 9 
from Prescott, Arizona. 

ERASTRIINAE 

Tarachidia neomexicana Sm. 

The type, a $ from Texas (Belfrage) in the National Museum, 
proves to be a form of candefacta Hbn. rather paler than many of our 
specimens from the northern States but quite close to Hubner's figure , 
this form seems to predominate in the south and may prove either 
racial or seasonal. 

EREBINAE 
Syneda faceta Hy. Edw. (PL XIII, Figs. 7, 8). 

The type in New York is a ? not a $ as stated in the original 
description and the name will fall to capticola Wlk. {media Morr.) both 
of which names apply to the $ sex of the same species which shows 
a prominent whitish median area. We figure a pair from Florida. 

HYPENINAE 

Hyamia punctipennis Grt. 

This species is identical with Isogona acnna Barnes and the name 
punctipennis will have priority. The generic reference to Isogona 
seems correct ; the species certainly falls into Parora Sm. which we 
fail to separate from Isogona. The species was figured in our 'Con- 
tributions' Vol. I, No. 4, PL XII, Fig. 22. 

Renia restrictalis Grt. (PL XII, Fig. 8). 

After an examination of the type $ at Philadelphia and a com- 
parison with the type of larvalis Grt. we believe it to be merely a 



169 

rather small specimen of the latter species; the narrow constricted 
reniform and the even brown color of both types point to this asso- 
ciation ; sobrialis Wlk. has a rather broader, shorter reniform and less 
even coloration. Smith has figured the type of restrictalis in his revi- 
sion of the Deltoids (PI. 7, Fig. 1) but the details of maculation do 
not show well ; we figure a $ agreeing with the type. 

Renia centralis Grt. 

The type at Philadelphia is the $ of the same species as that 
described later by Grote from the 5 sex as plenilinealis. Both names 
(and presumably also alutalis Grt., the type of which we could not 
find at Philadelphia) fall before factiosalis Wlk. 

A type of centralis in the British Museum is very worn and pos- 
sibly not the same species as the $ type in Philadelphia which is a 
good specimen and easily recognized ; we would restrict the type 
therefore to this specimen at Philadelphia. Smith has given fairly 
recognizable figures of the species on PI. VI of his Deltoid revision; 
we cannot separate tilosalis Sm. described in Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 
XVII, 70, 1909, and of which we possess cotypes, from factiosalis. 

GEOMETRIDAE 

HEMITHEINAE 

Racheospila obliqua Hist. 

We think the species should be transferred to the above genus 
rather than be left in Nemoria as the palpi in the 2 are decidedly 
long; Mr. Prout to whom we suggested the change, concurred with 
the suggestion, stating that obliqua was unknown to him at the time 
of the revision in the Gen. Insectorum. We are not sure but that 
obliqua and bellonaria may represent seasonal forms ; the type $ of 
obliqua in the Hulst Coll. is rather small and without discal dots, 
whereas bellonaria has distinct discal dots and is larger; all the Colo- 
rado material before us of the former type is dated August, whereas 
the specimens of the latter form were captured in May and June which 
would point to either a double brood or a distinct species. More ma- 
terial than we possess will be necessary to decide the question. 

R. LOUISA Hist. 

The $ type in the Hulst Collection is not the same species as the 
$ type in the National Museum, being a specimen of hulstiana Dyar ; 
this would account for Hulst's misidentification mentioned by Dr. 



170 

Dyar in his description of hulstiana (Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash, IV, 437). 
The type of lonisa must be restricted to the N. Museum specimen. 

R. RUBROMARGINARIA Pack. 

After examining the type at Cambridge we doubt the reference 
of this species to extremaria Wlk. ; Packard's figure of the type is good 
and we would call attention to the lack of the discal spot and the 
heaviness of the white lines ; Walker's description of extremaria 
mentions discal spots, but makes no particular note regarding the 
breadth of the cross lines. More material from Quebec is wanted to 
determine the variability of rubromarginaria. 

Nemoria brunnearia Pack. 

The species was described from 2 9 's although Packard in his 
description mentions three localities. The type $ from W. Va. is 
in Cambridge, Riley's specimen from Missouri in the National Muse- 
um. The species however does not equal bifilata Wlk. according to 
our notes on Walker's type and a colored figure of same before us ; 
Packard's figure is distinctly good and shows the broken red marginal 
line and slightly checkered fringe ; some specimens in our series from 
New Brighton, Pa. show a very decided green tinge overlaid with 
scattered reddish scales which makes us wonder if fresh specimens 
may not always show this coloration. Bifilata will probably prove 
the same as bistriaria Hbn., both types having been presumably taken 
in the same general region, i. e. Georgia ; it is a larger, browner species 
without the red fringe line. 

N. FESTARIA Hist. 

The species was described from 1 $ and 5 9 from 'Cal.' and 
'Ariz.' and the types were stated to be in Coll. Hy. Edwards, Neumoe- 
gen, and Hulst. In the Hulst Collection is a single $ type from 
Arizona which is arizonaria Grt. pure and simple and does not at all 
agree with Hulst's characterization of festaria which calls for 'pink 
fringes and a narrow margin of red on the wings'. In the Hy. Ed- 
wards' Collection is another $ type from San Francisco, Calif, 
which seems to be pistaccaria Pack. In the Neumoegen Coll. are 1 
$ and 1 9 which differ from both of the preceding 'types' ; the $ has 
no locality label, the 9 is labelled 'Ariz.' ; these agree well with 
the description, with the exception that the fringe is not entire- 
ly pink but merely dotted with pink at the ends of the veins. 



171 

In view of the above facts we believe that the type should be restricted 
to the 9 from Arizona in the Neumoegen Collection. At the time 
we had no material with us that agreed with this type, but if our iden- 
tification from our notes is correct, the species should be placed next 
to Racheospila rubrolinearia Pack, to which it bears a close resem- 
blance. 

Chlorochlamys viridipallens Hist. 

The species was described from Colorado and Arizona ; in the 
Hulst Collection is a $ type from Colorado, in the Neumoegen 
Coll. a 9 type from Arizona, this latter being a specimen of volan- 
taria Pears. The $ type, which should hold the name, is also very 
close to volantaria but is a little larger and the hind wing seems paler 
and immaculate as far as can be determined from the poor and faded 
condition of the specimen ; the fore wings show traces of a post- 
median line as in volantaria. The hind tibiae of the type are wanting 
but we think there is no doubt that the species is a Chlorochlamys 
and eventually when fresh material from Colorado is forthcoming, 
it may prove identical with volantaria. 

Merochlora graefiaria Hist. (PI. XV, Fig. 17). 

An examination of the structure of the type 9 in the Neumoe- 
gen Collection has convinced us that this species is identical with that 
described by Mr. Prout (Gen. Insect. Geom. Hemith. p. 222) as 
Merochlora entraphes; the type is worn and faded, the green having 
become a dirty white, but the position of the single white line on the 
primaries is the same and the structure is identical, the two pairs of 
spurs on the hind tibiae and the strongly anastomosed vein C on the 
secondaries being very characteristic. A second 9 type in the Tepper 
Collection in the Michigan Agricultural College at Lansing, Mich., is 
in rather better condition and bears out the above reference. We fig- 
ure a $ from Stockton, Utah. 

OOSPILA LESTERARIA Grossb. 

The type $ in Coll. Barnes has only a single pair of spurs on the 
hind tibiae and distinct abdominal dorsal tufts and will therefore fall 
into a group quite distinct from Racheospila in which genus it was 
placed by the author. Until more material and both sexes are avail- 
able we place it provisionally in Oospila Warr. as it very evidently 
belongs in the small group of genera centering around this genus. 



172 

The species was figured in our Contributions Vol. I, No. 4, PI. 23, 
Fig. 11. 

ACIDALIINAE 

COSYMBIA UMATILLARIA Stkr. 

The species, described under Anisodes, and at present listed under 
Cosymbia, proves, on an examination of the type $ in Coll. Strecker 
at Chicago, to be Glena cognataria Hbn. 

ACIDALIA ANCELLATA Hist. (PI. XV, Fig. 18). 

There seems to have been some mix-up in the types of this species 
and those of A. fuscata Hist. The former species was ostensibly de- 
scribed from 2^3? from Sierra Nevada Mts., Calif., and Arizona ; 
in the Hulst Coll. the only type present is a S from Hot Springs, New 
Mexico, which is certainly spurious ; in the Neumoegen Coll. is another 
spurious $ type from the same locality but also a $ type from Ari- 
zona which is in our opinion the one that should hold the name, thus 
restricting the type locality to Arizona which would not alter the usual 
conception of the species. A. fuscata was described as a variety of 
quinquelinearia Pack, from "1 $ 1 9 Arizona, Coll. Neumoegen and 
Hulst" ; the Neumoegen Coll. contains 1 $ (not 9 ) type from Sum- 
mit, Sierra Nev., Calif., and the Hulst Coll. another $ type from the 
same locality, both agreeing with the meagre description in being dull 
gray with the maculation very similar to that of quinquelinearia; it 
would almost seem as if Hulst had separated out his Sierra Nevada 
specimens from ancellata after the description was written but had 
forgotten to change the text and then placed the erroneous locality of 
Arizona in his description of fuscata; as the 'type' of this latter species 
in the Hulst collection does not contradict Hulst's diagnosis we think 
it would be wise to consider this the true type and the species an in- 
habitant of the High Sierras. It differs from quinquelinearia in the 
more rounded secondaries, the grayer color and the straighter sub- 
marginal line of primaries, being much closer to the Colorado luteolata 
in everything except color. We figure a typical ancellata $ from 
Colorado and also a specimen of our conception of fuscata (PI. XV, 
Fig. 12) from Lake Tahoe, Calif. 

ACIDALIA PERSIMILIS Hist. 

After seeing the types in the Hulst and Neumoegen Collections 
we are forced to the conclusion that the species is the same as Pack- 
ard's quadrilineata. 



173 

ACIDALIA CALIFORNIARIA Pack. 

A study of Packard's types at Cambridge, Mass., of both this 
species and pacificaria has convinced us that the two names represent 
a single species but that in all probability the association with sideraria 
Gn. is incorrect. Both of Packard's forms show strongly haired palpi 
and would fall into Prout's genus Holarctias along with rubrolinearia 
Pack, and sentinaria Hbn. ; rubrolinearia is probably correctly placed 
as a synonym of magnetaria Gn. as Guenee mentions the hairy nature- 
of the head (Tete concolore, tres velue). We are not sure of the 
identity of sideraria Gn. from the description but there is a species 
extending apparently through the same region of California and very 
similar in color and design to calif orniaria Pack, in which the palpi 
are normal, showing very few traces of long hairs ; for the present, 
in lack of any definite knowledge of Guenee's type, which should be 
in the Oberthur collection, we apply the name sideraria to this species. 
Apart from the less hairy palpi it may be distinguished by its rather 
larger size, a tendency to ruddy fringes and a rather more waved and 
more distinct subterminal dark line; rubbed specimens however are 
extremely puzzling to locate. We are also not certain as to whether 
californiaria may not prove to be merely a color form of magnetaria 
Gn. ; for the present we hold them distinct. 

Xystrota suavata Hist. 

This species proves to be very close to Xystrota roseicosta B. & 
McD. from S. Texas ; the two will probably represent races of one 
species ; suavata has an unbroken terminal line and the s. t. line seems 
rather more regular than in our species. Both show a double areole 
which would place them outside of Acidalia or Ptychopoda; for the 
present they may remain in Xystrota Hist. 

Ptychopoda lacteola Lint. (Pi. XIV, Fig. 16). 

An examination of the type in the National Museum shows that 
this is the same species as P. pallida Hist and the name will have 
priority over Hulst's name. We figure a specimen from Kerrville, 
Texas. 

Ptychopoda rotundopennata Pack. (PI. XV, Fig. 6). 

The type from Brunswick, Me., is in the Cambridge Museum 
and proves the species to be the same as that described by Hulst under 
the name of Eois hanhami from Winnipeg, Man.; the types of this 



174 

latter species are in the Hulst and Neumoegen Collections respectively. 
We figure a Calgary $ . 

Ptychopoda demissaria Hbn. 

The synonymy of this species as given in Dyar's list is quite in- 
accurate; ferrugata Pack, is probably correctly listed as a synonym; 
the species was described from specimens from Mass., Ala., and Texas, 
but the type should be restricted to the specimen figured (PI. 10, Fig. 
39) which is in the Cambridge Collection labelled merely '505' but 
most probably the Mass. specimen; russata Hist, from N. Y. is quite 
synonymous with this and both seem to fit in well with Hubner's figure 
of demissaria the type of which was therefore probably from the N. 
Atlantic States. 

Inchisaria Wlk. should probably be held to the Florida race which, 
judging from a few specimens before us, seems to differ somewhat 
from the northern demissaria. 

Bonifata Hist. (PI. XIV, Fig. 17) has nothing to do with this 
species ; the type in the Neumoegen Collection from Arizona is a 
rather large specimen of ptelearia Riley, Hulst's name taking priority. 
We figure a large and well marked 9 from Arizona. 

Eremiata Hist., from Arizona, the type being in Brooklyn, is in 
our opinion a distinct species from demissaria although closely allied ; 
the even ruddy color with obsolescent lines easily separates it. 

Flavescens Hist., held at present as a separate species, looked to 
us, after a careful examination of the type in Rutgers College Coll., 
to be merely a faded or discolored specimen of eremiata; the course 
of the t. p. line was the same and there were traces of the characteris- 
tic dark red costal margin visible. 

Ptychopoda delicata Hist. 

This will fall before bonifata Hist, {ptelearia Riley) ; the species 
seems widely distributed over the whole southwestern portion of the 
United States. 

LARENTIINAE 

Nyctobia vernata Pack. 

The type in the Packard Collection from Brunswick, Me. proves 
to be a worn specimen of Cladara atroliturata Wlk. ; there is however 
another type in the Boston Society Coll. from Brookline, Mass. (Shurt- 
leff) which is anguilineata G. & R. so the name may be held to this 



175 

specimen without disturbing the synonymy. In any case vernata be- 
comes a synonym. 

Lygris atrifasciata Hist. (PI. XIII, Fig. 17). 

This species has already been removed from the synonymy of 
Mesoleuca immanata, where it is listed by Dyar, by Grossbeck (Tr. 
Am. Ent. Soc. XXXIII, 338) who places it in Eustroma; the species 
was described from a single 2 from California and if we have cor- 
rectly identified it from our notes on the type, the $ sex is without a 
hair pencil on the underside of fore wings. The species is very apt 
to be confused with nubilata Pack, but the central broad black fascia 
is more prominent and its inner margin, while irregular, does not 
show the prominent tooth in the cell which characterizes nubilata 
{vide Packard's figure PI. VIII, Fig. 46) ; on the hind wings the 
median line is nearer the base of the wing and more sharply angled, 
forming practically a right angle, and the species is much more uni- 
colorous smoky without the sprinkling of white or yellow scales found 
in nubilata; the abdomen is unspotted whilst in nubilata there is a 
row of subdorsal black spots ; it would seem best placed in Lygris 
being one of the few species of this genus without the hair pencil. 
Judging by the description Warren has redescribed it from Colorado 
as Epirrhoe delimitata. It is apparently wide spread as we have it 
from California, Arizona, Utah, and Colorado (all from high alti- 
tudes). With regard to semiatrata Hist., listed as a synonym of 
nubilata, we would remark that the species was described from 4 
specimens from Colorado but the type in the Hulst Collection is 
labelled 'Washington Terr.' and is therefore spurious ; while it is 
possible that semiatrata should rather be associated with atrifasciata 
than with nubilata we believe that there would be no harm in leaving 
it in its present association until the true type can be discovered. We 
figure a $ of atrifasciata from Truckee, Calif. 

Lygris speciosa Hist. 

This appears to us to be nothing but an aberration of L. xylina 
in which the antemedian yellowish band is broader than usual, en- 
croaching on the space occupied by the dark median band. With 
regard to xylina we might say that the type in the Hulst Collection is 
a $ from New York, to which we would restrict the name, making 
the form from the Eastern States the nimotypical one. 



176 

Hydriomena elisata Stkr. 

The type specimen cannot be distinguished from the common 
European Ortholitha bipunctaria to which in fact Strecker compares 
it. We imagine there has been an error in labelling the specimen and 
that the name should be dropped from our lists. 

Hydriomena similaris Hist. 

This species has been generally totally misidentified owing to a 
grave error on the part of Dr. Hulst ; similaris was described from 
specimens taken in Colorado by Mr. Graef and the true types (1 $, 
1 9 ) are in the Brooklyn Inst. Collection along with a spurious 'type' 
from Maine. In the Hulst Collection the type is labelled 'Nevada' 
and it is from this spurious type that the identifications of the species 
have doubtless been made, for it represents a species remarkably close 
to ruberata Frey, in fact so close that we have never been able to 
separate the two satisfactorily. The types in Brooklyn are entirely 
different and bear out the original description excellently which cer- 
tainly cannot be said to be true of Hulst's specimen ; similaris proves 
according to these true types to be the same species as that described 
later by Mr. Swett under the name glenwoodata and this latter name 
must therefore unfortunately become a synonym. The species was 
figured in our Contributions Vol. I, No. 4, PI. 14, Fig. 24. 

Xanthorhoe nemorella Hist. 

The California specimen mentioned by Hulst in the description 
of the above species is a 9 from Sauzalito (Jan.) according to the 
Hulst collection ; it is, however, a worn specimen of some Hydriomena 
species and has nothing to do with the other types from Aleutian Is., 
Alaska to which the name should be held. 

Xanthorhoe illocata Hist. 

According to the Hulst Collection the type series seems to have 
been mixed as there are two distinct species under this name, one 
being a Dysstroma close to glacialis as far as can be told, and the 
other, represented by a single specimen of which only the fore wings 
are present and these rubbed, being a Xanthorhoe and apparently the 
same as nemorella Hist., it would seem that the type should be re- 
stricted to this specimen as it fits in much better with the original 
diagnosis than do the others; a similar $ is in the Neumoegen Col- 
lection. 



177 

Camptogramma neomexicana Hist. 

The type should be restricted to the 9 from Las Cruces, N. Mex- 
ico in the Hulst Collection ; various spurious types from Texas are 
in both this collection and that of the Brooklyn Institute. The species 
was described from specimens from N. Mexico, Colorado, and Flor- 
ida, but in view of the name we think the type should be restricted as 
above mentioned ; the other types we could not find in any case. 

EUPHYIA GRANDIOSA Hist. 

The type of this species must be considered to be the 9 in the 
National Museum, No. 3927 which evidently served for the original 
description; the type in the Hulst Coll. (probably the specimen men- 
tioned in a note below the description) is an ordinary dark olivaceous 
implicata Gn. of the form described by Packard as multilineata; the 
National Museum specimen is larger, of a rather pinkish color gen- 
erally and will probably represent an Arizona race at least. 

EUPITHECIA MISTURATA Hist. (PI. XIV, Fig. 6). 

The species was described from specimens from Soda Spgs., 
Calif., and Hot Spgs., N. Mex., and a type from each of these locali- 
ties is in the Hulst Collection; as it is very probable that they do 
not belong to one species, the New Mexico specimen being possibly 
referable to huachuca Grossb., we would designate the type of mis- 
turata as the Soda Spgs., Calif., specimen in the Hulst Collection 
labelled 'Type'. We figure a specimen from Shasta Retreat (about 
1 mile from the type locality) where Dr. McDunnough found it very 
plentiful in 1915. 

EUPITHECIA PACKARDATA Taylor. 

The name packardata was proposed by Taylor (C. Ent. XL, 277) 
to supplant geminata Pack, which was erroneously stated to be pre- 
occupied by Eupithccia geminata G. & R. As a matter of fact gem- 
inata G. & R. was described (Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil. VI, 29) under the 
genus Larentia and only at a later date wrongly transferred by the 
authors (Ann. N. Y. Lye. N. H. VIII, 459) to the genus Eupithecia, 
its proper place being in the genus Cladara Hulst. 

The name geminata Pack, will therefore be perfectly valid in the 
genus Eupithecia and will supplant packardata Tayl. if Dr. Taylor be 
correct in his limitation of the name to the 9 type as being a species dis- 
tinct from the $ type which according to him falls to coagulata Gn. We 



178 

have no knowledge on this subject at present but believe the best plan 
will be to follow Taylor until we hear to the contrary. The specimen 
mentioned by Taylor as having been labelled 'type, packardata', in his 
collection is before us and agrees with a specimen which we have com- 
pared with the type of meritata Pears, in New York so that this name 
will also fall. 

GEOMETRINAE 

Mellilla inextricata Wlk. 

We have already noted (Cont. II, p. 206) that the general con- 
ception of this species was erroneous ; it now transpires that the species 
described by Hulst as Diastictis floridensis is a synonym of inextri- 
cata; the type is a 2 from Florida in the Hulst Collection. 

Drepanulatrix (Deilinia) californiaria Pack. 

This species, described as Tephrosia californiaria in Proc. Bost. 
Soc. N. H. XIII, 388, has been placed in Dyar's list as a synonym of 
Alcis imitata Wlk. with which it has absolutely no similarity. It is 
well figured by Packard in his Monograph on Plate XI, Fig. 15, and 
is undoubtedly a Deilinia as an examination of the type in Cambridge 
showed us ; it is closely related to ferrnginosaria Pack., which has 
already been correctly referred to Deilinia by Grossbeck (Jour. N. Y. 
Ent. Soc. XX, 290) and we should not be surprised if, in spite of 
Packard's statement, they proved sexes of one species. Unfortunately 
the type of this latter species seems to be lost and besides the descrip- 
tion we have only the very poor figure published in Proc. Bost. Soc. 
Vol. XVI, PI. I, Fig. 21. The species seems to be distinct from cela- 
taria Hist. 

D. litaria Hist. (PI. XIII. Fig. 14). 

The species was described from 2 $ 's from Colorado and the 
description particularly mentions the fuscous hind wings with a sub- 
marginal row of black spots. The specimen marked 'type' in the 
Hulst Coll. is very worn but distinctly contradicts this statement, the 
hind wings being apparently whitish and immaculate — in fact the 
specimen will probably prove to be a form of falcataria Pack. In the 
Xeumoegen Coll. however is a 'Type' from Colorado which fits the 
description excellently and we propose that this be considered the 
true type. It is the same species as that described later by Hulst as 
Deilinia fumosa and this latter name will fall. It is possible that the 



179 

type labels of litaria and electa have become interchanged in the Hulst 
Collection as the specimen labelled 'type electa' agrees with the de- 
scription of litaria and vice versa. Grossbeck is probably correct in 
sinking electa to falcataria Pack. We figure what we consider to be 
the true litaria from Truckee, Calif. 

D. indurata Dyar. 

The type in the National Museum is from Placer Co., Calif. ; it 
is undoubtedly the same species as celataria Hist, and almost an exact 
match of the type of Lozogramma merccdulata Stkr. according to a 
specimen compared for us with the type by the late J. H. Grossbeck. 

D. hulsti Dyar. (Pi. XIII, Fig. 13). 

Dr. Dyar, in his very brief characterization of Catopyrrha hulsti 
(Proc. Wash. Ent. Soc. VI, 226) has neglected to state the locality 
and sex of his type specimen. The type in the National Museum is 
a S from Los Angeles Co., Calif., and is the same species as that 
described later by Grossbeck as Deilinia lenitaria, a very pardonable 
error on the part of the latter author in view of the above facts. We 
figure a $ cotype of lenitaria. 

D. HELENA Hist. 

This species, described under Diastictis from a single 9 proves 
to be merely a rather aberrant form of liberaria Wlk. {lintneraria 
Pack.), very similar to the 9 figured by Packard on Plate IX, Fig. 
37 of the Monograph; this specimen is still in the Packard Collection, 
but the other types of lintneraria we could not find at Cambridge. 

D. BEHRENSARIA Hist. 

The species was described from a number of specimens from 
California, Nevada, and Arizona ; the 'types', 2 $ 's, in the Hulst Col- 
lection are labelled respectively 'Col.' and 'Rossland' and are therefore 
spurious although possibly the first may be an error for 'Cal.'. A type 
from Soda Spgs., Calif., is in the Neumoegen Collection and we pro- 
pose to restrict the type to this specimen as the locality is one in which 
Behrens did a good deal of collecting and we may therefore presume 
the specimen was one of the type lot. 

Phasiane (Macaria) lapitaria Stkr. 

This proves to be a synonym of sublacteolata Hist. 



180 

P. conarata Grossb. (PI. XII, Fig. 4). 

We fail to separate this species from colorata Grt. the types of 
which are in the Brooklyn Inst. Both show a rather ruddy coloration 
on the primaries and fairly heavy terminal dark shades on the under- 
side of both wings. P areata Grossb. (Fig. 5) is very closely allied 
but may usually be distinguished at once by the prominent discal spot 
on the secondaries. We figure $ 's of both species from Redington, 
Arizona. 

P. DELECTATA Hist. (PI. XIV, Fig. 9). 

The species was described from 1 $ from Colorado and this 
specimen is in the Neumoegen Coll., the type in the Hulst Coll. from 
Arizona being spurious. We doubt greatly if this should be made 
synonymous with muscariata Gn. which from the description seems to 
be closely allied to respersata Hist., which occurs in California as well 
as Colorado; Boisduval (1869, Lep. de la Cal. p. 91) lists muscariata 
as having been taken by Lorquin so it is probable the types came from 
the region of Placer Co., Calif. It is to be sincerely hoped that M. 
Oberthur will continue publishing figures of Guenee's Geometrid 
types so that we can definitely establish their identity. We figure a 
9 from Colorado which agrees with the type of delectata. 

P. PALLIDATA Pack. 

Listed at present in the synonymy of calif orniata Pack, the 
species proves distinct and very close to parcata Grossb.; the type in 
the Cambridge Mus. is a 9 and is the species figured by ourselves 
(Cont. II (3) PI. VI, Figs. 10-12) doubtfully as parcata, 

P. subacuta Hist. (PI. XIV, Fig. 10). 

This species was described under Diastictis from specimens from 
Colorado and Nevada and as a $ specimen is mentioned in the de- 
scription we should suppose that the 6 antennae were pectinate. The 
only types we have been able to discover however were 1 9 from 
Colorado in the Hulst Coll. and 1 9 from Nevada in the Neumoegen 
Coll. ; the former is the same as respersata Hist, and the latter from 
our notes would also appear to agree. Apart from the supposed pec- 
tinate $ antennae the original description fits excellently with these 
specimens and we believe the only course open is to limit the type to 
the specimen in the Hulst Coll. and presuppose an error on Hulst's 
part regarding the $ antennae; in this case subacuta becomes a syn- 



181 

onym of respersata only differing in lacking the black spot opposite 
the cell beyond t. p. line which is a variable feature in the series be- 
fore us. Teucaria Stkr., described from Seattle, Wash., is a large 
form of the same species which occurs also on Vancouver Is., B. C. 
We figure a typical 5 respersata (Fig. 10) from Colorado and also 
a $ of teucaria (PI. XIII, Fig. 18) from Vancouver Is. 

P. HEBETATA Hist. (PI. XIV, Fig. 7). 

The species was described from 2 $ from Colo, and the only type 
we could locate was a very worn ? in the Hulst Coll. too rubbed for 
accurate identification ; from the description, which mentions a broad 
pale s. t. line, we should judge that hebetata was a rather immaculate 
form of Grossbeck's decorata, our series from Stockton, Utah, show- 
ing great variability. The very similar species from Arizona with 
less sinuate t. p. line and apparently no white s. t. line, which has 
often been called hebetata, is yavapai Grossb. We imagine from the 
description that sinuata Warr. (Nov. Zool. XI, 561, 1904) will be 
one of the species of this group but without a knowledge of the type 
specimen it is almost impossible to place ; in any case, if we are at all 
correct in our association, the name sinuata cannot be used as it is 
preoccupied by sinuata Pack. (1874). We figure typical ? 's of both 
decorata (Fig. 7) and yavapai (Fig. 8). 

P. excurvata Pack. (PI. XIV, Figs. 13, 14). 

The type of this species, a $ from the Rocky Mts. (Grote) is 
in the Cambridge Mus. Coll. and proves the species to be the same 
as spodopterata Hist., over which it takes priority. The type of this 
latter species in the Hulst Coll. is a Colorado $ whilst in the Neumoe- 
gen Coll. is a $ from California, both representing the same species. 
Cinereola Hist., described from Colorado under Diastictis is, accord- 
ing to the type $ from Glenwood Spgs., Colo., in the Hulst Coll., a 
rather poorly marked specimen of this same species; in the $ sex, 
judging by our series, the t. p. line tends to bend slightly inward at 
costa instead of continuing parallel to the outer margin as in the $ . 
Orillata Wlk. of which excurvata has heretofore been considered a 
synonym is a smaller species with more strongly curved and usually 
heavier t. p. line; curvata Grt. (cruciata Grt.) represents this species 
in the west and is scarcely separable even as a race. We figure a $ 
and $ of excurvata from Glenwood Spgs., Colorado. 



182 

P. AUCILLARIA Stkr. 

This species, described from a single 9 from Florida appears to 
be identical with ordinata Wlk., described from a specimen from the 
Milne Coll., locality unknown; most of the N. Am. specimens in this 
collection however came from Georgia and if we presume that this 
was the case with the type of ordinata the two type localities would be 
practically identical. 

Macaria grassata Hist. 

The species was described from a specimen from Colorado but 
the 'type' in the Hulst Coll. is labelled Florida ; under praeatomata 
Haw. is a specimen labelled 'Colo.' which may be the true type; the 
two are identical and neither from the description nor from the 'type' 
specimen can we separate grassata from praeatomata. 

M. SIMULATA Hist. 

Described from 2 $ in the Graef and Hulst Coll., no locality 
given ; in the Hulst Coll. the 'type' is a 9 from Arizona and in the 
Graef Coll. we found a S type from Texas ; this latter being prob- 
ably the true type; the species, as already noted, is apparently the 
same as punctolineata Pack. 

Genus Diastictis Hbn. 

This genus, as used by Meyrick and Hulst, is preoccupied by 
Diastictis Hbn. in the Pyralidae (1818, Zutr. Ex. Schmet. p. 21). The 
next valid name is apparently Itame Hbn. (Verz. p. 299) of which the 
wauaria group is the typical section. 

Diastictis ella Hist. 

The type is a 9 from Washington State and is probably referable 
to Deilinia but we are not prepared to say to which species as the 
specimen appears rather aberrant. 

D. QUADRILINEARIA Pack. (PI. XIV, Fig. 11). 

This species has been placed as a synonym of bitactata Wlk. but 
quite erroneously ; the type in the Packard Coll., which agrees excel- 
lently with the description, proves the species to be the same as that 
described later by Hulst under the name inquinaria. It is common 
all through the Sierra Nevadas. We figure a $ specimen from San 
Bernardino Mts., Calif. 



183 

D. OLIVALIS Hist. 

According to the type in the National Museum the species appears 
to us to be the same as argillacearia Pack, which is very doubtfully the 
same as inceptaria Wlk. 

D. MINUTA Hist. 

The type must be restricted to the 9 in the Neumoegen Coll. 
from Arizona ; the so-called type 9 in the Hulst Coll. from Texas 
does not agree with Hulst's description, the discal spots being mere 
dots and not ringlets as stated and the specimen probably being a small 
pallidata Pack. Minuta would seem best placed in Phasiane near 
infimata Gn. the o antennae being merely ciliate and not pectinate. 

D. SUBFALCATA Hist. (PI. XV, Fig. 11). 

The species was described from three 9 's from Colorado and a 
difference in color between the specimens is mentioned in the descrip- 
tion ; the gray specimen to which Hulst refers is in his collection and 
is probably a 9 of coloradensis Hist. ; another 9 type from Platte 
Canyon, Colo., (which will hold the name), is much yellower and 
falls into the occiduaria group, in fact we should not be surprised if it 
proved to be the 9 of that species which we do not definitely know ; 
a third type of snbfalcata, similar to the true type is in the Neumoe- 
gen Collection. We figure a 9 from Utah which agrees with these 
latter types. 

HOMOCHLODES FAMULATA Hist. 

The species described under the above name proves on an exam- 
ination of the type 9 in the Hulst Coll. to be a melanic aberration of 
Fiufidonia notataria Wlk., the wings being deep brown with a wavy 
white s. t. line ; the prominent discal dot very readily establishes the 
relationship. 

Glaucina escaria Grt. 

After a careful study of the types in the Brooklyn Inst, we are 
not at all certain that the $ and 9 types represent the same species ; 
Grote in his description referred to the $ as smaller and darker and 
this is true, the hind wings especially being evenly fuscous and show- 
ing beneath no trace of a dark border as found in the 9 . The 9 is, 
we think, the species described later by Dr. Dyar as erroraria, the 
type 9 in the National Museum bearing the locality label 'Hot Spg. 
Arizona'. The name escaria, in case the differences prove specific, 



184 

must be held by the $ type in Brooklyn. We have not yet seen any 
$ 's that could be definitely determined as erroraria so that it is of 
course still possible that the differences noted above are sexual and not 
specific. 

COENOCHARIS OBSCURA Gl'OSSb. 

The name will be held by the type $ in Coll. Barnes from S. 
Arizona (Poling) ; of the 3 Cotypes in the Am. Museum of Natural 
History two are interruptaria Grt. and the other we think is ochrofus- 
caria Grt. ; the type $ seems to show certain points of distinction 
from the type 2 of ochrofuscaria but this may of course, when long 
series are obtainable, prove merely sexual. 

C. macdunnoughi Grossb. 

The 9 type of this species before us proves to have a claw on 
the fore-tibia and will fall into the genus Glaucina. 

Chesiadodes bidisata Dyar. 

This species proves to be identical with Gabriola minima Hist.; 
the type is rather dark but there is a specimen exactly similar under 
minima in the National Museum Collection. 

Cleora aethalodaria Dyar. 

This species has been referred by Grossbeck as a synonym of 
inconspicua Hist. ; the types in the National Museum are rather rub- 
bed and consequently difficult to place definitely; it seemed to us as if 
the $ was a specimen of zvrightiarium and the 2 of inconspicua; in 
any case the name will fall. 

C FULIGINARIA Hist. 

This appears to be a melanic aberration ; the maculation is almost 
entirely lost in the general smoky color of both wings so that it is a 
little difficult to say to which species it should be referred ; indicataria 
Wlk. would seem to be the most likely species. 

C. MURICOLOR Hist. 

This appears to be merely another synonym of Glena cognataria 
Hbn. a species which has certainly come in for an undue amount of 
attention from the various authors of our Geometrid names. 

C. LALLATA Hist. (PI. XIII, Fig. 12). 

The type must be restricted to the $ in the Hulst Coll. from S. 
Francisco Mts., Arizona, the $ type in the Neumoegen Coll. from 



185 

Prescott, Ariz., being referable to lixaria Grt. ; the specimen from 
Senator, Arizona, we have not seen. Lallata is very similar to lixaria 
but the median shade of primaries is nearly straight and not prom- 
inently angled as in lixaria (PI. XIII, Fig. 11), the t. a. line is irreg- 
ularly bulging in its central portion and not slightly incurved as in the 
latter species and the s. t. line is distinctly more dentate. We figure 
typical 9 's of both species. 

C. rufaria Grt. (PI. XIII, Figs. 15, 16). 

The single 9 type of this species in the Neumoegen Coll. is 
identical in maculation with the 9 type of obliquaria Grt. in the 
same collection ; the specimen is very worn and this probably ac- 
counts for its rather reddish tinge; we believe the name should sink 
to obliquaria. We figure a $ and 9 from Redington, Arizona, to 
show the sexual differences. 

C. LURIDULA Hist. 

The type 9 from Florida appears to be a large 9 of Glena cog- 
nataria Hbn. It is worn and without maculation but the peculiar color 
and sprinkling of dark dots above and below make its reference to 
this species fairly obvious. 

C. MAESTOSA Hist. 

The type $ in the Nat. Museum, a worn specimen, is apparently 
referable to indicataria Wlk. but is rather more suffused with black- 
ish than Walker's type specimen, according to a specimen before us 
compared with this latter type. Hulst is doubtful as to whether the 
specimen came from Ta.' or 'Ga.' but inclines to think it is Iowa ; 
after examining the written label we personally would be in favor of 
Georgia as the type locality and this is further corroborated by pre- 
sumable Florida specimens before us which are closer to Hulst's type 
than Northern ones which represent typical indicataria. The wings of 
the type show yellow markings on the veins subterminally, the abdo- 
men extends well beyond the hind wings and the antennae are strongly 
bipectinate, all points which render the reference of maestosa to indi- 
cataria Wlk. fairly certain ; in any case filaria Wlk. described from 
Florida and listed as a synonym of indicataria would take precedence 
over maestosa if a name for the southern form should be necessary. 

C. VELLIVOLATA Hist. 

The species was described from a single 9 from Florida which 
is in the Neumoegen Coll. ; the $ type in the Hulst Collection is spur- 
ious although probably the same species. 



186 

Phigalia nevadaria Hist. 

The $ type of this species from Colorado is in the Hulst Coll. ; 
apart from being slightly smaller and darker we cannot separate it 
from titea of which it appears to be a mere race. A $ type from 
Nevada is in the Neumoegen Coll. but is too worn and stained to 
place accurately. 

Neoterpes ephelidaria Hist. 

The $ and 9 types were stated to have been taken in Nevada; 
the $ type in the Hulst Coll. is labelled Colorado and therefore pre- 
sumably spurious although agreeing with the description ; a $ type 
from Nevada is in the Neumoegen Coll. but has a prominent t. p. line 
contrary to the description ; a 5 type from Nevada is in the Hulst 
Coll. but this is a macularia form. 

Ellopia laeta Hist. 

The $ type in the Hulst Coll. proves to be a very small specimen 
of what we described later as flaz'ilinearia; the description is mislead- 
ing in stating that the outer line is angled below the costa for as a 
matter of fact it is straight or only very slightly rounded ; as however 
the rest of the description fits the specimen and the locality is correct 
we presume the 'type' must be considered authentic and sink our name 
accordingly; the species was figured in our Contributions Vol. II (3) 
PI. VIII, Figs. 1 and 3. 

E. LUGUBROSA Hist. 

This species, described from Rossland B. C, was referred by 
Hulst to fcrvidaria as a possible variety. After examining the types 
we think the form should be associated with fiscellaria; apart from 
a slightly smokier color it cannot be separated from the ordinary East- 
ern specimens ; the name for the present at least may be held for the 
western race; it is possible johnsoni Swett may prove identical but 
we do not know this form. 

Plagodis arrogaria Hist. (PI. XIV, Fig. 12). 

It would be well to restrict the type of this species to the $ from 
N. Y. in the Hulst Coll. ; types are also in the Graef and Neumoegen 
Collections but that in the latter is probably not the same species. 
Arrogaria is characterized by a distinct discal dot with a general lack 



187 

of definite lines on the forewings; occasionally a t. p. line is visible 
and then it is evenly rounded below costa and not oblique as in fervi- 
daria H. S. (emargataria Gn.). We figure a $ from Decatur, 111. 
which shows the t. p. line fairly distinctly. 

GONODONTIS APICIARIA Pack. 

There are apparently two species involved in the types of this 
species in the Packard Coll. The $ type from Hyde Pk., Boston 
agrees with the figure in the Monograph (PI. 12, Fig. 9) and will 
hold the name; 2 2 types from Maine and Salem, Mass. appear to 
belong to warneri Harv. Apiciaria has a distinctly excavated margin 
of hind wings in contradistinction to warneri in which it is nearly 
evenly rounded. 

Euchlaena novellata Hist. (PI. XIV, Figs. 4, 5). 

This species has been placed by Hulst in Dyar's list under Sabu- 
lodes but we query the correctness of the reference; the types, 1 $ 
and 1 2 , are stated to be in the Neumoegen and Tepper Coll. A 2 
type is in the former collection which agrees excellently with the de- 
scription but we have no record of any type in the Tepper Coll. and 
doubt if Hulst really had a $ before him; there is another so-called 
2 type from Prescott, Ariz, in the Hulst Coll. which may or may 
not have been one of the original specimens ; we think it well to limit 
the name to the type 2 in the Neumoegen Coll. which proves to be 
the other sex of what is at present listed as Therina cavillaria Hist, 
described from a single $ specimen from Arizona, the latter name 
having priority ; regarding the generic position we are in doubt until 
a thorough revision of the group has been made but the species 
strongly suggests Euchlaena sesquilinearia Grt. (PI. XIV, Fig. 3) 
from which indeed it only differs in its smaller size and lighter color, 
being freer from speckles ; the faint hair line beyond the t. p. line is 
quite characteristic of both species which may eventually prove to be 
seasonal forms; in any case they may be placed next to each other 
in our lists for the present. We figure a $ and 2 of cavillaria 
from Palmerlee, Arizona and a typical $ of sesquilinearia from Red- 
ington, Arizona. 

Euchlaena argillaria Hist. 

The so-called $ type in the Hulst Coll. is spurious, being labelled 
'Calif.', whereas the description calls for Arizona as type locality; the 
true type is in the Neumoegen Coll. along with another spurious type 



188 

from California. These California specimens appear very closely 
related to galbanaria Hist, the type 2 of which is in the Hulst Coll. ; 
the true argillaria is grayer in color, with more prominent discal dot 
and stronger angle in t. p. line below costa. 

Synaxis jubararia Hist. (PI. XIV, Fig. 1). 

The 9 type from Washington State is well figured in Holland's 
Moth Book (PI. 45, Fig. 20) ; the species described later as pallulata 
Hist. (Fig. 2), which is the type of the genus Synaxis, is possibly an 
aberrant form of the $ . A long series before us from Vancouver 
Is., B. C. shows great variability in color and markings ; the 9 's are 
usually quite reddish, the S 's paler, often quite pale ochreous with 
the cross lines heavily bordered with black or the median space filled 
with darker scaling, this latter being typical pallulata; we figure $ 's 
of both forms from Vancouver Island. 

Pherne mellitularia Hist. (PI. XV, Figs. 7, 8). 

Hulst based this name in part on Packard's description in the 
Monograph of parallelia and his Figs. 42 and 43, PI. XII, claiming 
that the name parallelia must be restricted to Fig. 42 as two species 
were involved. He had however without doubt misidentified par- 
allelia for he makes it synonymous with excelsa Stkr. (Ent. Am. I 
202) a species from Colorado and Arizona with nowpectinate antennae 
in the 9 whereas Packard in the Monograph claims pectinate anten- 
nae for both sexes. The original description of parallelia is poor, as 
Hulst states, but if we combine the fact that the type specimen came 
from Behrens (Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. XVI, 38) with the statement 
in the Monograph under parallelia (p. 551) that Packard had two 
specimens from Behrens taken at Sauzalito, it is probable that the 
type locality for parallelia is Sauzalito, i. e. the vicinity of San Fran- 
cisco Bay ; the species is probably double brooded on the coast as we 
have specimens from Oakland taken in May and September. 

Hulst gives Arizona, California, and Nevada as type localities 
for melliUilaria, describing the species from 5 $ 3 9 in the collec- 
tions of Tepper, Hy. Edwards, and Hulst. Of these type specimens 
all we could find were 1 9 from Summit, Sierra Nevadas, Calif, in 
the Plulst Collection and 2 9 's from the same locality in the Hy. 
Edwards' Collection ; the other specimens may have been removed 
from the series later by Hulst as not being conspecific or they may 
have been destroyed ; at all events we think it wise that the 'Type' 



189 

should be restricted to the 9 in the Hulst Coll. This 9 is extremely 
close to the presumable type in the Packard Collection of parallelia 
which agrees well with Fig. 42 of the Monograph but in view of the 
difference in type localities we think there are probably distinctions 
enough to warrant the retention of the names for at least racial forms ; 
mellitularia will however, we believe, fall to placeraria Gn. described 
from a specimen taken by Lorquin, the type being figured by Ober- 
thur in Etudes de Lep. Comp. Fasc. VI, PI. 156, Fig. 1510. These 
forms or races may be distinguished from the closely allied subpunctata 
Hist, by the presence of a bent median line on the underside of secon- 
daries which is practically lacking in subpunctata; this latter species 
is also more heavily sprinkled with purplish or reddish scales and is 
apparently confined to the more southerly regions of California, being 
common around San Diego. We figure a $ and 9 from Oakland, 
Calif, captured May 28th of what we consider to be parallelia Pack. 
We further figure a 9 (Fig. 13) from Lake Tahoe of placeraria 
(mellitularia) taken in July and a $ of subpunctata (Fig. 14) from 
San Diego, Calif. 

Caberodes majoraria Gn. 

M. Oberthur has figured the type of this species in fitudes de Lep. 
Comp. Fasc. VI, PI. 157, No. 1522 and mentions in the text (p. 288) 
that this does not at all agree with Packard's figure of majoraria in 
the Monograph (PI. XII, Fig. 32). According to the figure majoraria 
is a synonym of confusaria, having the t. p. line angled below costa 
just as in this species; this will leave majoraria of Packard without 
a name ; it is a larger, heavier species with scalloped outer margin of 
secondaries and t. p. line of primaries slightly rounded outwardly 
below costa but not angled as in confusaria; it is also further removed 
from the apex of the wing, slightly incurved below cell and often 
followed by a dark shade as in Packard's figure; the underside of both 
wings is sprinkled with yellow scales. The species hardly appears 
to be correctly located in Caberodes and the emarginate nature of the 
secondaries suggests Euchlacna to our mind. We propose the name 
irraria for the species, the type $ in Coll. Barnes having been cap- 
tured at Chicago, 111. (Kwiat) ; there are Co-types in the collection 
from New Brighton, Pa., and Cartwright, Man. 



190 

Sabulodes dyari Grossb. (PI. XV, Figs. 9, 10, 15, 16). 

This species, described from a single $ specimen from the 
Huachuca Mts., Ariz., originally from the Barnes' Coll., we cannot 
separate from arisonata Tayl. As is usual in the group there is con- 
siderable variation in the ground color and that of the cross lines and 
in some specimens of our series heavy black subterminal blotches are 
found; the type of maculation, size, and wing shape are the same 
however in both. We should not be surprised if ligata Grossb. should 
also prove a synonym ; one of the types is before us, a very rubbed 
specimen, and we have recently examined the other type in the Na- 
tional Museum; ligata (PI. XV, Fig. 15) is a little larger, slightly more 
sprinkled with black dots and the t. a. line shows slight irregularity 
of outline (not rigidly straight as in arisonata) ; our dated material 
would however rather point to its being the first generation of arison- 
ata, our specimens being captured in April and May whilst the dates 
for arisonata (dyari) range through August and September. The 
form of arisonata with black subterminal spots has been generally 
passing as Eugonobapta ochrcata Hist, but we think incorrectly so, as 
this latter species, while probably a Sabulodes, shows a distinct and 
sharp angle in t. p. line below costa. We figure typical arisonata and 
ligata and also a couple of specimens showing the subterminal blotches 
in varying degrees of intensity ; all the specimens are from Palmerlee, 
Arizona. 

PYRALIDAE 

PYRAUSTINAE 

Glaphyria salutalis Hist. 

The type of this species, a single S from Oregon, is in the 
Rutgers' Coll. and seems distinct, at least racially, from eripalis Grt. 
which shows a much deeper brown color on both wings. Ochralis 
Haim., described from Denver, Colo., of which we have a Co-type 
before us, is however a synonym of salutalis. 

Blepharomastix acutangulalis Snell. 

This name, according to Snellen's figure (1875 Tijd. v. Ent. PI. 
XI, Fig. 11) will have priority over santatalis B. & McD., described 
from Brownsville, Texas. 



191 

LOXOSTEGE PERGILVALIS Hist. 

The species was described from 3 ? 's from Arizona ; the only 
? type from this locality that we could find is in the Hy. Edwards' 
Coll. In the Hulst Coll. the type is labelled 'Colorado' and in the 
Neumoegen Coll. the type, while labelled 'Arizona', is a $ . The type 
therefore must be restricted to the specimen in the Edwards' Coll. 
The name falls before coloradensis G. & R. as listed by Dyar. 

L. lulualis Hist. 

The species was described from 2 $ 's from Calif, and Anticosti 
Is. respectively; the California Type is in the Hy. Edwards' Coll. 
labelled 'Soda Spgs.' and is the same as anartalis Grt. ; the Anticosti 
type is in the Hulst Coll. and is not exactly the same, lacking the 
white s. t. banding of primaries and having less black at the base of 
secondaries; the name should be held to this latter type which is 
probably at least a good racial form. 

NOCTUELIA BUBUBATTALIS Hist. 

The species described by ourselves as N. tectalis will sink to bubn- 
battalis; the type from Colorado seems to have rather darker hind 
wings than our Arizona tectalis so it is possible that two races may 
be involved but we have seen no Colorado material other than the 
type. Tectalis was figured in our Contributions Vol. II (6), PI. II, 
Fig. 10. 

CRAMBINAE 

C. carpenterellus Pack. (PI. XIV, Fig. 18). 

After an examination of the type series of this species we are 
forced to the conclusion that oslarellus Haim. must become a synonym. 
Packard's figure of carpenterellus (Rep. Hayd. Sur. PI. I. Fig. 1) is 
rather crude, the angles in the white streak being too accentuated, 
due probably to the rubbed condition of Packard's specimens ; the 
statement that the hind wings are white is also misleading; they are 
distinctly smoky just as Haimbach claims for oslarellus of which spe- 
cies we have one of the Co-types before us from the Kearfott Coll. 
We figure a $ from Denver, Colorado (Oslar). 

EPIPASCHIINAE 

Epipaschia interruptella Rag. (PI. XIV, Fig. 15). 

Apart from the dimensions given the description of this species 
fits in so exactly with that of dentilineella Hist, that we believe the two 



192 

names are synonyms and that the expanse of 33 mm. given in the 
original description is possibly a printer's error for 23 mm. The type 
localities coincide, the species being apparently quite common and 
wide spread in Southern Arizona ; it is therefore extremely probable 
that Morrison, who supplied Ragonot with his Arizona material, would 
have captured this species on one of his trips. Unfortunately the 
type of interrupt ella seems to have been lost or destroyed ; it was the 
only one of the Ragonot types we could not find in his collection in 
the Paris Museum. We figure a $ from Redington, Arizona. 

Oneida lunulalis Hist. 

In the original description Hulst gives the type locality as 'Colo- 
rado' ; later in his revision of the Epipaschids (Ent. Am. V, 64) he 
only records the species from Canada and N. Y. ; the type 9 in the 
Hulst Coll. is labelled 'Canada' and there is another type 9 in the 
Neumoegen Coll. without definite locality labelled 'Cook 6/25/86'. 
Eoth these types agree well with the description and in view of the 
fact that later Hulst himself described the true Colorado species as 
luniferella we believe we are justified in assuming that he was guilty 
of some error of transcription for we greatly doubt if lunulalis is 
found in Colorado at all, being apparently an Eastern species. It 
would seem best under the existing circumstances to accept the 9 from 
Canada in the Hulst Coll. as being a true type. In several other in- 
stances we have noted discrepancies in this family between the local- 
ities given in the descriptions and the labels on the so-called 'types' and 
when we remember that Hulst had the atrocious habit of labelling 
specimens long after the original description had appeared with the 
word 'type', (apparently in the sense of 'typical') the difficulty of 
discriminating between the true and the false types is greatly increased 
and often made impossible by these further blunders of transcription. 

Tetralopha nephelotella Hist. 

This is another instance of a discrepancy between the locality 
given in both the description and the revision, viz. 'Penn.' and that 
found on the 9 type in the Hulst Coll. which is Blanco Co., Texas. 
This specimen gives evidence of having been denuded on the under 
side in order that the venation should be examined, it also agrees in 
venation with Hulst's characterization of the genus Loma, created 
for nephelotella, and finally corresponds well in both sex and macula- 
tion with the original description. We think therefore that the type 



193 

is probably authentic but has at some time or other received an incor- 
rect locality label. Clcmensalis Dyar is a synonym and the form is ap- 
parently an aberrational one of aspcratclla Clem, as placed by Dr. 
Dyar. 

T. APLASTELLA Hist. 

The species was described and made the type of the genus Tioga 
Hist, neither type locality, sex, nor number of specimens being given 
but apparently only 9 's serving for the original description. In the 
revision (Ent. Am. V, 69) Hulst has both sexes and gives Texas 
(April) as locality; the only 'Type' we could locate is a 9 in the 
Hulst Coll. labelled 'Colo.' which has been examined for venation and 
appears to agree with the characterization of Tioga except that 6 of 
primaries is not stalked with 7-9; the specimen looks like asperatella 
Clem, but in view of the inadequate description and the great dis- 
crepancy of labels we cannot decide as to whether the specimen is an 
authentic type or not. 

PHYCITINAE 

Myelois obnupsella Hist. 

The localities given in the original description are Canada and 
Florida ; the $ Type in the Hulst Coll. is from Canada and we think 
the name should be held to this type as the Florida specimen is not 
to be found and in any case it is doubtful if it would be conspecific. 
The species seems common in Manitoba as we have a series from 
Aweme (Criddle) ; the figure in Ragonot's Monograph (PI. 50, Fig. 
7) is quite erroneous, the wings being too broad and short and show- 
ing no trace of a transverse white band about l /$ from base of primar- 
ies which is generally more or less distinct ; according to Ragonot's 
figure of subtetricella (PI. V, Fig. 9), obnupsella must be very close, 
if not identical, with Ragonot's species. A 'type' of obnupsella in the 
Neumoegen Coll. is not a Myelois at all but Vitula edmandsi Pack. 

M. TEXANELLA Hist. 

This species and dulciella Hist, do not belong in the genus Myelois 
as vein 2 of secondaries is quite close to the angle of cell ; they are 
very closely related to each other according to the types in the Hulst 
Coll. and would appear best placed for the present in the genus Taco- 
ma; we have however seen no $ of texanella and our notes on the 
types leave us rather in doubt as to whether the type of dulciella is a 
$ or 9 . 



194 

M. LEUCOPHAEELLA Hist. 

In the Hulst Coll. the type 9 of this species besides the type label 
bears simply a label 'Gillette' but agrees well with the original descrip- 
tion; it is not a Myclois at all but Meroptera unicolorella Hist.; the 
type was stated to have been captured in Iowa which is a locality 
in which unicolorella will doubtless occur and we therefore think it is 
correct to assume that the specimen in the Hulst Coll. is the true type 
and sink the name to unicolorella. 

M. BISTRIATELLA Hist. 

The species was described from 2 specimens from Washington, 
D. C. ; the type in the Hulst Coll. bears a label 'Iowa' which may have 
been misplaced from the type of the preceding species ; the specimen 
certainly does not correspond with the description of leucophacella 
but agrees excellently with that of bistriatella so we consider that it 
would be wise to assume that there has been an interchange of locality 
labels rather than of type labels. Judging by Ragonot's figure of 
bilineatella (PI. V, Fig. 10) and the figure published later of bistria- 
tella (PI. 50, Fig. 9) the two are correctly listed as synonyms. Im- 
mundclla Hist., described from Texas, appears to us however to be a 
good species and not another synonym. 

ACROBASIS HEBESCELLA Hist. 

The type in the Rutgers' Coll. is a 9 from N. J. the label read- 
ing 'on oak, Jersey, Pines, VI, 23' ; the specimen is in hopeless condi- 
tion and impossible to identify accurately ; the specimen mentioned 
in the description from Texas is also in the collection but not labelled 
type ; it is also very worn. Until the species has been bred from oak 
in N. Jersey it will be impossible to definitely fix the identity of hebes- 
cclla; we doubt if Dr. Dyar's identification is correct for the speci- 
mens mentioned in his revision (Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., X, 44) were 
bred from pecan ; as Hulst very clearly associated the name in his de- 
scription with an oak feeding species we should be greatly surprised 
if these pecan feeders proved identical. 

A. FRUCTETELLA Hist. 

This species was described from 4 9 's from Arizona and Texas ; 
we have been unable to locate the Arizona types but there is a 9 Type 
from Blanco Co., Texas in the Hulst Coll. and another from the 
same locality in the Neumoegen Coll. to which we would restrict the 



195 

name and which we have matched exactly with a 9 from Kerrville, 
Texas ; $ 's of the species before us show that fructetella must be 
referred to the genus Salebria and is the same species as S. rectistri- 
gella Dyar which sinks as a synonym. 

A. TENUELLA B. & McD. 

This name will fall before slossonclla Hist, described in the 
genus Salebria; the species is an Acrobasis. 

MlNEOLA RUBESCENTELLA Hist. 

This cannot be left in the genus Mineola as vein 2 of the hind 
wings is close to the angle of the cell ; without a $ however it is im- 
possible to correctly place it. For the present it may be placed in 
Nephopteryx. 

Ulophora brunneella Dyar. 

This proves to be a synonym of Dioryctria clarioralis Wlk. de- 
scribed from Florida. 

MONOPTILOTA PERGRATIALIS Hist. 

This species, described as a Nephopteryx from Fla., proves to be 
the same species as that described later from the $ sex as nubilella 
Hist, and for which the genus Monoptilota was created; the type $ 
of nubilella is also from Florida; Hulst also gives Maryland and Ala- 
bama as type localities but we could not find these specimens. 

PlNIPESTIS UMBRIPENNIS Hist. 

The type $ from Colorado is in the Hulst Coll. and is the same 
species as that described later by Dr. Dyar as Ortholepis gillettella; on 
account of the heavy scale tuft at the base of the $ antennae and the 
scale ridge on the fore wings the species seems to us best placed in 
the genus Tlascala Hist. ; it has considerable affinity to finitella Wlk. 

Genus Tacoma Hist. 

Dr. Dyar has already noted (Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. VI, 112) 
that the original characterization of this genus calls for ' $ antennae 
simple' whereas in the revision a tuft of scales on the $ antennae 
is mentioned ; unfortunately, without examining the generic type 
(feriella Hist.), Dr. Dyar has accepted the latter statement as correct 
whereas feriella, if our identification from the type be correct, bears 
out the original diagnosis, what Hulst probably took for a scale tuft 



196 

being an enlargement of the basal antennal joint which is scaled; 
nyssaecolella Dyar and subtinctclla Rag. must be removed from Ta- 
coma and may be placed temporarily in the genus Nephopteryx. 

Ambesa busckella Dyar. 

The species falls as a synonym of Glyptocera consobrinella Zell. 

Nephopteryx modestella Hist. 

The $ type in the Hulst Coll. is a specimen from Newton High- 
lands, Mass. (Barnes) and is merely a very worn oralis Pack., the 
latter name having priority. 

Neph. furfurella Hist. 

The species was described from 2 $ 2 9 from Florida and 
Texas ; the type in the Hulst Coll. is a 5 labelled Florida and a similar 
one is in the Neumoegen Coll. ; a $ from Texas stands under the 
same name but has no type label. The species is not a Nephopteryx 
but an Elasmo palpus and the same as that described later by Hulst as 
floridellus; all the types we have seen are conspecific but the name 
should be held to the specimen in the Hulst Coll. 

Neph. rhypodella Hist. 

The original description calls for a single $ from Oregon as 
type ; in his revision Hulst gives an entirely different description, mak- 
ing curvatella Rag. a synonym and mentioning Illinois as locality; in 
the Hulst Coll. is a 2 'type' with no locality label (merely 'No. 42') 
which appears to agree (it is worn) with the description of the revision 
and with Ragonot's figure of curvatella pretty well, but which cer- 
tainly does not fit the original description. What the true rhypodella 
may be we are unable to say ; probably material from Orgeon will 
one day solve the mystery ; in any case we would separate curvatella 
Rag. as a good species ; the type, judging from the Monograph, came 
from California and we have a good series before us from that state 
which agrees with Hulst's spurious type of rhypodella and which is 
probably the true curvatella. 

Salebria triplagiella Dyar. 

In the National Museum this is placed as a synonym of Laodamia 
fusca Haw. and apparently correctly so ; it will at least be a synonym 
of moestella Wlk. described from Northern Canada. 



197 

S. ALICULELLA Hist. 

The type of this species must be restricted to the specimens in 
the Hulst Coll., the types in the Neumoegen and Hy. Edwards' Col- 
lections belonging to the closely allied furciferella Dyar which has 
the round discal spot jointed by a black streak to the t. a. line. 

S. BIFASC1ELLA Hist. 

This species and nogalesella Dyar are extremely closely related; 
apart from the fact that the hind wings of bifasciella are slightly 
deeper in color we can point to no feature that would separate them; 
breeding will be necessary to show whether we are dealing with good 
species or slight varietal forms of one species. 

S. LACTEELLA Hist. 

The single 9 type of this species seems to be a better preserved 
specimen of what Hulst had previously described as Nephopteryx 
gilvibasella from a worn 5 ; the type localities of both species are 
given as Cent. Texas and both types are in the Hulst Coll. 

S. ODIOSELLA Hist. 

With regard to the type specimen of this species we are again 
met with one of those puzzles which must be credited to the inaccur- 
acies of Dr. Hulst. The original description calls for a $ from Colo- 
rado as type, Hulst's revision states that Texas is the type locality 
and the S type in the Hulst Coll. bears a label 'Blanco Co., Texas' ; 
it agrees excellently with the original description so we see no reason 
for not regarding it as type, but cannot say which locality is correct 
as we have no specimens of the species which seems closely related 
to bakerella Dyar. 

S. CARNEELLA Hist. 

New Mexico is given as the type locality for the species but 
this is changed by Dr. Hulst in the revision to Maine and Massachu- 
setts with a doubtful N. Mex. 9 associated; the type in the Hulst 
Coll. bears no label but appears to agree with the description; we 
have two specimens from Manitoba and imagine the localities given in 
the revision are therefore more likely to be correct than the one 
originally cited. 

S. SEMIOBSCURELLA Hist. 

This species has been generally confused with Meroptera pravella 
Grt. and in the Hulst Coll. most of the specimens under this latter 



198 

name belong to semiobscurella; the two species are very much alike 
but apparently the stalking of vein 10 of primaries with 8 and 9 is 
constant in pravella and is a good means of separation in doubtful 
cases; the stalking of veins 4 and 5 on primaries does not always 
hold. We think Packard is correct in describing the larva of pravella 
as feeding on willow as his material came from Brunswick, Me. and 
Maine is the type locality for pravella. Riley's citation of sumach 
as the food plant (Rag. Mon. Phy., p. 315) is due to a misidentifka- 
tion ; he probably had bred semiobscurella, the larva of which is a 
sumach feeder, occurring in two generations; we have a bred series 
before us from larvae collected around Decatur. Pravella is appar- 
ently a more northern species, our only specimens (all 9 's) having 
been received from Hymers, Ont. 

M. DELASSALIS Hist. 

The original 5 type came from Nevada according to the de- 
scription ; later, in the revision, Hulst added specimens from Colo... 
N. Mex., and Ariz, and one of these later specimens from N. Mexico 
labelled 'type' is responsible for our usual conception of the species; 
unfortunately the 9 from Nevada which is also present and labelled 
'type' in the Hulst Coll. proves to be a worn specimen of what Hulst 
later described as purpurella; in the true delassalis the t. a. line is 
quite distinct in the lower portion being white and angled, heavily 
bordered with black ; the t. p. line is very close to the outer margin ; in 
the other species, which probably will now bear the name fcrnaldi 
Rag., the t. a. line is practically obscured by a heavy black band and 
the t. p. line is further from outer margin ; the veins in the outer 
portion of the wing are slightly striate with black and the ground 
color is orange-ochreous not reddish-ocher. 

Megasis cinctella Hist. 

The type 9 in the National Museum is worn and has only a 
single palpus this being covered with mould and so distorted that 
examination is very difficult. According to the venation we should 
be inclined to place the species in Passadena Hist. ; it agrees in having 
vein 2 of secondaries close to angle of cell and 3 stalked with 4 and 
5 which are on a very long stalk ; on primaries 4 and 5 are short 
stalked, 10 appearing to be short stalked with 8 and 9, in this respect 
differing from the type of Passadena. The species certainly has no 



199 

resemblance to a Megasis and until more material of both sexes is 
available would seem best referred as above. 

Elasmopalpus melanellus Hist. 

The type, a 9 labelled 'Florida (April)', is in the Hulst Coll. 
The species is the same as Tlascala finitella Wlk. and Hulst's name 
sinks. Another similar type from Miami, Fla. (Slosson) is in the 
Neumoegen Coll. 

Anoristia olivella Hist. 

The type of this species, a 9 , from Needles, Calif., is a fright- 
fully worn and stained specimen of Ragonotia dotalis Hist, which 
name has priority. 

Pyla pallidella Dyar. 

The species, as we have long suspected, is a synonym of Lipo- 
graphis Iconinella Pack. ; it is so placed in the National Museum. 

Melitara junctolineella Hist. 

The name must be restricted to the $ type in the Hulst Coll. 
from Texas ; the 9 types from Colorado in the Hulst and Neumoegen 
Collections are probably dent at a Grt. 

YOSEMITIA GRACIELLA Hist. 

In the original description the type locality is stated as Colorado, 
but the revision gives Texas and the specimen marked 'type' in the 
Hulst Coll. is labelled 'Blanco Co., Tex.' The localities given in 
Hulst's paper containing the description of graciella (Ent. Am. III. 
129) seem to be frequently quite inaccurate so that we see no reason, 
the specimen agreeing with the description, for not accepting it as a 
type. 

Yosemitia mysiella Dyar. 

The name must be restricted to the Stockton, Utah specimens 
which include the type $ ; we doubt if the Arizona specimens (of 
which we possess several co-types) belong to the same species; the $ 
antennae of mysiella are strongly ciliate. Pallidipennella Hist., at 
present placed in the Anerastiinae , falls close to mysiella; the group is 
a puzzling one and needs careful study to determine the species in- 
volved. 



200 

Yosemitia maculicula Dyar. 

This seems to us to be merely a small, poorly marked specimen 
of Zophodia stigmclla Dyar ; we have a long series from San Diego the 
specimens varying greatly in size and distinctness of maculation but 
representing apparently a single species. 

HOMOEOSOMA IMPRESSALE Hist. 

The original description calls for a single $ from Nevada as 
Type; Hulst's revision states 'Colorado' as type locality and in the 
Hulst Coll. there are $ and 2 'types' labelled 'Colorado' neither 
agreeing well with the original description nor with one another. 
Typical impressale is easily identified from the description and has 
a rather well-defined t. a. black band composed of two more or less 
confluent spots ; the so-called types do not show this but belong to 
the rather immaculate form (equally common apparently) with only 
the black discal dots present ; although probably conspecific we do not 
think either of the specimens can be accepted as the true type. 

H. ELECTELLUM Hist. 

The original description called attention to the variation shown 
in the type specimens in size and coloration and this is borne out by 
the two type specimens from Blanco Co., Texas in the Hulst Coll., 
one, the S, being small (17 mm) and a good match for what we 
described later from Florida as differ tellum, the other, a 9 , much 
larger (23 mm) and rather more ochreous tinted; the difference is 
scarcely sexual as we have both sexes of both forms before us in long 
series ; it may however be seasonal as we note that our small speci- 
mens were taken mostly in early spring or late fall whilst the large 
ones occur in summer ; Ragonot's name tcxancllum, judging by the 
description and figure, would apply to the early brood with differ- 
tellum B. & McD. as a synonym, whilst electellum may be used in 
sens, strict, for the large summer form. 



202 







PLATE XII 


Fig. 


1. 


Arzama brehmei B. & McD. Type, $ New Jersey. 


Fig. 


2. 


Arzama brehmei B. & McD. Type, 9 New Jersey. 


Fig. 


3. 


Arzama obliqua Wlk. $ Long Is., N. Y. 


Fig. 


4. 


Arzama obliqua Wlk. 9 Long Is., N. Y. 


Fig. 


5. 


Polia alfkeni Grt. $ S. Arizona. 


Fig. 


6. 


Cerma olivacea Sm. $ Glenwood Spgs., Colo. 


Fig. 


7. 


Polia rectilinea Sm. $ Vancouver Is., B. C. 


Fig. 


8. 


Renia restrictalis Grt. (larvalis Grt.) $. 



Plate XII 





/ 1 
1 I 



-6 



\\ 



tf~*> 






*+ 



-V ". ■ ■: , V ^-,, ■% 






6 y 



7* 



'>- 






204 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


15. 


Fig. 


16. 


Fig. 


17. 


Fig. 


18. 



PLATE XIII 

Acronycta frigida Sm. (pacifica Sm.) $ Alameda Co., Calif. 

Acronycta frigida Sm. (pacifica Sm.) $ Alameda Co., Calif. 

Acronycta felina Grt. $ Truckee, Calif. 

Epipsilia tecta Hbn. $ Okak, Labr. 

Epipsilia cinerea Stand. $ Okak, Labr. 

Luperina relicina Morr. (migrata Sm.) 9 New Jersey. 

Drasteria capticola Wlk. (faceta Hy. Edw.) S Stemper, Fla. 

Drasteria capticola Wlk. (faceta Hy. Edw.) 2 Stemper, Fla. 

Nocloa pallens Tepp. (nesaea Sm.) $ Palm Spgs., Calif. 

Homohadena inconstans Grt. $ Yavapai Co., Ariz. 

Cleora lixaria Grt. $ Tucson, Ariz. 

Cleora lallata Hist. $ White Mts., Ariz. 

Drepanulatrix hulsti Dyar (lenitaria Grossb.) $ San Diego, Calif. 

Drepanulatrix litaria Hist, (fumosa Hist.) $ Truckee, Calif. 

Cleora obliquaria Grt. (rufaria Grt.) $ Redington, Ariz. 

Cleora obliquaria Grt. (rufaria Grt.) 9 Redington, Ariz. 

Lygris atrifasciata Hist. $ Truckee, Calif. 

Phasiane teucaria Stkr. S Vane. Is., B. C. 



Plate XIII 



/ ,- - : iM <- 






£m 



^^SS^:?-' "^SS 5 "* 



z m 



W~j 



V 
i 



,.~ i. 










'"<• V ' 



$/!^V 



/3 



y . 



I 



g 



- 'Si- 

I 

7 







o" 



tS*v 



r 



n '■ 



> 



3 



206 



PLATE XIV 

Fig. 1. Parastichtis inops Grt. (insipida Stkr.) 2 Omaha, Nebr. 

Fig. 2. Euros proprius Hy. Edw. 2 Plumas Co., Calif. 

Fig. 3. Stiria fuliginosa Sm. (hutsoni Sm.) 2 Prescott, Ariz. 

Fig. 4. Phasiane colorata Grt. (conarata Grossb.) $ Redington, Ariz. 

Fig. 5. Phasiane parcata Grossb. $ Redington, Ariz. 

Fig. 6. Eupithecia misturata Hist. 8 Siskiyou Co., Calif. 

Fig. 7. Phasiane decorata Grossb. 2 Vineyard, Utah. 

Fig. 8. Phasiane yavapai Grossb. 2 Palmerlee, Ariz. 

Fig. 9. Phasiane delectata Hist. $ Colo. 

Fig. 10. Phasiane respersata Hist. $ Durango, Colo. 

Fig. 11. Itame quadrilinearia Pack, (inquinaria Hist.) $ Camp Baldy, Calif. 

Fig. 12. Plagodis arrogaria Hist. $ Decatur, 111. 

Fig. 13. Phasiane excurvata Pack, (spodopterata Hist.) $ Glenwood Spgs., 

Colo. 

Fig. 14. Phasiane excurvata Pack, (spodopterata Hist.) 2 Glenwood Spgs., 

Colo. 

Fig. 15. Jocara interruptella Rag. (dentilineella Hist.) $ Redington, Ariz. 

Fig. 16. Ptychopoda lacteola Lint. 2 Kerrville, Texas. 

Fig. 17. Ptychopoda bonifata Hist, (ptelearia Riley) Palmerlee, Ariz. 

Fig. 18. Crambus carpenterellus Pack. S Denver, Colo. 



Plate XIV 



Hfra,., . ,~ : A 
*TO $*" fcSSi' 



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208 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


in. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


15. 


Fig. 


16. 


Fig. 


17. 


Fig. 


18. 



PLATE XV 

Synaxis jubararia Hist. $ Vancouver Is., B. C. 

Synaxis pallulata Hist. $ Vancouver Is., B. C. 

Euchlaena sesquilinearia Grt. $ Redington, Ariz. 

Euchlaena cavillaria Hist, (novellata Hist.) $ Palmerlee, Ariz. 

Euchlaena cavillaria Hist. 9 Palmerlee, Ariz. 

Ptychopoda rotundopennata Pack, (hanhami Hist.) $ Calgary, 

Alta. 
Pherne parallelia Pack. $ Oakland, Calif. 
Pherne placeraria Gn. 9 Lake Tahoe, Calif. 
Sabulodes arizonata Tayl. (dyari Grossb.) $ Palmerlee, Ariz. 
Sabulodes arizonata Tayl. $ var. Palmerlee, Ariz. 
Itame subfalcata Hist. 9 Vineyard, Utah. 
Acidalia fuscata Hist. $ Lake Tahoe, Calif. 
Pherne parallelia Pack. 9 Oakland, Calif. 
Pherne subpunctata Hist. $ San Diego, Calif. 
Sabulodes ligata Grossb. $ Palmerlee, Ariz. 
Sabulodes arizonata Tayl. $ var. Palmerlee, Ariz. 
Merochlora graefiaria Hist, (eutraphes Prout) $ Stockton, Utah. 
Acidalia ancellata Hist. $ Colo. 



Plate XV 




INDEX 



Page 

acuna Barnes 168 

acutangulalis Snell 190 

aethalodaria Dyar 184 

al f keni Grt 162 

aliculella Hist 197 

alutalis Grt 169 

amicora Sm 166 

ancellata Hist 172 

anguilineata G. & R 174 

apiciaria Pack 187 

aplastella Hist 193 

argillacearia Pack 183 

argillaria Hist 187 

aribac Barnes 163 

arioch Stkr 166 

arizona Sm 163 

arizonata Tayl 190 

arrogaria Hist 186 

astrigata B. & McD 164 

atrifasciata Hist 175 

atroliturata Wlk 174 

aucillaria Stkr 182 

behrensaria Hist 179 

behri Stch 158 

bellonaria Stkr 169 

bidisata Dyar 184 

bifasciella Hist 197 

bifilata Wlk 170 

bilineatella Rag 194 

bistriaria Hbn 170 

bistriatella Hist 194 

blakei Grt 159 

bolanderi Stch 159 

bombyciformis Sm 164 

bonifata Hist 174 

brehmei B. & McD 166 

brunnearia Pack 170 

brtmneella Dyar 195 

bububattalis Hist 191 

busckella Dyar 196 

californiaria Pack. (Acidalia) . . . 173 
californiaria Pack. (Delinia) . . . . 178 



Page 

capticola Wlk 168 

carneella Hist 197 

carpenterellus Pack 191 

cavillaria Hist 187 

celataria Hist 179 

centralis Grt 169 

cervina Hy. Edw 163 

chandleri Grt 163 

cinctella Hist 198 

cinerea Stand 161 

cinereicollis Grt 160 

cinereola Hist 181 

clemensalis Dyar 193 

Colorado Sm 163 

colorata Grt 180 

conarata Grossb 180 

congrua Sm 160 

continens Hy. Edw 165 

curvata Grt 181 

curvatella Rag 196 

cyanescens Hamp 166 

decorata Grossb 181 

delassalis Hist 198 

delectata Hist 180 

delicata Hist 174 

delimitata Warr 175 

demissaria Hbn 174 

dentilineella Hist 191 

depilis Grt 164 

deserta Sm 163 

determinata Nenm 159 

Diastictis Hbn 182 

diecki Neum 159 

differtellum B. & McD 200 

doris Barnes 157 

dubiosa B. & McD 162 

dulciella Hist 193 

dyari Grossb 190 

electa Hist 179 

electellum Hist 200 

elisata Stkr 176 

ella Hist 182 



Page 

elongata Stch 159 

ephelidaria Hist 186 

eremiata Hist 174 

erroraria Dyar 183 

escaria Grt 183 

eutraphes Prout 171 

excurvata Pack 181 

extincta Gn 162 

extremaria Wlk 170 

faceta Hy. Edw 168 

factiosalis Wlk 169 

famulata Hist 183 

felicitata Sm 160 

felina Grt 166 

fernaldi Rag 198 

ferrugata Pack 174 

f estaria Hist 170 

filaria Wlk 185 

flavescens Hist 174 

flavilinearia B. & McD 186 

floridensis Hist 178 

fomica Sm 165 

f rigida Sm 165 

fructetella Hist 194 

fuliginaria Hist 184 

fuliginosa Sm 168 

fumosa Hist 178 

furciferella Dyar 197 

furfurella Hist 196 

fuscata Hist 172 

galbanaria Hist 188 

geminata Pack 177 

geneura Stkr 158 

gillettella Dyar 195 

gilvibasella Hist 197 

glenwoodata Swett 176 

graciella Hist 199 

graefiaria Hist 171 

grandiosa Hist 177 

grassata Hist 182 

hanhami Hist 173 

hebescella Hist 194 

hebetata Hist 181 

helena Hist 179 

hulsti Dyar 179 

hulstiana Dyar 169 

hutsoni Sm 168 

illocata Hist 176 



Page 

imperialis B. & McD 160 

impressale Hist 200 

inclusaria Wlk 174 

inconcinna Sm 161 

inconstans Grt 164 

incorrupta Hy. Edw 158 

indicataria Wlk 185 

indurata Dyar 179 

inextricata Wlk 178 

inops Grt 164 

inquinaria Hist 182 

insipida Stkr 164 

interruptella Rag 191 

invenusta Grt 160 

irraria B. & McD 189 

Itame Hbn 182 

jocosa B. & McD 162 

johnsoni Swett 186 

jubararia Hist 188 

junctolineella Hist 199 

lacteella Hist 197 

lacteola Lint 173 

laeta Hist 186 

lallata Hist 184 

lapitaria Stkr 179 

larvalis Grt 168 

Iatens Sm 162 

lenitaria Grossb 179 

lesteraria Grossb 171 

leucophaeella Hist 194 

ligata Grossb 190 

ligata Grt 162 

lintneraria Pack 179 

litaria Hist 178 

lixaria Grt 185 

loiperda Dyar 157 

lois Dyar 157 

louisa Hist 160 

lucetta Sm 1C5 

lugubrosa Hist 186 

lulualis Hist 191 

luniferella Hist 192 

lunulalis Hist 192 

luridula Hist 185 

macdunnoughi Grossb 184 

maculicula Dyar 200 

maestosa Hist 185 

magnetaria Gn 173 



Page 

majoraria Gn 189 

media Morr 168 

melanellus Hist 199 

mellitularia Hist 188 

mercedulata Stkr 179 

meritata Pears 178 

metra Sm 166 

migrata Sm 165 

minima Hist 184 

minuta Hist 183 

misturata Hist 177 

modestella Hist 196 

muricolor Hist 184 

muscariata Gn 180 

mysiella Dyar 199 

nemorella Hist 176 

neomexicana Hist 186 

neomexicana Sm 168 

nephelotella Hist 192 

nesaea Sm 167 

nevadaria Hist 186 

nevadensis G. & R 158 

nogalesclla Dyar 197 

novellata Hist 187 

nubilata Pack 175 

nubilella Hist 195 

obesula Sm 160 

obliqua Hist 169 

obliqua Wlk 166 

obliquaria Grt 185 

obnupsella Hist 193 

obscura Grossb 184 

occluna Sm 162 

ochracea Neum 158 

ochralis Haim 190 

ochreata Hist 190 

odiosella Hist, 197 

okakensis Pack 161 

olivacea Sm 165 

olivalis Hist 183 

olivata Harv 161 

olivella Hist 199 

ordinata Wlk 182 

orillata Wlk 181 

ornata Ottol 167 

oslarellus Haim 191 

pacifka Sm 165 

pacificaria Pack 173 



Page 

packardata Tayl 177 

pallens Tepp 167 

pallida Hist 173 

pallidata Pack 180 

pallidella Dyar 199 

pallidipennella Hist 199 

pallulata Hist 188 

pandora Blake 157 

parcata Grossb 180 

parallelia Pack 188 

pergilvalis Hist 191 

pergratialis Hist 195 

persimilis Hist 172 

placeraria Gn 189 

planifrons Sm 160 

plenilinealis Grt 169 

polyochroa Hamp 164 

pravella Grt 197 

proprins Hy. Edw 163 

ptelearia Riley 174 

punctipennis Grt 168 

purpurea Grt 165 

purpurella Hist 198 

quadrilinearia Pack 182 

qnadrilineata Pack. 172 

qninqnelinearia Pack 172 

rectilinea Sm 162 

rectistrigella Dyar 195 

relicina Morr 165 

respersata Hist 180 

restrictalis Grt 168 

rhypodella Hist 196 

roosta Sm 161 

roseicosta B. & McD 173 

rotundopennata Pack 173 

rubescentella Hist 195 

rubrolinearia Pack 173 

rubromarginaria Pack 170 

rnfaria Grt 185 

russata Hist 174 

salutalis Hist 190 

santatalis B. & McD 190 

semiatrata Hist 175 

semiobscnrella Hist 197 

serrata Sm 162 

sesquilinearia Grt 187 

shastaensis Frch 158 

sideraria Gn 173 



Tage 

similaris Hist 176 

simulata Hist 182 

sinuata Warr 181 

slossonella Hist 195 

sobrialis Wlk 169 

speciosa Hist 175 

spodopterata Hist 181 

stigmella Dyar 200 

strigata Schaus 163 

suavata Hist 173 

subacuta Hist 180 

subfalcata Hist 183 

subpunctata Hist 189 

sulphurica Neum 158 

superba Stch 159 

Tacoma Hist 195 

tapeta Sm 165 

tecta Hbn 161 

tectalis B. & McD 191 

tenuella B. & McD 195 

tenuifascia Harv 157 



Paste 

teucaria Stkr 181 

texana Grt 160 

texana Morr 162 

texanella Hist 193 

texanellum Rag 200 

tilosalis Sin 169 

triplagiella Dyar 196 

turpis Sm 166 

umatillaria Stkr 172 

umbripennis Hist 195 

umbrosa Sm 162 

unicolorella Hist 194 

unifascia G. & R 157 

vellivolata Hist 185 

vernata Pack 174 

viridipallens Hist 171 

vocalis Grt 166 

volantaria Pears 171 

williamsi Dodge 159 

xylina Hist 175 

yavapai Grossb 181 



CONTRIBUTIONS 

TO THE 

NATURAL HISTORY 

OF THE 

LEPIDOPTERA 

OF 

NORTH AMERICA 



VOL. Ill 

No. 4 



FURTHER NOTES ON PHILOTES BAT- 
TOIDES AND ITS ALLIES 

REMARKS ON GROSSBECK'S LIST OF 
FLORIDA LEPIDOPTERA 

NEW SPECIES AND VARIETIES OF 
GEOMETRIDAE 

BY 

WILLIAM BARNES, S. B., M. D. 

AND 

J. H. McDUNNOUGH, Ph. D. 



DECATUR, ILL. 

THE REVIEW PRESS 

MARCH 10. 1917 



Published 

Under the Patronage 

of 

Miss Jessie D. Gillett 

Elkhart, 111. 



213 



FURTHER NOTES ON PHILOTES BATTOIDES 
AND ITS ALLIES 

Since the publication of our notes on this species in 'Contributions' 
Vol. Ill, No. 2, p. 116 we have continued our investigations and have 
arrived at a much better comprehension of the species forming the 
group, their distribution and their racial forms ; we offer the following 
paper therefore with a view to assisting students in correctly identify- 
ing their material. 

Dealing first of all with P. battoides Behr we would point out that 
we were in error in our previous notes in citing the type locality as the 
headwaters of the Tuolumne River ; it was at the headwaters of the San 
Joaquin River that the type specimens were captured, a locality some- 
what further south than the first mentioned one although in the same 
general region; our specimens from Mineral King, Tulare Co. were 
therefore taken very close to the type locality and we consider that we 
are justified, in view of the fact that the types are destroyed, in consid- 
ering these specimens as typical ; our figures on PI. XI, Figs. 7, 8, 10 
of the work already quoted will represent then the nimotypical form. 

We have already referred to the $ genitalia as being very dis- 
tinctive and as forming an excellent means — and in some cases, as we 
will show later, practically the only means — of distinguishing battoides 
from enoptes and its close allies. These genitalia we now figure (PI. 
XVII, Fig. 3) : the tegumen with its high lateral cheeks and absence 
of the dorsal portion together with the presence of stout falces or 
hooks springing from the lower portion of the cheeks and meeting 
medially above the penis at once show the species to belong to the 
typical Lycaenid group of 'blues' ; the valvae or claspers with their 
strong bifid dorsal prong and their flat rounded ventral portion with 
two strong spines on its dorsal margin are very characteristic for the 
species ; we might point out that there is considerable variability with 
regard to these two spines ; a single specimen may have one clasper of 
the normal form whereas in the other the spines may have coalesced or 
the inner one be wanting ; on the whole however the type is very con- 
stant and we can point to nothing in the genitalia (except the smaller 
size as is natural) whereby our recently described race bcrnardino 
(PI. XVII, Fig. 4) can be distinguished from the typical form. 



214 

In our former article we mentioned specimens taken by Dr. Mc- 
Dunnough at Crater Lake, Oregon ; a careful study of a long series 
convinces us that we are dealing with a good race distinguished in 
the S sex by the fact that the black border to both wings is much 
broader, at times occupying almost the outer half of secondaries; in 
both sexes on the underside of the secondaries the extradiscal curved 
row of spots is much further removed from the orange band and its 
bordering black line, the spots themselves being slightly less quadrate 
and the ground color of the wing of a rather greener hue. For this 
race we propose the name oregonensis, our types being a long series 
captured in the last two weeks of July. Our figures of this race, (PI. 
XVI, Figs. 1-3) when compared with those of typical battoides al- 
ready mentioned, should facilitate the identification of this form. 

In the lower mountain valleys of Northern and possibly Central 
California we were greatly surprised to find another form of battoides 
which is so similar in the maculation of the underside to enoptes that 
if it were not for the striking difference in genitalia we would be utterly 
unable to separate the two. The spots on the underside of secondaries 
are greatly reduced in size and the orange submarginal band is more 
or less broken into lunules, the terminal dark line is also reduced in 
width to a fine hair-line ; on the upper side of the $ 's the black border 
is moderately broad and the fringes of the secondaries white, uncheck- 
ered ; above the anal angle of secondaries is a slight orange shading in 
our types and this, when present, should distinguish the form from 
enoptes; otherwise recourse must be had to the genitalia. The 9 
shows a rather more extended orange band on upper side of secon- 
daries than is found in enoptes. We propose the name intermedia for 
this race, our types (PI. XVI, Figs. 4-6) being 2 S 's and 1 2 from 
Shasta Co., Calif, (presumably the vicinity of Castella in the Upper 
Sacramento Valley) captured in the third week in July; we have sev- 
eral other specimens before us merely labelled 'California'. 

In our article already referred to we expressed doubt that battoides 
occurred East of the Sierra Nevada Mts. ; we have however, discov- 
ered that a race exists in the Rocky Mts. very similar to intermedia 
but with rather broader dark borders on upper side in $ sex and very 
prominent orange shading at anal angle of secondaries ; the underside 
is browner in ground color with the spots larger than in intermedia and 
well ringed with white, the orange band is more continuous and there 
is a diffuse smoky shade on primaries subterminally above the outer 



215 

angle which at times shows ruddy tints ; we have before us 3 $ 's from 
Salida, Colo. (July 1-7), 1 $ labelled Colorado and 1 S taken in 
Southern Utah by Dr. Barnes; for this race we propose the name 
centralis, making the above mentioned specimens types and figuring 
them on PI. XVI, Figs. 7, 8. 

Turning to P. enoptes Bdv. we now offer a figure of the $ geni- 
talia (PI. XVII, Fig. 1) which shows at a glance the wide difference 
which exists between it and P. battoides. The tegumen is of essentially 
the same general type but the Valvae are much closer to the Glau- 
copsyche type than we find in battoides, possessing none of the com- 
plicated armature found in this species ; they are broad, flat and simple, 
curving upward distally, the broad distal margin being furnished with 
a row of small teeth ending ventrally in a single strong spine below 
which is a rather deep excavation. The types of enoptes have been 
figured by M. Oberthur (Etudes de Lep. Comp. IX, Pt. 1 PI. 237, Figs. 
1948/9) ; we have specimens exactly matching these types from 
Truckee, Calif. ; our series from Mineral King, Calif., specimens of 
which are figured in our Contributions Vol. Ill, PI. XI, Figs. 1 and 4, 
differ in their slightly paler ground color on underside but are other- 
wise identical. 

A further study of the genitalia (PI. XVII, Fig. 2) of glaucon 
Edw., which we have already discussed and figured in the above men- 
tioned paper, convinces us that this is merely a racial form of enoptes 
with rather heavier orange band on underside of secondaries and ten- 
dency to slight orange shading at outer angle of primaries. 

Our species P. rita from Arizona we have already figured and 
now give figures of the genitalia (PI. XVII, Figs. 5, 7) showing the 
close relationship to glaucon from which it differs among other details 
in the much greater length of the terminal spine on the claspers. 

We have discovered an undescribed species, apparently confined 
to certain mountainous districts of Utah, which has probably gone 
under the name of glaucon but which, if our conception of this form 
be correct, is specifically distinct. The upper side of the $ is very 
similar to that of glaucon but there is prominent orange shading at 
anal angle of secondaries above the dark border; the under side is 
paler with the black spots of secondaries much smaller in size; on the 
primaries there is a broad submarginal orange band narrowing towards 
apex of wing and not quite attaining costa, this is bordered inwardly 
by narrow dark streaks ; on the secondaries there is a subterminal row 



216 

of orange lunules, narrowly separated by the veins and, except below 
costa, showing none or only faint traces of black internal border. 
The 5 is dark brown and has the subterminal orange band of secon- 
daries continued on primaries for half the length of the outer margin. 
We propose the name spaldingi for this species in honor of the col- 
lector, Mr. Tom Spalding of Provo, Utah ; our types are 2 # , 1 9 
from Provo, Utah (Aug. 1-7), 1 $ from Silver Lake, Utah (July 24- 
30) and 1 $ (very large) from Stockton, Utah, the latter in the col- 
lection of Mr. Spalding; we figure the species on PI. XVI, Figs. 9-11. 
The S genitalia (PI. XVII, Fig. 6) differ from those of enoptes in 
having the Valvae much more flattened in their proximal portion and 
the distal margin furnished with spines which gradually increase in 
size from the dorsal to the ventral angle. 

In conclusion we offer the following resume of the grouping of 
these species : 

1) P. battoides Behr. High Sierras, Calif. 

a bernardino B. & McD. S. Bernardino & S. Jacinto Mts., 

Calif. 
b intermedia B. & McD. N. Calif. 
c oregonensis B. & McD. Crater Lake, Ore. 
d centralis B. & McD. Rocky Mts. of Colo, and Utah. 

2) P. enoptes Bdv. California. 

a glaucon Edw. Great Basin & Rocky Mt. region. 

3) P. spaldingi B. & McD. Utah. 

4) P. rita B. & McD. Arizona. 



217 



A FEW REMARKS ON GROSSBECK'S LIST OF 

FLORIDA LEPIDOPTERA WITH 

DESCRIPTIONS OF 

NEW SPECIES 

We have received with much pleasure a copy of the Lepidoptera 
of Florida by our lamented friend J. A. Grossbeck, published in Bull. 
Am. Mus. N. H. 1917, XXXVIII, pp. 1-147. As we are directly or in- 
directly responsible for the determinations of a number of the species 
listed the following notes on a few of them, based on our present more 
extended knowledge, may be of interest : 

Sphida obliqua Wlk. (p. 60). 

The determination of this species was made before the publication 
of 5. anoa Dyar and the records should be removed to this latter name 
as it is probable that obliqua does not occur in the south. Our records 
are not, however, from Ft. Myers and Chokoloskee but from Ft. Meade 
and Miami, the latter being the type locality for anoa. 

Capnodes punctivena Sm. (p. 77). 

This species is a synonym of rufinans Gn. ; it occurs in two well 
marked forms — with and without white dots on the cross lines — the 
form without white dots being discerpta Wlk. according to Sir Geo. 
Hampson (in lift.). 

Chokoloskee, Fla. may be added to the list of localities. 

Racheospila lixaria Gn. (p. 86). 

Judging by our material as named and referred to by Mr. Gross- 
beck we doubt very much if he has correctly identified Guenee's species. 
According to the descriptions lixaria Gn. and catachloa Hulst must be 
very similar ; they both have a crenulate or dentate post-median line, a 
red line at base of fringe, the fringe checkered with red and the abdo- 
men with white diamond patches bordered with red. We have not seen 
the type of catachloa which is with Mrs. Slosson but we accept 
the specimen identified for us by Mr. Grossbeck as presumably correct ; 
we sent a specimen of this species to Mr. L. B. Prout to compare with 
the type of inclusaria in the British Museum and he returned it with 
the note 'inclusaria has stronger palpus, less regularly rounded hind 



218 

wings, smoother green color (our specimen was rubbed) larger cell- 
dots, more definite lines, vertex more narrowly red' ; assuming there- 
fore, that inclusaria Wlk. is a synonym of lixaria Gn. as given by Mr. 
Prout in the Genera Insectorum, Hemitheinae p. 103 it would seem 
that we have two closely allied species in lixaria and catachloa; we 
have not satisfactorily identified the former as yet but have two worn 
specimens without label but presumably from Florida which fit in fairly 
well with the above description except that the postmedian line is only 
slightly wavy and not regularly crenulate. More material for study 
is much needed in this group. 

Racheospila extremaria Wlk. (p. 87). 

Again we must question the correctness of Mr. Grossbeck's iden- 
tifications, at least so far as our material is concerned. Extremaria 
was described (1861, Cat. Lep. B. M. XXII, 584) from an unknown 
locality and we have already (Cont. Ill, No. 3, 170) expressed the 
opinion that rubromarginaria Pack, is distinct from this species. Mr. 
L. B. Prout was kind enough to draw up for us a description from the 
unique 9 type in the British Museum which we cannot do better than 
quote here in full: 'Face and vertex green strongly mixed with red, 
a white fillet between antennae; palpus short and slender, third joint 
slender, exposed, but not elongate (hardly a Racheospila) ; lines ex- 
tremely vague, the postmedian apparently waved but not crenulate ; no 
red terminal line ; fringe pink with very narrow pale line at base ; abdo- 
men lost.' 

The pinkish fringes without any red marginal line to wing seem 
characteristic; we have a single specimen from Hastings, Fla. (March) 
which we doubtfully refer here but took no material corresponding to 
the above description on our Florida trip; the reference to material 
from us under rubrolinearia Pack, is also an error, possibly a repetition 
from the preceding species ; we doubt greatly the occurrence of rubro- 
linearia in Florida. 

As the specimens on which Mr. Grossbeck based his identifica- 
tions of lixaria and extremaria appear to be unnamed we offer the 
following descriptions : 

Racheospila abdominaria sp. nov. 

Palpi very short in both sexes, rather appressed and upturned, reddish ; 
front reddish, centrally green with lower portion near base of palpi showing 
traces of a white line and with two white dots below base of antennae ; broad 
white fillet between antennae bordered at base of collar with reddish ; thorax 



219 

and abdomen green, latter whitish on last two segments and with a broad dorsal 
creamy line tending to broaden slightly on central segments but with no red 
bordering; wings green, sprinkled with whitish and with small but distinct dark 
discal dots ; a faint, white, curved, slightly irregular antemedian line on both 
wings ; a similar postmedian line, in general parallel to outer margin ; costa of 
primaries narrowly white, outer margin of both wings with distinct red line, 
scarcely broken by minute white dots on the veins ; fringes with a distinct yellow 
tinge, unicolorous except at apex of primaries which is tinged with reddish. 
Beneath whitish green with faint discal dots, red terminal line and fringes as 
above, abdomen and legs whitish, fore tibiae tinged with red. Expanse $ 18 
mm., 9 24 mm. 

Habitat: &, Stemper, Fla. (Aug.); 9, Fort Myers, Fla. (Apr. 16-23). 
3 S , 1 9 . Types, Coll. Barnes. 

The short palpi, ochreous line on abdomen and red terminal line 
with uncheckered fringes should distinguish this form ; the secondaries 
have the outer margin gently rounded with no angle at vein 4 but a 
rather sharp anal angle. The $ antennae are narrowly bipectinate 
and the hind tibiae possess a hair pencil. 

Racheospila associaria sp. nov. 

9. Palpi rather long, upturned and projecting well beyond head, reddish; 
front rubbed, apparently reddish; white fillet between antennae bordered poster- 
iorly narrowly with reddish ; thorax and abdomen green, latter white on the sides 
and with a broad creamy dorsal stripe ; wings green sprinkled with white and 
with very faint dark discal dots ; faint white antemedian and postmedian lines 
much as in preceding species, but the outer slightly more angled on secondaries ; 
costa of primaries whitish ; red terminal line more distinctly interrupted by white 
dots than in preceding species ; fringes rubbed but apparently white ; secondaries 
with a rather distinct angle on outer margin at vein 4. Beneath pale whitish 
green, immaculate except red terminal line and pale costa of primaries. Expanse 
25 mm. 

Habitat: Ft. Myers, Fla. (Apr. 16-23). 1 9. Type, Coll. Barnes. 

The much longer palpi in 9 separate the species from the pre- 
ceding with which it has great similarity ; the more angled secondaries 
and fainter discal dots are also points of distinction. 

Eois davisi Grossbeck. (p. 90) (PI. XVIII. Fig. 5). 

The 9 specimen from Everglade (Apr.) mentioned in the de- 
scription is in the Barnes Collection; it was returned to us labelled 
'suavata Hulst ?' ; we have placed a Paratype label on it and figure it on 
PI. XVIII, Fig. 5. The remaining types are probably in the Davis col- 
lection, possibly under the label suavata', in the records for this latter 
species given on p. 92 we imagine the last two should be omitted as 
they undoubtedly refer to davisi. 



220 

Macaria maculifascia Hist, (ancillaria Stkr.) (p. 94). 

The records of Everglade and Chokoloskee are apparently given 
in error; in any case we imagine that aucillaria Stkr. is better referred 
to ordinata Wlk. than to maculifascia Hist., a species described from 
Dakota; there is a note to this effect in our Contributions Vol. Ill, No. 
3, p. 182. 

Tallula atrifascialis Hist. (p. 128). 

This species is confined as far as we know to Texas ; the species 
listed as atrifascialis from Florida is distinct and seemingly without a 
name. We describe it as follows : 

Tallula watsoni sp. nov. (PI. XVIII, Fig. 6). 

Primaries dull whitish gray sprinkled with brown atoms ; costa at base 
dark brown (in atrifascialis (PI. XVIII, Fig. 7) there is an additional dark dot 
below the costal streak) ; t. a. line well out, pale, almost rigidly oblique with 
slight angle inward on vein 1, preceded by broad brown band of practically even 
width throughout (in atrifascialis the t. a. line has a sharp outward angle below 
cell and the preceding brown band is much contracted below costa) ; t. p. line 
white, subparallel to outer margin, bulging and slightly dentate in central por- 
tion followed by a dark diffuse apical shade; a terminal dark dotted line. Sec- 
ondaries whitish hyaline at base, shading into dark smoky outwardly. Beneath 
smoky, paler above inner margin of secondaries. Expanse $ 13 mm., 2 16 
mm. 

Habitat: Stemper, Fla. (July). 3 $, 5 $. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

We take pleasure in naming this species after Mr. F. E. Watson 
of the American Museum of Nat. History. 

Tetralopha robustella Zell. (p. 128). 

The specimens mentioned as being bred at Lakeland prove to be 
referable to slossoni Hulst and not to robustella Zell.; the former 
species, although described from Florida, has been omitted from Gross- 
beck's list. 

Mineola nebulella Riley (p. 129). 

This record is erroneous ; the species bred from Crataegus at Lake- 
land which was doubtfully referred to nebulella cannot, it seems to us 
now after a careful study of Riley's description and figure (4th Mo. 
Rept. p. 42), be this species which is apparently a rather unicolorous 
form with different disposition of the discal dots, and possibly not 
related at all to indigenella. Dyar's reference of nebulella to Acrobasis 
can also not hold as we are fairly certain that the specimens on which 



221 

he based this reference are really juglandis Le Baron, possibly part of 
the type lot; juglandis therefore should be transferred to Acrobasis and 
will probably take priority over palliolella Rag. The Florida species is 
seemingly without a name and we append the following description : 

Mineola grossbecki sp. nov. (PI. XVIII, Fig. 3). 

Smaller than M . indigenella Zell. ; head and thorax deep ruddy-purple ; 
primaries with maculation much as in indigenella (which we figure on PI. XVIII, 
Fig. 4) but much more suffused with deep ruddy-purple leaving a sharply defined 
triangular whitish subbasal area, the apex resting on inner margin and a similar 
colored costo-median area including the geminate discal spot; except for the 
dark patch on costa marking its inception the t. a. line is practically lost in the 
purple shading ; the t. p. line is more distinct being bordered outwardly by a 
faint white hair line, the terminal area is paler in apical half of wing with dis- 
tinct black dotted terminal line; secondaries deep smoky; fringes on both wings 
pale smoky, deeper basally. Expanse 16 mm. 

Habitat: Lakeland, Fla. (May). 1 $,2 $. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

Acrobasis comptoniella Hist. (p. 129). 

The receipt of a good bred series of the true comptoniella (PI. 
XVIII, Fig. 2) convinces us that the Florida specimens bred from 
Myrica and listed as comptoniella are distinct; besides being consider- 
ably smaller in size they are much more suffused with white with better 
defined maculation. We append the following description: 

Acrobasis myricella sp. nov. (PI. XVIII, Fig. 1). 

Basal joint of antennae distinctly tinged with white; head and thorax 
deep gray, more or less tinged with ruddy purple ; primaries with basal area 
light gray, slightly sprinkled with black and shaded at extreme base with ruddy 
purple ; t. a. line white, rounded outwardly, bordered inwardly by a ruddy band 
extending basad to the perpendicular dark scale tuft, outwardly with a large tri- 
angular dark costal patch continued as a narrow line to inner margin; median 
area light gray more or less obscured above inner margin and upward along 
t. p. line by dark shading ; two distinct dark discal dots ; t. p. line pale, distinct, 
bulging centrally, bordered inwardly by a dark line and outwardly by a ruddy 
band more or less suffused with smoky; terminal area gray, sprinkled with black 
and with black terminal dotted line. Secondaries deep smoky. Beneath uni- 
colorous smoky. Expanse 17 mm. 

Habitat: Ft. Myers, Fla. (May). 3 $,8 9. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

Meroptera pravella Grt. (p. 130). 

This record was based on 3 9 's which further examination con- 
vinces us would be better referred to Salebria subfuscella Rag. or 
6\ semiobscurella Hist. ; further details may be found in our note in 
'Cont. Vol. Ill, No. 3, p. 197' ; pravella scarcely occurs in Florida. 



222 

Nephopteryx crataegella sp. nov. (PI. XVIII, Fig. 8). 

Included among our specimens of Mineola grossbecki and evidently bred 
from a larva found on the same bush with those of this latter species, we dis- 
covered a single 8 specimen of an apparently undescribed Nephopteryx spe- 
cies which we characterize as follows : 

Scale tuft of $ antennae small ; head and thorax purplish gray ; primaries 
light purplish-gray sprinkled with black; base of wing shaded with deep purple 
brown; t. a. line whitish, strongly bent outward to middle of inner margin, 
preceded on inner margin by a broad liver-brown patch extending almost to 
costa and with a triangular dark costal patch outwardly continued to inner 
margin as narrow line; median area bisected by a diagonal shade line from 
costa at inception of t. p. line to inner margin at t. a. line beyond which this 
area is deep liver-brown; geminate discal dots, the lower on edge of dark 
shade ; t. p. line pale, slightly bulging and dentate in central portion, angled out- 
wardly at inner margin, followed by a broad liver-brown shade; terminal area 
grayish with terminal dark dots. Secondaries deep smoky, paler basally ; fringes 
smoky at base with pale basal line, paler in outer half. Expanse 16 mm. 

Habitat: Lakeland, Fla. (May). 1 $. Type, Coll. Barnes. 

The type of maculation is somewhat similar to that of ovalis 
Pack. 

DOLICHORRHINIA PLANATELLA Grossb. (p. 131). 

We fear that this species must be referred to Ocala dryadella Hist, 
with which Mr. Grossbeck evidently was unacquainted ; the description 
fits exactly a $ in our collection which has been compared with Hulst's 
type at Rutgers; the pencil-tufted maxillary palpi (the chief point of 
distinction from the genus Dolichorrhinia) are concealed generally in 
a groove of the labial palpi and were probably not noticed by Mr. Gross- 
beck at the time ; an examination of the type specimen will be necessary 
however to confirm our reference. 

DlVIANA EUDORIELLA Rag. (p. 132). 

Our record for this species was erroneous and the specimens on 
which it was based should be referred to Palatka nymphcrclla Hist. ; 
Mr. Grossbeck has unfortunately redescribed this in his list as Diviana 
verecuntella which name will fall into the synonymy. 

Peoria APPROxiMELLA.Wlk. 

Our record under this name must be transferred to Grossbeck's 
new species Calera albicostella; the generic position is doubtful, half of 
our series (7 $ 's) showing veins 3 and 4 of secondaries on a very long 
stalk, the others having vein 4 entirely coalescing with vein 3. 



223 

Olethreutes andromedana. (p. 137). 

This species, misspelt andromediana by Grossbeck, has never 
been published ; it was bred by ourselves from larvae on an Andromeda 
species, specimens being given at the time to Mr. Grossbeck and others 
sent later to Mr. Kearfott (together with specimens of all species of 
Tortricidae captured on the trip) for identification; we never succeeded 
in securing the return of these specimens and they doubtless passed 
later along with the whole Kearfott collection into the hands of the 
American Museum. As it is practically certain that no description of 
the species will ever be published by Mr. Kearfott we believe we are 
justified, in order to validate the name, in appending the distinguishing 
characteristics of the species. It is very closely related to rosaochreana 
Kft. being of the same general rosy color and type of maculation ; the 
yellow basal area along inner margin is not so extended, being defined 
outwardly by a distinctly broader pale rosy band bordered on each side 
by a white line ; the dark ruddy area beyond the outer white line which 
in rosaochreana forms a single large irregularly quadrate patch with 
outer edge very strongly excavated, is in andromedana broken into two 
patches, the upper one being narrowly oblong and decumbent, the lower 
irregularly triangular and resting with its blunt apex on outer third of 
inner margin, both patches outlined in white. The remainder of the 
maculation is as in rosaochreana of which we have three Co-types 
before us. The specimens of andromedana before us consist of 2 $ , 
4 9 all bred from Andromeda at Ft. Myers, Fla. in April. 



224 



NEW SPECIES AND VARIETIES OF 
GEOMETRIDAE 

HEMITHEINAE 

Racheospila glaucomarginaria sp. nov. 

$ antennae shortly pectinate; $ palpi moderately short, upturned, red- 
dish laterally, ochreous inwardly and basally, 9 palpi considerably longer; 
front reddish ; white interantennal fillet bordered posteriorly with reddish ; 
thorax, pectus and abdomen green, latter with large ochreous spots on basal, 
third and fourth segments bordered with purplish-red; wings green, costa of 
primaries narrowly white; faint, rounded and slightly waved white antemedian 
line on primaries ; a rather rigidly upright white postmedian line ; no discal 
mark. Secondaries with curved antemedian line rather near base of wing, dis- 
tinct white discal dash and slightly crenulate postmedian line bent rather abruptly 
at vein 3 ; fringes on both wings distinctly ochreous, shaded slightly at apex of 
primaries with pinkish. Beneath pale green, costa at base slightly tinged with 
ruddy ; markings of upper side faintly visible ; fringes as above. Expanse 30 mm. 

Habitat: $, Laguna Beach, Calif.; 9. Palo Alto, Calif. (May) 
(Barnes). 1 $, 1 9. Coll. Barnes. 

We have had the worn 9 in the collection for a long time ; the 
recent receipt of a $ in better condition in some material which we 
received from Dr. L. O. Howard for identification tempts us to describe 
the species as we can find no name which would fit it. The yellowish 
fringes and large spots on abdomen are quite distinctive; the white 
discal streak on secondaries seems to separate the species from others 
found in this locality. 

LARENTIINAE 

Stamnodes topazata apicata var. nov. (PI. XX, Fig. 6). 

Typical topazata, (PI. XX, Fig. 5) described from Utah (probably 
Silver Lake) is an inhabitant of the Rocky Mountain region; a race 
from Hymers, Ont. which we figured as topazata in our Contributions 
Vol. 1 (4) PI. 25, Fig. 12 appears to differ constantly in the much 
greater breadth of the black border of primaries at the apex of wing. 
There is generally in both forms a faint orange hair line on this black 
area at costa and the distance from this line to the inner margin of 
apical black space is in typical topazata about 1 mm. whereas in our 
Hymers specimens it is fully 2 mm. Typical topazata further shows 
a tendency for the costal dark spots to be continued across the wings 



225 

fully or partially by dark lines whilst our five Hymers specimens show 
no trace of this; the orange of the upper side is very bright and the 
purple-brown of the under side very deep. We propose the above 
name for this Hymers race and have marked as type the $ specimen 
figured as mentioned. Paratypes are 3 3,1$ all from Hymers 
(Apr. 24-30, May 1-7). 

Type and paratypes in Coll. Barnes. 

Trichodesia albovittata tenuifasciata var. nov. (PI. XXII, Fig. 7). 

Four specimens before us from Spirit Lake, Idaho have the white 
band of primaries much narrower (1 mm. in width) than in the typical 
Eastern forms (PI. XXII, Fig. 8); the secondaries are immaculate 
black and the fringes on underside seem constantly dark with the ex- 
ception of the apex of both wings and the termen of primaries whilst 
in the Eastern race the secondaries usually (although not always so) 
are checkered with white. We have similar specimens from Glacier 
Nat. Park, Montana, whilst specimens from Wellington, B. C. appear 
to agree with the Eastern form. Apparently we are dealing with a race 
inhabiting the Northwestern States for which we propose the above 
name. 

$ Type and 3 $ Paratypes from Spirit Lake, Idaho (July 1-7) 
in Coll. Barnes. 

Triphosa bipectinata sp. nov. (PI. XIX, Fig. 6). 

Palpi upturned to about level of front ; antennae in $ bipectinate ; thorax 
and primaries light shiny gray-brown, the latter crossed by numerous darker 
undulate lines ; basal and median areas darker than the remainder of wing ; post- 
median area with the cross lines merely marked by dots and slight arrow marks 
on the veins. Secondaries rather uniform smoky with faint traces of the lines 
of primaries; outer margin of both wings faintly crenulate and marked by dots 
on each side of the veins. Beneath smoky with scarcely a trace of the macula- 
tion of the upper side showing through. Expanse 35 mm. 

Habitat: Palmerlee, Ariz. 2 $. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

Our Paratype shows the median area considerably darker than in 
the Holotype, forming a dark band across an otherwise immaculate 
brown wing ; the species, which is rather difficult to describe, should be 
readily recognizable from the figure ; apparently it is closely related to 
Monotaxis semipectinata Hist., differing however in the longer up- 
turned palpi and in the bipectinate $ antennae. We are rather doubt- 
ful as to the correct generic reference, but the biangulate nature of the 
discal veins on secondaries and the general type of maculation would 



226 

seem to associate it with the TripJiosa group; the single hind tibia left 
on the specimens is very long, with two pairs of spurs and bent or 
curved in a peculiar manner which may or may not be normal. 

Lygris (neolexia) xylina serrataria var. nov. (PL XXI, Fig. 9). 

In a previous paper we had restricted the type of xylina Hist, to 
the S from New York in the Hulst Collection ; this specimen has 
strongly pectinate antennae. In a series of 4 $ 's and 1 $ before us 
from the vicinity of Ottawa, Ont. (Meach Lake, Que.), collected by 
Mr. C. H. Young in July and received by us with the Taylor Collec- 
tion, the antennae in the $ 's show very short pectinations, in fact they 
can scarcely be termed more than strong serrations. The type of 
maculation is distinctly the same as in typical xylina with brown median 
band and basal area, the antemedian and submarginal areas being tinged 
with yellowish ; on the secondaries the postmedian dark line is very 
distinct, sharply dentate and scarcely at all shaded outwardly with 
white. In view of the distinct difference in the S antennae we be- 
lieve the form worthy of a name and propose using serrataria. For 
the form found in the vicinity of Calgary, Alta. in which the $ an- 
tennae are rather intermediate between serrataria and xylina in the 
length of the pectinations and which shows a purplish tinge to the 
median band the name speciosa Hist, may apparently be used although 
the name is based on a rather aberrant specimen with reduced median 
band ; at the time we referred speciosa as an aberration of xylina we 
had overlooked the structure of the $ antennae. 

Thera georgii benesignata var. nov. (PL XIX, Fig. 3). 

Georgii Hist, was described from specimens from California, 
Nevada, Washington, and Vancouver Is., B. C. The type in the Hulst 
Collection is from Nevada and we would propose restricting the name 
to this form which is the one found commonly all through the Sierras 
(PL XIX, Fig. 4), being rather unicolorous smoky with the brown 
median and basal bands poorly defined. The form found in Van- 
couver Island is in general larger and much paler, the ground color of 
primaries being at times almost white and the median and basal brown 
areas contrasting strongly with the remainder of the wing ; we propose 
the above name for this race ; the type $ is from Wellington, B. C. 
(July 28, 1905) and the type 9 from the same locality (Sept. 12, 
1903) ; we have besides 4 $ and 4 9 Paratypes from this locality 
and from Duncans, B. C. 



227 

Thera latens sp. nov. (PI. XIX, Fig. 5). 

Primaries with the pale ground color rather heavily sprinkled with 
brownish scaling; a broadly geminate subbasal black line, inclined obliquely 
outwardly below costa and forming a prominent angle in the cell, the included 
space (about 1 mm. in width) being browner than the basal and antemedian 
areas ; antemedian line blackish, in general parallel to subbasal line with a 
sharp angle in cell just above origin of vein 2; this line is followed at some 
distance by a smoky parallel shade line, the included space being quite dark 
brown ; the central median space is paler and contains a distinct discal dot ; post- 
median line dark, in general parallel to antemedian line and not approaching it 
at inner margin as in constricta Pack., forming a prominent blunt angle opposite 
cell, preceded by a shade line similar to that following antemedian line ; subter- 
minal space pale ; s. t. line white, strongly crenulate and preceded by a brown 
shade. Secondaries very pale smoky with faint traces of a discal dot and bent 
median and subterminal dark lines. Beneath pale brownish with the macula- 
tion of the upper side repeated in a very faint way. Expanse 28 mm. 

Habitat: $, Colorado (Bruce); 5, Golden, Colo. 2 $,2 9. Types, 
Coll. Barnes. 

This species is closely allied to otisi Dyar but the general ground 
color is much browner and the sub-basal band seems more prominently 
angled below costa, although long series may prove this feature to be 
inconstant in which case latens will probably be better considered as a 
race of otisi than a good species. 

Dysstroma truncata Hufn. 

The receipt of a good deal of material recently in this difficult 
group has necessitated a rather intensive study of the $ genitalia 
on our part; Mr. Pierce in his Genitalia of the British Noctuidae p. 
65, PI. XL, has given the distinguishing features of truncata Huf. and 
citrata Fabr. (immanata Haw.) ; the easiest means of differentiation is 
found in the Cornuti of the Aedoeagus which in truncata constitute a 
narrow, elongate group of fine spines whereas in citrata they form a 
broad, less elongate group of stout spines, the aedoeagus itself being 
correspondingly stouter and chunkier; we might further note that 
the Anellus lobes which are thumb-shaped are broader and stumpier 
in truncata, being on a distinctly shorter pedicel, and the long hairs 
with which they are clothed are coarser toward the base on the inner 
side. Using the genitalia as a means of separation we found that we 
have truncata distributed more or less generally through the whole of 
Northern North America and in high altitudes of Colorado and Cali- 
fornia; we found however nothing distinctive enough in the genitalia 



228 

to warrant a separation of the N. American from the European form 
of which we made several slides. 

Walkerata Pears, described as a separate species (Can. Ent. XLI, 
119), is without much doubt a form of truncata; we saw the types last 
year in New York and since then through the kindness of Mr. F. Wat- 
son of the American Museum of Natural History have received excel- 
lent photographs of both $ and 2 types; it is a form with the 
median band dark bluish-gray, more or less suffused with white in 
central area, and bounded on either side by bands varying from pale 
yellow to deep orange. We have almost exactly matched the $ type 
with a specimen from Calgary, Alta. which we figure (PI. XXI, Fig. 
7) ; we have very similar specimens from Colorado and the vicinity of 
Lake Tahoe, California as well as from the southern Alaskan Coast 
(PI. XXI, Fig. 8) ; the form is probably related to schneideri Sanb. 
from Northern Europe. 

In the White Mts. N. H. (Bretton Woods) Dr. McDunnough 
took a small series of almost typical truncata in the latter half of July 
(PI. XXI, Figs. 1, 2) ; ova secured from a 9 hatched in ten days, 
the larvae fed up until about half-grown and then prepared to hiber- 
nate ; we were unsuccessful in bringing any to maturity but the larval 
history is an additional proof, if needed, that we are dealing with trun- 
cata and not citrata which hibernates in the egg stage. We also figure 
a specimen of citrata from the same locality for comparison (PI. XXI, 
Fig. 3). 

Suspectata Moesch. from Labrador will, we believe, prove to be a 
form or race of truncata judging by the description ; in spite of Moesch- 
ler's assertion (1884, Verh. Z. B. Ges. Wien, p. 302) that his suspectata 
is identical with brunneata Pack, we fail to see how this can be possible ; 
the description of suspectata does not fit in at all with Packard's figure 
of brunneata, the size alone of the former (35 mm.) emphasizing its 
distinctness; brunneata will probably prove to be a good species, nearer 
possibly to kasloata Tayl. than to truncata. 

Judging by the description traversata Kell. (not transversata as 
listed), described as a Hydriomena, from Petosky, Mich. (Bull. Buff. 
Soc. V, 45) will fall into this group but without a knowledge of the 
type it is impossible to definitely place it. 

There is a large race occurring in the Puget Sound and Vancouver 
Island region which we had thought to be new ; Mr. Swett, however, 
has identified this for us as mullcolata Hist, and after a study of the 



229 

description we are inclined to agree with him; the description (Brook. 
Bull. IV, 27) is not very clear and type locality is given as Colorado; 
we have a note saying that the type in the Hulst Collection is labelled 
'Washington' which on the face of it would seem to indicate a spurious 
type; if however we take into consideration Hulst's well-known inac- 
curacy and the fact that H. K. Morrison collected in Washington State 
in 1880, the year previous to the description, it may very well be that 
this specimen is a true type and correctly labelled ; it remains for 
some-one to compare it with the original description to see if it fits 
it accurately in which latter case we see no reason for not considering 
it the type. For the present we shall follow Mr. Swett in applying 
the name mulleolata to this race which apparently occurs in two gener- 
ations as we have seen material captured in June and have in our col- 
lection a series taken by the Rev. G. Taylor at Gabriola Is. in August, 
a pair of which we figure (PI. XXI, Figs. 4, 5). 

The large size and ruddy claret-brown color readily distinguish 
this race ; we have three very similar specimens from Ketchikan, 
Alaska, taken along with numerous specimens of the form zvalkerata 
Pears, in July; the secondaries however are very deep smoky. The 
type of $ genitalia (PI. XXX, Fig. 1) is distinctly that of truncata 
with possibly a very slight augmentation of the number of spines in 
the Cornuti as compared with specimens from Europe; on the slides 
the genitalia can at once be separated, even with the naked eye, from 
those of citrata forms (PI. XXX, Fig. 2) which also occur in numbers 
on Vancouver Island. 

Since writing the above notes and while our own article was in 
press Mr. Swett's paper on the genus Dysstroma has appeared in the 
Canadian Entomologist (1917, 49 p. 64). Recently on finding that we 
were both working independently on the same subject we exchanged 
views and specimens and we believe in consequence that Mr. Swett 
has considerably modified his point of view as expressed in this paper 
and now concedes the presence of truncata (or at least a race of the 
same) in North America. Personally we are firmly convinced of its 
occurrence here and, as already stated, can see no reason for not con- 
sidering mulleolata Hist, to be a Western race of this species ; Mr. 
Swett's statement regarding the genitalia is not at all clear or convinc- 
ing; he mentions longer 'terminal spines' but leaves one to guess as to 
just what he means by the term, no explanation being given as to 
whether these 'spines' occur on the Aedoeagus, the Uncus or the 



230 

Valvae ; our own investigations on this form (of which we have made 
five or six slides) have shown that it so closely resembles both Euro- 
pean truncata and that found in the Eastern States as to be inseparable 
on genitalia alone. We figure (PL XXI, Fig. 6) the form ochro- 
fuscaria Swett, expressing the hope that that portion of the description 
which states 'a large reddish brown costal spot at the anal angle may 
be laid to the door of the printer rather than the author; Mr. Swett 
compares this form to rufibrunnea Warren of which we know noth- 
ing ; it would seem to us to be a further development of the form cen- 
tumnotata Schulze of truncata as figured in Seitz Pal. Macrolep. IV, 
PL 8k and we are surprised that this resemblance did not lead Mr. 
Swett at the time to suspect the presence of truncata in this country ; 
apparently Mr. Swett has laid too great stress on the sharp angulation 
of the postmedian line on underside of secondaries as a distinguishing 
feature between truncata and citrata; as a matter of fact all our N. 
American forms or races of truncata show a rather sharper angulation 
than is usual in the European species but as they also show the irregu- 
larity in outline of this same line opposite the cell and the tendency to 
form whitish subterminal spots on the upper side beyond this line — as 
may be seen by a reference to our figures — their affinity to truncata 
(apart from genitalia) is to our mind clearly shown. 

X. ferrugata infumata var. nov. (PL XIX, Figs. 7, 8). 

A series of specimens taken by Dr. McDunnough at Crater Lake, 
Oregon (July 16-23) on moist hillsides a little below the rim of the 
lake differs considerably from Eastern specimens of ferrugata (Ottawa, 
Ont. ; New Brighton, Pa.) (PL XIX, Fig. 9) ; in size they are con- 
siderably larger and are also much duller in coloration due to a general 
smoky suffusion which causes the dull purplish median band to stand 
out much less prominently than in typical ferrugata or its form 
unidentaria; the two black subapical spots are also less distinct and 
tend to suffuse into each other forming a single, diffuse, smoky patch ; 
the secondaries are dark with the numerous cross-lines well defined. 
For this race, which is probably confined to the higher altitudes of the 
Sierras, we propose the above name and have marked as Types and 
Paratypes 2 $ ,2 9 , in Coll. Barnes. 

Spargania illustrata sp. nov. (PL XX, Figs. 7, 8). 

Primaries dull olive green, more or less unicolorous from base of wing 
to post median line, this area crossed by six equidistant, faint, dark lines, wavy 



231 

and rather strongly bent outward below costa, the fifth line just preceding the 
prominent discal spot; between the 3d and 5th lines traces of a paler band, 
scarcely visible except at costa and divided by the 4th line; postmedian line 
which forms the outer boundary of this darker area irregularly dentate with 
rather prominent teeth below veins 3, 4 and 7, inclined obliquely outwardly from 
costa to vein 4, then inwardly oblique to slightly beyond middle of inner mar- 
gin; beyond the postmedian line the color of the wing is decidedly paler, mixed 
with grayish, with the exception of a costo-apical patch of the same color as 
the basal area; two wavy dark lines, more or less parallel to postmedian line, 
cross the subterminal area; a pale s. t. line, scarcely visible except where it 
crosses the dark apical patch; fringes smoky, slightly checkered. Secondaries 
unicolorous orange-yellow with more or less distinct dark terminal line. Be- 
neath primaries tinged with orange with the maculation of the upper side slightly 
visible and with a small, dark costal blotch at inception of postmedian line; sec- 
ondaries as above without the terminal dark line. Expanse 25 mm. 
Habitat: Palmerlee, Ariz. 3 $,3 ?. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

This species has probably been confused in collections with 
aurata Grt. (daira Druce) (PI. XX, Fig. 9) with which it is very simi- 
lar in general type of maculation, differing however in the much more 
sombre coloring with none of the pale basal area characteristic of 
aurata. The 9 's of illustrata are generally paler in terminal area and 
better marked than the S 's. We figure the types of illustrata as well 
as a $ of aurata from Redington, Ariz. 

Spargania magnoliata ruptata var. nov. (PI. XIX, Fig. 1). 

Typical magnoliata Gn. is a form of the Eastern States and Can- 
ada, having apparently as synonyms incommodata Wlk., placidata Wlk., 
ziczacata Wlk. and cumatilis G. & R. On the northern Pacific Coast it 
is represented by pemotata Hist. (PI. XIX, Fig. 2) described from 
Alaska and extending southward to Vancouver Is., B. C. ; this form is 
larger and generally duller in coloration. In California at lower levels 
we find the race quadripunctata Pack, which as far as can be told from 
the poor type specimen in the Cambridge Mus. Coll. is very similar to 
pemotata but smaller and generally brighter in color, the green of the 
primaries being less tinged with gray. We have two 9 's from Deer 
Park Spgs. in the Lake Tahoe region of the Sierra Nevadas which 
seem to represent a high altitude form characterized by the prominent 
white subterminal band with only traces of a central line, the white 
color breaking through the dark terminal area between veins 3 and 4 
and touching the outer margin ; the hind wings are considerably paler 
than in pemotata. This may represent a good species but for the 
present we prefer to consider it a race for which we propose the name 



232 

ruptata; we figure the type 9 as well as a specimen of pemotata 
for comparison. 

Mesoleuca gratulata latialbata var. nov. (PI. XXII, Fig. 11). 

Typical gratulata (PI. XXII, Fig. 10) has the median white band 
strongly constricted centrally below the cell due to an outward bulge 
in the dark basal area and a strong inward bend below vein 4 of the 
outer dark area. In three $ specimens before us from Plumas Co., 
Calif, this median white band is of much more even width throughout; 
the basal area forms only a slight projection below the cell and the 
outer bounding line is bent in far less than in the typical form, being 
quite far removed from the bases of both veins 2 and 3. Our speci- 
mens being all absolutely constant in this respect we believe that we are 
dealing with a good racial form for which we propose the name 
latialbata. We figure specimens of both forms for comparison. 

Epirrhoe plebeculata vivida var. nov. (PI. XX, Figs. 1, 2). 

After a careful reading of Guenee's description there is little 
doubt in our minds that plebeculata, based on a single $ from Cali- 
fornia, is the same species as that described later by Packard from a 
single 9 from Nevada as rubrosuffusata although it is quite probably 
that Packard's name may be held for a racial form with redder secon- 
daries. According to the description the secondaries of plebeculata 
are pale yellow; in a bred series from Alameda Co., Calif. (PI. XX, 
Fig. 3, 4) before us the color varies from pale dull yellow to dull 
brick color, the general effect of the whole coloration of the wings 
being dull and faded. In specimens from Vancouver Is., B. C. the 
coloration is much more vivid and contrasted, the tint of the secondaries 
being a bright orange-yellow with generally rather well-defined macu- 
lation ; for this northern race we propose the name of vivida and have 
made 4 $ 's and 2 9 's from Wellington and Goldstream B. C. types, 
a pair of which we figure. 

Zenophleps obscurata infumata var. nov. (PI. XIX, Fig. 11). 

Typical obscurata (PI. XIX, Fig. 10) was described from material 
from Siskiyou Co., Calif, and is found throughout the Sierras at mod- 
erate altitudes ; it is characterized by pale yellow subterminal and ter- 
minal shading. In Arizona we meet with a race which is much darker 
in color, the cross bands being deeper brown and the terminal area 
suffused with smoky with only traces of the yellow tints of the nimo- 



233 

typical form, for this race we propose the name infumata, the types 
being 8 S's and 3 5 's from Palmerlee, Cochise Co., Arizona in Coll. 
Barnes. 

GEOMETRINAE 

Heliomata fulliola sp. nov. (PI. XX, Fig. 9). 

Primaries brown crossed by a white band of even width throughout, bent 
inward at costa ; the dark terminal area is crossed by two parallel metallic lines 
and there are a few scattered metallic scales in the basal dark portion ; costal 
portion of white band tinged with yellowish ; secondaries much as primaries with 
the white band broader leaving only a small basal dark space. Beneath as on 
upper side with the coloration rather duller. Expanse 20 mm. 

Habitat : Redington, Ariz. 1 $ . Type, Coll. Barnes. 

Very similar to infulata Grt. but with the band of primaries paler 
and unbroken and the basal dark space on secondaries narrower, more 
as in cycladata Grt. 

Drepanulatrix hulsti carneolata var. nov. (PI. XXVIII, Figs. 

5,6). 

Typical hulsti Dyar (lenitaria Grossb.) is the form found in south- 
ern California and ranges in color from red-brown through reddish- 
purple to deep purple with the cross-lines, especially the median and 
subterminal ones rather heavily marked in black; we figured a typical 
specimen in our Contributions Vol. Ill, PI. XIII, Fig. 13. In Arizona 
we meet with a smaller form (32 mm.) in which the markings are more 
or less obsolete, especially in the $ 's, with the exception of the discal 
dot and the costal portion of the subterminal dots ; the color is also 
much paler varying from deep to pale flesh-color much as in cervini- 
color Hist. ; the secondaries show less terminal sprinkling than in the 
type form. We propose the name carneolata for this race which 
possibly represents a seasonal form as well, all our dated material hav- 
ing been captured in August and September whereas our typical series 
is dated May. The types of carneolata are 2 $ 's and 5 $ 's from 
Redington, Ariz., and Santa Catalina Mts., Pinal Co., Ariz. 

Phasiane triviata sp. nov. (PI. XXIII, Fig. 1). 

Primaries dull purplish-gray, faintly black-sprinkled, with three prominent 
oblique black blotches on costa giving rise to the usual lines which are faint 
and at times obsolescent; t. a. line arising from the outer edge of a rectangular 
costal blotch one-third out from base, fine, inwardly oblique; median shade well 
marked by costal blotch but otherwise obscure, diffuse, irregular, crossing a small 



234 

discal dot; t. p. line marked at costa by a strong triangular blotch, the apex of 
which is strongly bent upward and drawn out to a point just above vein 6 where 
it forms a sharp angle and proceeds as a fine slightly waved line parallel to 
the outer margin of wing; terminal area somewhat deeper in shade than re- 
mainder of wing; fringes smoky with pale basal line; secondaries similar to 
primaries in color with faint discal dot and traces of a curved postmedian line 
and fairly well checkered fringes. Beneath primaries smoky, somewhat white- 
sprinkled in median area, secondaries whitish, heavily and finely sprinkled with 
smoky brown and with small black discal dot ; fringes as above. Expanse 22-25 
mm. 

Habitat: Chiricahua Mts., Arizona (Aug.); Paradise, Ariz.; Huachuca 
Mts., Ariz. 3 $ , A 9 . Types, Coll. Barnes. 

Belongs in the calif orniata group, but is distinguished from this 
species by the strongly bent t. p. line at costa without any thickening at 
vein 4 or subterminal blotches. The 9 's show a broad darker mar- 
ginal area on the underside with paler, heavily sprinkled basal region. 
Some $ 's show a paler median area sprinkled over with dark speckles 
giving a much more contrasted effect than in the normal form; in 
the 9 's at times the whole basal area to t. p. line is whitish ; the species 
also occurs at Jemez Spgs., N. Mex. 

Phasiane dislocaria malefactaria var. nov. (PI. XXIII, Figs. 2, 

3). 

Typical dislocaria, described from Waco, Texas, is characterized 
by its rather deep smoky-brown color with prominent ochreous veins 
and distinct cross-lines on secondaries besides the three lines on primar- 
ies ; the pectinate $ antennae led Hulst to place the species in Alcis 
but we imagine its real affinities are with the respcrsata group of what 
Hulst calls Sciagraphia but for which we prefer the generic term 
Phasiane. We have a race from Arizona in which the ground color 
is much paler, varying from dark to very light gray, with the yellow 
veining less prominent and a tendency in the lines to become obsolete 
on the primaries ; on the secondaries the lines are entirely lacking. We 
propose the name malefactaria for this race, our types being 1 $ , 
1 9 from Paradise, Cochise Co., Arizona ; we have also 3 $ 's from 
Redington, Ariz, and Babaquivera Mts., Ariz, which we have made 
Paratypes. 

Phasiane (sciagraphia) ponderosa sp. nov. (PL XXIII, Figs. 7, 8) 

Primaries rather even dark gray crossed by two heavy black lines ; t. a. 
line almost perpendicular, slightly bent inward toward inner margin ; t. p. line 
bent outward below costa, at times angled rather sharply, then strongly sinuate 



235 

to inner margin with an occasional slight incurve opposite cell, bordered on both 
sides by a faint yellowish hair-line; a large but faint oval discal ringlet and a 
faint whitish diffuse s. t. line; secondaries faintly scalloped, whitish, heavily 
sprinkled with smoky with a large faint discal ringlet and traces, especially at 
anal margin, of a dark median line angled above vein 4; the s. t. line of primaries 
is faintly repeated ; a very faint broken terminal dark line on both wings ; fringes 
concolorous, at times slightly checkered. Beneath primaries whitish, sprinkled 
with smoky and distinctly tinged with light brown along costa and at apex; 
secondaries rather paler with dark sprinkles and the veins distinctly outlined in 
light brown ; prominent discal ringlets on both wings and terminal broken dark 
line; fringes of primaries slightly checkered. Expanse 29 mm. 

Habitat : $ 's, Cartwright, Man. (June 14, July 24) ; $ 's, Aweme, Man. 
(June 20), Calgary, Alta. (June 16). 2 $,2 $. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

This species is closely allied to hebetata Hist, and decorata Grossb. 
differing in the larger discal ringlet and lack of pinkish shading bor- 
dering t. p. line on upper side and by the more prominent brown shad- 
ing on underside. As described above the typical form has the cross 
lines extremely black and heavy; another form (PI. XXIII, Fig. 9) is 
before us in which the cross-lines are much fainter and tend to become 
obsolescent, especially in the $ 's ; we propose for this the name dema- 
culata and the types are 3 $ 's from Calgary, Alta. (May 11, July 1, 
July 5) and 3 9 's from Calgary, Alta. (July 1), Banff, Alta. (July 
1) and Field, B. C. (July 2) all in Collection Barnes. 

Phasiane septemberata sp. nov. (PI. XXIII, Fig. 4). 

Palpi and antennae tinged with ochreous; thorax deep gray; primaries 
rather an even deep gray, at times irrorate with white in the median area, 
crossed by two black subparallel lines which are often almost obsolete ; t. a. line 
bent slightly outward at costa, then inwardly oblique ; t. p. line with a bend or 
bulge opposite cell, otherwise straight in its general course ; a faint dark discal 
dot and terminal broken line ; fringes concolorous, with a pale median line. 
Secondaries paler gray deepening outwardly and sprinkled with black and white 
scaling along anal margin ; faint traces above anal angle of a postmedian line, 
terminal line and fringes as on primaries. Beneath primaries rather even dark 
gray with whitish sprinkling in median area ; secondaries whitish strongly pep- 
pered with smoky brown and with usually a small discal dot; veins faintly out- 
lined in ochreous. Expanse 22-25 mm. 

Habitat: Paradise, Cochise Co., Ariz. (Sept., Oct.) 4 <$ , 4 $. Types, 
Coll. Barnes. 

Closely allied to excurvata Pack, (spodopterata Hist.) but smaller, 
more even in color and without the dark shades beyond the t. p. line. 



236 

Itame (diastictis) extemporata sp. nov. (PI. XXIII, Fig. 10). 

Thorax and primaries dull purplish gray, the latter tinged with reddish in 
terminal area except at apex of wing; t. a. line bent below costa where it is 
quite distinct, then faint and upright to inner margin ; median line arising from 
a prominent quadrate black brown patch on costa, then broad but faint and 
rigidly perpendicular to inner margin ; t. p. line arising from a still larger black 
brown blotch, angled outward below costa, faint and bent inward toward median 
line below cell, slightly accentuated by dots on the veins and followed by a 
diffuse smoky shade except at costa; s. t. line marked by a brownish blotch at 
costa scarcely to be traced as a faint whitish line through the reddish terminal 
suffusion; very faint broken terminal line; fringes concolorous. Secondaries 
creamy, sprinkled with purplish especially above anal angle. Beneath very 
heavily sprinkled with light brownish but with no traces of maculation nor of 
discal dots. Expanse 29 mm. 

Habitat: $, Havilah, Calif. (June 8-15); ?, Camp Baldy, S. Bernar- 
dino Mts., Calif. (June 24-30). 1 £,1 9. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

This species is very close to quadrilinearia Pack, (inqninaria 
Hist.) but differs in the deeper tone of the ground color, the more 
prominent costal spots and the entire lack of the discal spots on the 
underside (our $ lacks them also on the upper-side but the 2 shows 
a faint spot on primaries) as well as by the fact that the secondaries 
are much less scalloped, especially in the $ sex. 

Itame coortaria enigmata var. nov. (PI. XXIV, Fig. 2). 

Coortaria Hist, was described from 1 $ ,2 ? 's from Texas and 
the only type we have been able to locate is a 5 in the Hulst Collec- 
tion at New Brunswick which will hold the name ; while the name 
coortaria has generally been applied to specimens from the Eastern 
and Middle States the type conclusively proves that the nimotypical 
form is that of the Rocky Mts ; we have no material from Texas but 
have matched the type very closely with material from Stockton, Utah 
(PI. XXIV, Fig. 1) ; this form is distinguished by its bright coloration 
with plenty of ruddy terminal suffusion, with fairly well marked red- 
dish s. t. line and rather small and triangular costal spots; the secon- 
daries are distinctly yellowish. In the form from the Eastern and 
Middle States the ground color is paler, the ruddy suffusion reduced 
with scarcely a trace of the s. t. line, the costal spots larger and more 
quadrate, the 4th spot (subterminal) being especially increased in 
size; the secondaries are also paler, being creamy not yellowish; we 
propose the above name for this form; our type series consists of 
2 S 's from New Brighton, Pa., 2 $ 's from Chicago, 111., 2 9 's from 



237 

Chicago, 111., 1 9, Edgebrook, 111. (Beer) and 1 9, Quincy, 111. 
(Poling). 

Itame (diastictis) confederata sp. nov. (PI. XXIV, Figs. 5, 6). 

Primaries cream-colored, rather heavily sprinkled with ruddy-brown and 
crossed by three ruddy-brown lines, broadest on costa; t. a. line evenly and 
slightly concave, median line parallel to t. a. line and passing through a small 
black discal spot; t. p. line bluntly angled outwardly below costa, then sinuate; 
s. t. line merely indicated by a faint brown shading at costa and a more distinct 
ruddy brown diffuse spot between veins 3 and 4; faint terminal dotted line, 
more distinct in $ ; secondaries rather less heavily sprinkled than primaries 
with the t. p. line continued as a curved, smoky, rather broad line. Beneath 
rather yellower than above with the markings of upper side faintly repeated on 
primaries but very distinct on secondaries ; no discal dots in $ but distinct ones 
as well as terminal dotted line in ? which also has the secondaries slightly 
angled at vein 4. Expanse 28 mm. 

Habitat: Glenwood Spgs., Colo. (July, Aug.) i Durango, Colo. (July). 
4 $,6 $ . Types, Coll. Barnes. 

This species has been confused with umbriferata Hist, due to a 
spurious type from Colorado in the Hulst Collection; the true umbri- 
ferata was described from Soda Spgs., California and is a duller, more 
purplish colored insect with better defined discal dots and more con- 
fluent terminal ones and, if our identification from the true type in the 
Hulst Coll. be correct, at once separable in the $ sex by the antennae, 
which are scarcely bipectinate but rather strongly serrate. Dr. Mc- 
Dunnough found the species quite common on the borders of Castle 
Lake, Siskiyou Co., Calif., a small lake, some 6000 ft. in altitude, sit- 
uated about 8 miles north-west of Soda Spgs. ; as this lake was one of 
the favorite hunting grounds of Behrens, from whom Hulst received 
his type specimen, we should not be surprised if it were captured here 
rather than at Soda Spgs., a small resort which Behrens made his 
headquarters, situated in the Upper Sacramento Valley at an altitude 
of about 2300 ft. ; in any case Dr. McDunnough found no trace of um- 
briferata in the valleys, although he took a couple of specimens of our 
new species, confederata. We figure a pair of umbriferata for com- 
parison. (PI. XXIV, Figs. 3, 4.) 

Itame plumosata sp. nov. (PI. XXIV, Figs. 7, 8). 

$ antennae strongly bipectinate ; primaries creamy- white, sprinkled with 
yellow-brown, more heavily in basal and terminal areas than in median area ; 
primaries crossed by three brown lines ; t. a. line bent below costa then straight 
to inner margin; median line faint (sometimes obsolete) slightly bent below 
cell, crossing a small dark discal spot; t. p. line well-defined, sinuate, followed 



238 

by a diffuse brown shading with a smoky blotch between veins 3 and 4 ; distinct 
black terminal dots. Secondaries pale, slightly sprinkled, with traces of a bent 
postmedian line, a small dark discal dot and distinct terminal broken line. Be- 
neath rather yellower than above, primaries less heavily sprinkled, with the 
maculation of upper side only faintly repeated except a distinct discal dot and 
terminal broken line; secondaries more heavily sprinkled than above with dis- 
tinct discal and terminal dots, fairly well defined antemedian and postmedian 
curved brown lines and traces of dark subterminal shades. Expanse 27 mm. 
Habitat : Huachuca Mts., Ariz. (June, July) ; White Mts., Ariz. ; Tucson, 
Ariz.; Palmerlee, Ariz. 4 $,39; Provo, Utah; Eureka, Utah; Stockton, 
Utah. 4 $,2 9 . Types, Coll. Barnes. 

This species is closely allied to the preceding but apart from the 
more strongly pectinate S antennae, differs in the course of the t. 
p. line which is not angled below costa but merely sinuate; the discal 
dots and terminal broken lines are also much better defined. 

Itame epigenata sp. nov. (PL XXIII, Fig. 5). 

Primaries pale bluish-gray, evenly and heavily suffused with smoky- 
brown; a basal black dot; t. a. line blackish, strongly convex, arising from a 
small dark patch on costa; median line generally rather diffuse, broad, irregular 
and black-brown, extending generally only from costa to cubital vein, at times 
faintly visible to inner margin near t. p. line; closely following this and at 
times connected with it, forming its outer border, is an oblique black discal 
dash; t. p. line originating in a blackish costal patch, strongly bent outward 
from costa to vein 6, then angled rather sharply and parallel to outer margin 
to vein 4 where it curves strongly inward to inner margin two-thirds from base, 
accentuated on veins by black dots; a large rectangular costo-apical patch; ter- 
minal broken dark line; fringes checkered. Secondaries pale, heavily sprinkled 
with smoky brown, with small discal dot and almost unbroken dark terminal line. 
Beneath primaries suffused with smoky with only traces of gray ground color 
showing ; along costa ochreous-brown, the maculation of upper side partially and 
faintly visible ; secondaries much as an upper side with discal dot more distinct ; 
both wings with distinctly checkered fringes. Expanse 27 mm. 

Habitat: Truckee, Calif. XAug.-Oct.) 6 $,3 $. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

This species has been generally confused with wauaria L. (PL 
XXIII, Fig. 6) but besides being distinctly larger has the t. p. line 
much better developed than is found in the latter species which also 
is less heavily sprinkled with smoky and shows a distinct contrast be- 
tween the bluish costal and basal areas and the much darker terminal 
area; there is also no pale ochreous costal shading in epigenata; we 
figure both forms to illustrate the differences. We would note that the 
occurrence of typical wauaria in N. America is doubtful ; it may be rep- 
resented by packardaria Moesch. from Labrador, of which form how- 



239 

ever we know nothing. Canadian specimens seem best referred to 
bitactata Wlk. which is really closer to wauaria than our new species 
is. Colorado specimens seem to agree with epigenata; we have several 
specimens bred by ourselves from larvae on a Ribes species found near 
Silverton, Colo, at an altitude of over 10,000 ft. ; we have other speci- 
mens from Denver, Colo. ; Eureka, Utah., and Yellowstone Park, Wyo. 

Itame (diastictis) graphidaria sobriaria var. nov. (PL XXIV, 

Fig. 9). 

Hulst described graphidaria (Ent. Amer. II, 190) from 2 $ , 
2 2 from Texas and Arizona; the only types we have been able to 
locate are 2 2 's, one from Texas in the Hulst Coll., the other from 
Arizona in the Brooklyn Inst. Coll. We would restrict the type to 
the 2 specimen in the Hulst Coll. The Arizona form shows several 
points of distinction from the nimotypical Texan race, of which we 
have a series from the vicinity of Brownsville (PL XXIV, Fig. 10) ; 
the primaries are more evenly sprinkled with smoky brown in the $ 's, 
the median area not standing out more or less prominently as a white 
band ; the cross-lines seem less irregular and are wider apart at the 
inner margin and the white s. t. line is less distinct ; the secondaries 
are darker above and have on the underside the two cross-lines not so 
well developed. The 2 's are smaller but otherwise closer to the 
Texan form than the $ 's although showing in a less marked degree 
the same points of distinction. We propose the above name for this 
Arizone race and have made types of 7 $ 's and 2 2 's from Reding- 
ton, Arizona. We figure $ 's of both races. 

Catopyrrha esperanza sp. nov. (PL XXII, Figs. 5, 6). 

Palpi bright yellow tipped with purplish, front and antennal stalk purplish- 
pink; thorax and primaries deep olive, latter with costa at base pinkish and 
crossed by numerous dark striae ; t. a. line faint, brownish, strongly angled 
below costa ; median shade similar and parallel to t. a. line ; t. p. line well 
defined, pinkish-brown, sinuate, followed by a diffuse dusky shade and two 
small blackish spots centered with white at inner margin. Secondaries similar 
in color to primaries with the t. p. line continued and with a faint antemedian, 
slightly waved brownish line ; fringes on both wings concolorous. Beneath 
bright yellow, primaries with the area beyond t. p. line chocolate brown, a faint 
sprinkling of brown in basal area and a pinkish patch above center of inner 
margin ; secondaries with only the submarginal area chocolate, the terminal area 
being yellow, a faint antemedian line as above ; discal dots on all wings. 
Expanse 26 mm. 

Habitat : Brownsville, Texas. 1 $ , 1 2 . Types, Coll. Barnes. 



240 

The 9 type has the cross-lines obsolete and the spots above 
inner margin larger and without white filling. It is possible that this 
species has been described from Mexico but we have been unable to 
find any description that fits it; it is close to the variety perolivata 
Hist, but differs in the sinuate t. p. line of primaries which is distinctly 
curved in at costa ; the same line on the underside of secondaries is 
straight, not crenulate as in perolivata. Besides the types we have 
two additional $ 's, one, originally from the Hulst Coll., simply labelled 
Texas, the other, received from the American Entomological Co., 
labelled 'Florida', probably erroneously, the specimen being doubtless 
of Mexican origin. 

Sericosema viridirufaria incarnata form. $ nov. 

The 9 's of this species occur apparently in two color forms. 
The typical form has the primaries green as in the $ sex ; in the 
other form for which we propose the name incarnata the primaries 
are a deep flesh-color crossed by the dark subterminal half-line as in 
the typical form. Our types are 2 $ 's from Palmerlee, Ariz., 1 9 
from Huachuca Mts., Ariz., and 1 $ from S. Arizona (Poling). 

Monroa (Cleora) interpunctata sp. nov. (PI. XXV, Fig. 9). 

$ antennae strongly bipectinate ; palpi and front black ; head between 
antennae whitish ; thorax and abdomen gray, the latter unhanded ; wings rather 
even smoky-gray, primaries with the cross-lines rather interrupted, black, very 
oblique and parallel to each other ; t. a. and t. p. lines sharply angled below 
costa but rather indistinct in this region, median line only distinct below the 
cell, close to t. p. line ; a faint, waved, pale s. t. line, preceded by diffuse smoky 
shading ; terminal black dots between the veins ; secondaries with a broad curved 
smoky antemedian line and a narrow black postmedian line, bent below costa 
but otherwise straight ; a faint waved s. t. line preceded by a fairly distinct dark 
shade ; terminal dark dots as on primaries. Beneath unicolorous gray-white. 
Expanse 31 mm. 

Habitat : Paradise, Cochise Co., Ariz. ; Chiricahua Mts., Ariz. (July, 
Aug.), 4 $. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

This species is closely allied to quinquelinearia Pack, for which 
species and plumosaria Pack. Warren has created the genus Monroa 
(Nov. Zool. XI, p. 555, 1904). Apart from the practical lack of discal 
dots (in one specimen very faintly visible on primaries) it may be dis- 
tinguished by the terminal line being composed of dots, not continuous 
as in quinquelinearia (PI. XXV, Fig. 8) and the lack of black banding 
on the abdomen. The $ genitalia of the two species which we figure 



241 

(PI. XXX, Figs. 3, 4) show that we are dealing with distinct species; 
we would call particular attention to the armature of the Aedoeagus 
and the more extended spined area of the Valvae in Packard's species. 

Cleora sanctissima sp. nov. (PI. XXV, Fig. 6). 

$ . Palpi and front deep blackish, the latter paler in lower portion, head 
and collar gray with a black transverse line at base of antennae and another at 
apex of collar; thorax gray with darker metathoracic tuft, crossed mesially by 
a faint dark line; abdomen gray with a prominent black transverse line at base 
and segments dorsally banded with black ; primaries pale whitish gray, sprinkled 
and shaded with smoky; t. a. line black, strongly bent outward at costa, then 
thicker and very oblique to inner margin near base of wing, preceded by a dull 
brownish shade line, closely approximate in lower half ; t. p. line black, faint and 
parallel to outer margin from costa to vein 5, then prominent and inwardly 
oblique to middle of inner margin, preceded below the cell by a fine dark line 
and followed in all but costal portion by a dull brown shade; s. t. line evenly 
crenulate, white, shaded broadly on both sides by smoky; an oblique dark shade 
below apex becoming diffuse and fading away after crossing s. t. line, terminal 
black line accentuated by dots between the veins. Secondaries similar in color 
to primaries with black band at base of wing, an indistinct oblique median shade, 
only distinct between cell and anal margin and a distinct black postmedian line,' 
bent below costa and then rigidly oblique followed by brown shade as on pri- 
maries; a distinct discal ringlet; s. t. line white, distinct, bordered with smoky 
shades, slightly irregular but not crenulate; terminal area as on primaries. 
Beneath whitish, sprinkled with smoky, with black discal dots on all wings and 
terminal line as above. 

9. Smokier in color than $ with faint maculation and a much more 
irregular t. p. line ; border of secondaries strongly crenulate. Expanse 33 mm. 

Habitat: San Bernardino, Calif. (June); Loma Linda, Calif. (Sept ) • 
Camp Baldy, S. Bern. Mts., Calif. (July) (5). 3 $, 1 5. Types, Coll. 
Barnes. 

Very similar to obliquaria Grt. but differing in the non-crenulate 
s. t. line of secondaries ; it may possibly be merely a race of this species. 
It is also very close to a species which we have identified from the 
description as clivinaria Gn. ; the type of this species appears to have 
been lost (Obert. Etudes de Lep. Comp. VII, 271), but a specimen we 
figure from San Bernardino Co., Calif. (PI. XXV, Fig. 7) matches 
Guenee's description better than does any member of this group we 
know of from California. We figure the $ genitalia (PI. XXX, Fig. 
5) which represents a type totally distinct from that of the preceding 
species. 



242 

Cleora profanata sp. nov. (PI. XXV, Fig. 3). 

Front blackish, paler in lower portion ; head and thorax dull gray, with 
blackish interantennal, prothoracic and mesothoracic transverse lines ; abdomen 
gray with black bar on basal segment and two rows of black dots dorsally; pri- 
maries a dull smoky gray, slightly shaded with brown, lines black, rather fine, 
obsolete in costal portion ; t. a. line strongly bent outward below costa then 
oblique to inner margin near base of wing with slight projections on cubital vein 
and vein 1, preceded by a dull brownish shade; t. p. line straight below costa with 
slight inward angle on vein 6 then rounded and strongly oblique to base of vein 
3, forming a prominent outward bulge below vein 2 and again oblique to middle 
of inner margin ; the t. p. line is preceded by a faint parallel median line only 
distinct above inner margin and followed by a dull brownish shade ; s. t. line 
white, crenulate, shaded diffusely on both sides with smoky; a diffuse, dark, sub- 
apical, oblique shade ; terminal dark line with dots between the veins. Sec- 
ondaries similar in color to primaries, with black band at base of wing; an 
indistinct median shade-line followed by a small discal ringlet at times scarcely 
more than a dot; a fine oblique t. p. line tending to become wavy toward costa 
and followed by the same brownish shade as on primaries ; s. t. line whitish, 
decidedly crenulate in costal half but straightening out toward anal angle ; 
terminal waved dark line, the outer margin being quite strongly crenulate. 
Beneath whitish, sprinkled with smoky, especially primaries, with discal dots on 
all wings. 

Habitat: Glenwood Spgs., Colo. (May). 3 $, 1 $. Types, Coll. 
Barnes. 

Very similar to the preceding and to obliquaria Grt. but duller in 
color, fainter in maculation and with a more irregular t. p. line and 
more crenulate margin of secondaries in $ sex, this sex being practi- 
cally similar to the 9 sex in wing shape and maculation in contra- 
distinction to its allies which show considerable sexual dimorphism. 
The $ genitalia (PI. XXX, Fig. 6) are very similar to those of the 
preceding species but show certain points of distinction in the length of 
the terminal hooks of the Valvae and the Uncus. 

Cleora (selidosema) anellula sp. nov. (PI. XXV, Fig. 4). 

Head and thorax grayish ; wings dull grayish white heavily suffused and 
sprinkled with smoky-brown ; primaries with t. a. line dark, strongly rounded 
outwardly from costa to cubital vein, then inwardly oblique to inner margin 
one fourth out with a faint tooth on vein 1 ; this t. a. line is preceded by a 
diffuse broad subparallel shade ; median shade obsolete at costa, arising from an 
indistinct dark blotch representing the discal dot, equidistant from and sub- 
parallel to the t. a. and t. p. lines ; t. p. line indistinct from costa to vein 6, 
apparently slightly dentate and parallel to outer margin, below vein 6 distinct, 
blackish, strongly bent in to base of vein 3, then subparallel to t. a. line, followed 
by a diffuse smoky brown shade from which it is separated above inner margin 
by a narrow white line ; veins in subterminal area faintly marked in black ; an 



243 

indistinct white crenulate s. t. line, crossed by a faint subapical smoky shade 
and partially defined outwardly by smoky shading; dark terminal lunules more 
or less joined into a line. Secondaries with a distinct discal ringlet, a rather 
broad and rigidly oblique antemedian line, only visible between anal margin and 
cubital vein ; a dark postmedian line from anal margin to vein 6, oblique, with 
traces of an angle just below vein 6, followed by a white line and diffuse dark 
shade ; traces of an s. t. line as on primaries ; border of wing slightly crenulate 
and edged by a fine dark line. Beneath unicolorous glistening pale gray with 
traces of discal ringlets on all wings. Expanse 34 mm. 

Habitat : Jemez Spgs., N. M. (Sept. 15-30) ; Glenwood Spgs., Colo. (Aug., 
Sept.). 4 $,3 9. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

The species is very close to cxcclsaria Stkr. from Washington 
State, but is smaller, with finer cross-lines, more pronounced ringlet on 
disk and more crenulate s. t. line; the ringlet would also separate it 
from anastomosaria Grossb. which has merely a dot on the disk of 
secondaries. The S tibiae are without hair pencils which would 
throw the species into the genus Selidosema Hbn. as used by Hulst ; we 
doubt greatly however the value of this hair pencil for generic separa- 
tion and prefer for the present to use the genus Cleora in a more gen- 
eral sense than it was employed by Hulst. We figure the $ genitalia 
on Plate XXXI, Fig. 1. 

Cleora vernata sp. nov. (PI. XXV, Fig. 5). 

Thorax gray with a darker line across collar; primaries whitish, suffused 
with smoky brown and shaded with light brown above inner margin ; t. a. line 
broad, smoky, strongly bent out and angled below costa, then gently oblique to 
inner margin one third from base of wing, preceded by a smoky subparallel 
shade, diverging at costa ; median shade equidistant between t. a. and t. p. lines, 
in general parallel to t. a. line, forming an angle at the discal dot and slightly 
waved above inner margin ; t. p. line dark, rounded below costa, then gently 
irregular, slightly bent in below cell and again in submedian fold, edged out- 
wardly by a narrow whitish line, followed by a broad smoky shade, filling most 
of the subterminal space ; s. t. line white, diffuse, irregular, most distinct in 
central portion where it forms several white lunules ; terminal space shaded 
with smoky with a dark subapical oblique shade ; dark crenulate terminal line. 
Secondaries similar in color to primaries with an oblique dark median shade, 
not attaining costa, followed by an elongated discal dot ; t. p. line broad, blackish, 
rigidly oblique from inner margin to below vein 6 where it curves upward to 
costa, becoming obsolete ; this line is bordered outwardly by a fine white line 
and dark shade as on primaries ; s. t. line and terminal area much as on primaries. 
Beneath silky, whitish, with the maculation of the upper side partially visible. 
Expanse 32 mm. 

Habitat: Glenwood Spgs., Colo. (May 1-7). 3 $. Types, Coll. Barnes. 



244 

Closely allied to the preceding species and to excelsaria Stkr., dif- 
fering in the broad smoky submarginal shade which is quite a char- 
acteristic feature of the maculation. The $ genitalia (PI. XXXI, 
Fig. 2) are distinct. 

Cleora rusticaria sp. nov. (PI. XXIX, Fig. 9). 

Primaries rather dull brown, sprinkled with whitish ; t. a. line blackish, 
evenly rounded ; median shade broad, diffuse, rounded below costa and then 
slightly oblique ; a small discal linear streak ; t. p. line dark, crenulate, the points 
emphasized by dots on the veins, gently curved in below vein 2 ; s. t. line scarcely 
visible as faint white line but the preceding dark shading forms more or less 
of a distinct broken band across wing, broadest and most distinct below costa ; 
distinct dark terminal intravenular dots ; secondaries similar to primaries in 
color with considerable whitish sprinkling in basal area; a broad, dark, oblique 
median shade ; small black discal dot ; t. p. line slightly crenulate, evenly rounded, 
bent downward at anal margin ; a rather broad, subparallel, dark, subterminal 
shade, marking the inner shading of an almost obsolete white s. t. line ; terminal 
dark dots. Beneath pale ochreous, silky, with slight smoky apical shades on 
primaries and small discal dots. Expanse 34 mm. 

Habitat: Glenwood Spgs., Colo. (June 16-23). 1 $,\ 9. Types, Coll. 
Barnes. 

Closest in type of maculation to nigricaria B. & McD. but much 
browner in color and with the underside considerably paler. The $ 
has no hair pencils on the hind tibiae. 

Cleora (selidosema) satisfacta sp. nov. (PI. XXV, Figs. 1, 2,). 

Head, thorax and abdomen light purplish gray, the latter ringed with 
black; wings heavily and evenly sprinkled with smoky brown over a pale whitish 
ground, faintly tinged with purplish ; primaries with t. a. line fine, dark, rounded 
outwardly from costa to below cell with slight outward angle on subcostal and 
on cubital veins, then inwardly oblique with a faint inward angle in fold and 
an outward one on vein 1 ; basal area faintly brown-shaded ; a faint discal ringlet 
crossed by a still fainter median shade which is strongly outwardly oblique 
between costa and ringlet, then angled, somewhat waved and approximate to 
t. p. line above inner margin ; t. p. line distinct, blackish, outwardly oblique from 
costa to vein 6 with slight inward angle below vein 7, then inwardly oblique to 
base of vein 3 where it is somewhat thickened, then slightly outwardly bulged 
across vein 1 and perpendicular to inner margin below the fold ; the t. p. line 
is edged outwardly by a narrow white line followed by a faint diffuse brownish 
shade; s. t. line faint, whitish, crenulate, parallel to outer margin; secondaries 
with a faint oblique shade line continuing the median shade of primaries; a 
distinct longitudinally oval discal ringlet; postmedian line waved below costa 
and faint, distinct and black after vein 6, angled at the base of vein 4 and con- 
cave to inner margin ; subterminal and terminal acreas as on primaries. Beneath 



245 

rather shiny whitish, heavily peppered with rather darker grayish dots, othewise 
immaculate. Expanse 36 mm. 

Habitat: Kaslo, B. C. (Aug. 15). 1 $, 1 ?. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

Very closely allied to dejecta Hulst and purpuraria B. & McD. but 
generally duller in color with the cross lines rather more irregular and 
angled. 

Cleora ocularia sp. nov. (PI. XXV, Fig. 10). 

Thorax gray with a dark transverse line across collar; primaries light 
whitish gray, peppered with blackish and shaded with light brown; t. a. line 
marked by a geminate smoky oblique spot on costa, a black dot on cubital vein 
and an oblique black dash above inner margin, as indicated its course would be 
strongly bent out at costa and inwardly oblique to inner margin near base of 
wing; median shade starting from an oblique blackish patch on costa, well 
rounded below costa and then inwardly oblique and close to t. p. line to inner 
margin, emphasized by a strong black spot on cubital vein and preceded at end 
of cell by a lunate smoky discal dash the ends of which touch the curves of 
the line, enclosing an oval white patch of ground-color resembling an ocellus ; 
t. p. line emphasized by black dots, sinuate, with a rather strong incurve in the 
submedian fold, followed by a faint brownish shade ; s. t. line white, dentate, 
preceded and followed by smoky shading; strong terminal black dots and check- 
ered fringes. Secondaries of same color as primaries ; a dark obscure median 
shade, a narrow discal streak, a rather distinct t. p. line, dotted on veins with 
black, bent below costa and then rather straight ; subterminal and terminal areas 
as on primaries but s. t. line less dentate. Beneath primaries creamy, shaded 
with smoky, leaving a pale apical patch, costa spotted with ochreous and black, a 
large smoky discal lunule, fringes checkered in apical portion ; secondaries paler 
with small discal streak ; terminal dark line on both wings. Expanse 33 mm. 

Habitat: Colfax, Placer Co., Calif. (May); Sonoma Co., Calif. 
2 $ . Types, Coll. Barnes. 

The species is allied to pexata Swett but has less dentate t. p. 
line and shorter pectinations in the $ antennae ; we can also see no 
hair pencil on the hind-tibiae. 

Aethaloptera anticaria fumata var. nov. (PI. XXIII, Fig. 11). 

We have already pointed out (Cont. II, p. 211, 1914) that the 
name anticaria Wlk. should be used for the common Eastern species 
generally listed as intertexta Wlk. or intextata Wlk. (PI. XXIII, Fig. 
12) ; the race from Kaslo, B. C. differs from the Eastern nimotypical 
form in being evenly suffused with smoky-brown with the lines more 
or less obsolescent, the primaries showing however a very distinct black 
discal dot. We propose the name fumata for this race, our types 
being 6 $ 's from Kaslo, B. C. captured on various dates in April and 
the beginning of May. 



246 

Amphidasis cognataria fortitaria var. nov. (PI. XXVI, Fig. 2). 

The race of cognataria found in Colorado beyond the divide, 
besides being generally somewhat larger in size is characterized by a 
diminution of the heavy black peppering of the nimotypical form ; this 
is especially noticeable on the basal and median area of secondaries, 
the discal dot showing up very distinctly ; the t. p. line of both wings 
is heavier than in average Eastern specimens and is bent back on the 
primaries from vein 5 almost to the base of vein 2 whereas in the 
typical form the normal course of this line is considerably further out- 
ward than the base of this vein ; this feature however is not absolutely 
to be relied upon as Eastern specimens quite frequently occur with as 
strong a bend as is found in Colorado specimens. We propose the 
name fortitaria for this race, our types being 5 S's and 1 9 from 
Glenwood Spgs., Colo, apparently representing two generations as the 
dates of capture range from June 15-Sept. 1. 

Amphidasis cognataria form swettaria form. nov. (PI. XXVI, 

Fig. 6). 

Corresponding to the form doubledayaria of the European species 
bctularia L. we have in our collection a single melanic S of cognataria 
from New Brighton, Pa. in which both primaries and secondaries on 
both sides are entirely suffused with black, rendering the maculation, 
with the exception of the discal lunule, practically obsolete. We pro- 
pose to name this interesting form after our friend, Mr. L. W. Swett, 
whose work on the Geomctridae is too well known to need further 
mention. 

Phaeoura Mexican aria Grt. (PI. XXVI, Fig. 1). 

This species was described from a $ taken in Gallinas Canon, 
Las Vegas, N. M. by Prof. Snow; Grote also doubtfully associated 
a 5 with this $ , following the description ; both $ and 9 types 
are in the Snow Collection at Lawrence, Kansas and were recently ex- 
amined by Dr. McDunnough. It is doubtful if the $ , which is a worn 
specimen and difficult to place accurately, belongs to the same species 
as the $ ; it would be well therefore to restrict the type to the S spe- 
cimen. This type proves to be different to the usual conception of 
mexicanaria as distributed by Dr. Hulst; Grote in the description makes 
particular note of the long projecting tooth of the t. a. line in the 
cell and this feature is borne out by the type specimen ; we have a 
single $ from Pinewood, Colo, which agrees with mexicanaria type 



247 

in size and maculation, but has the basal area tinged with white whereas 
in the type it is unicolorous brown ; we imagine this is a variable feature 
as in quernaria A. & S. ; we figure the specimen as typifying our con- 
ception of mexicanaria. For the species usually identified as mexi- 
canaria a name is needed ; we describe it as follows : 

Phaeoura perfidaria sp. nov. (PI. XXVI, Figs. 4, 5). 

S . Antennae strongly bipectinate, more so than in mexicanaria; head 
and thorax mixed gray and brown, the latter crossed by two black bands as in 
cristifera Hist, and with black metathoracic tuft; primaries light olivaceous 
brown, shaded with whitish subterminally ; t. a. line sharp, black, bent outward 
below costa and forming a blunt tooth in the cell, a slight inward angle on 
cubital vein, followed by a bulge in the fold after which the line is oblique to 
inner margin near base ; the basal area contains some black sprinkling tending 
to form basal dashes in and below the cell ; median area even brown with a 
large black discal ringlet; a faint median line curving around discal ringlet and 
running very close to t. p. line in lower half of wing; t. p. line black, lightly 
concave from costa to vein 4, then parallel to outer margin to vein 5, forming 
slight teeth on both veins, then strongly incurved to vein 1 where it forms a 
sharp angle and finally inwardly oblique to inner margin ; beyond the t. p. line 
is whitish shading, especially in the concavities ; faint traces of a whitish s. t. 
line parallel to outer margin preceded by a brownish shade and followed by 
darker shading; secondaries pale, heavily sprinkled and peppered with brown, 
with a large discal ringlet and a black t. p. line, angled and toothed on veins 3 
and 4 ; terminal area much as on primaries ; dark terminal line on both wings. 
Beneath whitish, slightly peppered with smoky and with the maculation of upper 
side faintly visible. 

5 . Larger than $ , with a prominent bright brown patch on thorax, and 
considerable bright brown shading on primaries basally, subterminally and along 
costa and inner margin of median area; beneath more heavily peppered than 
the $ . Expanse $ 48 mm., 2 56 mm. 

Habitat: Glenwood Spgs., Colo. (May -Aug.). 6 $ , 6 9. Types, 
Coll. Barnes. 

Phaeoura triaria sp. nov. (PL XXVI, Fig. 3). 

Thorax deep brownish ; primaries with the color and maculation essentially 
as in the preceding species but the lines instead of being clear cut are diffuse 
and indistinct ; the basal and median areas are covered with rather rough smoky 
scaling and the discal ringlet is a patch of slighly raised dark scales with a faint 
whitish center; the secondaries are heavily peppered with smoky brown and the 
maculation is of the same indistinct and rough type as on primaries. Beneath 
more heavily sprinkled than in perfidaria. Expanse 50 mm. 

Habitat : Redington, Ariz. 1 $ . Type, Coll. Barnes. 

The peculiar rough nature of the squammation and the diffuse 
type of maculation, besides the greater size, warrant the supposition 



248 

that we are dealing with a distinct species; our single $ specimen 
has unfortunately lost its abdomen. 

Plagodis intermediaria sp. nov. (PI. XXII, Fig. 2). 

Palpi ruddy purple ; head, collar and fore part of thorax deep purple ; rear 
portion of thorax and patagia orange; abdomen ocherous, tinged with purplish 
distally and sprinkled with black dots dorsally; primaries olivaceous-brown, 
suffused with purple and splotched with pale ocherous in costo-median area; 
base of wing suffused with purple, deepest along costa; t. a. line black-brown, 
broad, diffuse, in general upright with slight angle below costa, followed by 
umber brown shades, best defined in costal portion; a distinct but small dark 
discal dot ; t. p. line rigid, inwardly oblique, broad, black-brown, preceded by 
an umber brown shade and followed by a light purple shade, paling to whitish 
at costa; at anal angle diffuse smoky shading and some umber brown shades 
above the angle of wing. Secondaries light ocherous in basal area, shading into 
purple-pink before the postmedian line which is blackish, faint in costal half but 
becoming deeper in color and broader toward anal margin, parallel to outer 
margin; below this line from vein 2 to just above anal angle is a second blackish 
line separated from t. p. line by a pale pinkish line and bordered outwardly by 
same color; remainder of terminal area purplish-pink, shaded with umber brown 
along outer margin. Beneath primaries heavily suffused with purplish and 
umber-brown, the latter color predominant between apex and angle of wing ; 
apex itself and median area of costa pale ocher; cross-line of upper side de- 
fined by diffuse purplish shades ; secondaries with basal two-thirds ocherous, 
heavily sprinkled with orange ; terminal area purple bordered inwardly by a 
repetition of the postmedian line of upper side. Expanse 27 mm. 

Habitat: Ottawa, Ont. (May 16) (C. H. Young) 2 $. Types, Coll. 
Barnes. 

This species, received by us with the Taylor Coll. appears to be 
intermediate between approximaria Dyar and phlogosaria Gn. The 
former species was described from Oregon but appears to extend 
through Canada to the Atlantic Coast, Eastern specimens (PI. XXII, 
Fig. 1) before us being merely somewhat smaller in size than those 
from the West Coast. Our new species, while agreeing closely in color 
with approximaria differs in having a distinct discal dot on primaries 
and the postmedian line of secondaries closer to outer margin and 
parallel to same. From phlogosaria Gn., (PI. XXII, Fig. 3) the type 
of which is figured by M. Oberthur in Etudes de Lep. Comp. VI, PI. 
158, Fig. 1532, our species differs in the much deeper purplish shading 
of both upper and under sides and the more diffuse nature of the 
cross lines; we should however not be surprised if intermediaria 
should prove to be the spring generation of phlogosaria, our few speci- 
mens of this latter species having been captured in July and August. 



249 

Plagodis kuetzingaria Pack. 

In the Ent. News XVIII, 206, 1907, Pearsall attempts to clear 
up the muddle surrounding this name but we doubt if his conclusions 
can be accepted. In the first place our good friend Mr. Swett informs 
us that in all probability Packard's Monograph was published before 
the appearance of Grote's note in the Can. Ent. VIII, p. 112, 1876 
under the heading Eurymene kuetzingi Grote in which he states that 
'a description and the type of this purple-black species have been sent 
to Prof. Packard for publication in his expected monograph of the 
Geometrae. It is named for Mr. Kuetzing of Montreal, who found 
the species.' Packard's name would therefore have priority, with per- 
haps the permissable change of keutzingaria to kuetzingaria in order to 
conform with the correct spelling of the proper name. We would fur- 
ther note that among Packard's type specimens (6 $ , 1 9 ) no men- 
tion is made of any specimen from Montreal although possibly the 
locality "New York (Grote)" may refer to this specimen. We hardly 
think that Grote's mention of a 'purple black' species can be said to 
limit the name kuetzingaria to the specimen figured by Packard on PI. 
XIII, Fig. 51 ; in any case this specimen was looked upon by Packard 
as an aberrant form of his species and could not hold the name under 
existing rules of nomenclature. Hulst's action therefore in proposing 
the name nigrescaria for the species (1887, Ent. Amer. II, 212) is per- 
fectly valid ; this fact seems to have been overlooked by Pearsall who 
makes no mention of Hulst's name. Under these circumstances 
altruaria Pears, will become a synonym of kuetzingaria Pack, as figured 
in the Monograph PI. XI, Fig. 44 ; we are in doubt as to what species 
Pearsall's purpuraria refers but judging by the description alone it, too, 
must be very close to kuetzingaria ; the description would fit in excel- 
lently with Packard's figure ; a study of the type should settle this ques- 
tion. 

The arrangement of the species would stand thus: 

nigrescaria Hist. 

kuetzingi Grt. (nom. nud.) 
kuetzingaria Pack. 

altruaria Pears. 

? purpuraria Pears. 

and a corresponding change should be made in our new Check List. 



250 

Sicya macularia Harris. (PL XXVII, Figs. 1-10). 

This species which extends through Canada and the Northern 
States from the Atlantic to the Pacific Coast, down the Rockies into 
Colorado and through the Coast Range and Sierras into S. California, 
has long excited our curiosity partly owing to its wide range of territory 
and the number of apparent races it tends to form and partly because 
a goodly number of names are placed in its synonymy, some of which 
we have felt sure could well be used for racial forms. We have re- 
cently given the matter considerable study and offer the following notes 
on the subject. 

The type specimen of macularia was a 9 from the North Shore 
of Lake Superior; Packard (Monograph Geom. p. 480) gives a de- 
scription drawn up from this type and Harris figures the same in 
Agassiz's Lake Superior PI. VII, Fig. 3, also mentioning in the text 
that the species occurs in Massachusetts. Packard further (1. c. p. 
481) describes the Eastern $ and gives a good figure of same (PI. 
XI, Fig. 50), his figured specimen being evidently rather larger than 
is usual in Eastern specimens. 

Guenee renamed macularia Harr. on the ground that the name had 
been too frequently employed in the Geometers ; his new name, subli- 
maria, (Hist. Nat. Insect. IX, 105) will be therefore an absolute 
synonym; he further described (1. c. p. 104) truncataria from Canada 
and solfataria from New York. M. Oberthur gives us an excellent 
figure of the type of truncataria (fitudes de Lep. Comp. VI, PI. 154, 
Fig. 1486) which leaves no doubt but that it falls to macularia Harr. 
The type of solfataria should be in the British Museum but we have no 
note on the subject; according to the description it differs from macu- 
laria in having the whole outer area on both wings ruddy (rougeatre 
clair) with uncheckered fringes; we have seen no specimens from the 
Eastern States which would match this description and think the name 
should be held, at least as an aberrational form. In Cat. Brit. Mus. 
XX, pp. 120, 121, Walker described calipusaria from Orillia, Ont. and 
agyllaria (listed by Hulst as argyllaria) from St. Martin's Falls, Albany 
Riv. Hudson Bay ; calipusaria, the type of which we have examined, 
falls to macularia; agyllaria type $ is somewhat larger, deeper yellow 
in color, peppered with purplish, with more irregular t. a. and t. p. 
lines and more extended terminal ruddy suffusion ; we will refer to 
it in detail later. 



251 

Packard (Proc. Bost. Soc. N. Hist. XVI, 36) described Sicya 
crocearia from 3 <$ , 4 9 from California and Nevada; in the text of 
the description he mentions a single $ from California as being 
aberrant and a large 9 from California as showing points of distinc- 
tion from his five Nevada specimens ; it is evident therefore, as he had 
only seven specimens before him, that the Nevada specimens must be 
considered typical, the type locality being probably the Eastern Slopes 
of the Sierras above Virginia City as Hy. Edwards, the collector, often 
collected in this region. In the Monograph (1. c. p. 481) he repeats 
his original description, figuring what we presume may be considered 
the type on PI. XI, Fig. 51, although sinking the name to macularia; 
we believe the name may be held to a western race and will refer to it 
later. 

The next name in the synonymy is faustinaria Stkr. (Lep. Rhop. 
Het. Suppl. II, p. 7) based on 3 2 's from Holyoke, Mass. ; there seems 
no doubt but what this name also falls to macularia Harr. 

The final name, lewisi Swett, was based on a single specimen from 
Mt. Wilson, Calif. We have examined this type through the kind- 
ness of Mr. Swett ; it is in horrible condition, and to our mind the brown 
terminal areas on both sides are caused by the specimen having been 
singed in a flame and are certainly unnatural ; the different wing shape 
mentioned in the description seems due to the torn condition of the 
apical area and does not exist in reality. As the name can be held 
to a racial form we will refer to it later in more detail. 

Summing up we find that the nimotypical form, macularia Harr. 
(PI. XXVII, Figs. 1, 2), will have as synonyms sublimaria Gn., trun- 
cataria Gn., calipusaria Wlk., and faustinaria Stkr. with solfataria Gn. 
in all probability as an aberrational form. This race extends from 
the Atlantic States through New England, Canada and the Northern 
States about as far west as the south-central portion of Manitoba 
(Cartwright). It is distinguished by the pale citron-yellow color of 
primaries with fringes varying from checkered to immaculate, the 
rather dull brownish color of the terminal suffusion not extending much 
above vein 4, the tendency to sexual dimorphism (the $ usually hav- 
ing the t. a. line broken into two or three dots, the t. p. line crenulate 
above inner margin and the terminal patch brighter), on the underside 
the t. p. line of secondaries is usually single and mostly indistinct except 
above inner margin; the $ genitalia (PI. XXXI, Fig. 3) have the 
claspers longer than in other forms and the whole apparatus distinctly 



252 

larger than that of the following race. The northern limit of macularia 
we do not know but apparently it is somewhere about the longitude of 
Winnipeg, Man. as the type specimen of agyllaria Wlk., to which we 
have already referred, was taken at St. Martin's Falls, Albany River. 

Agyllaria Wlk., to our mind, represents at least a good race and if 
the differences in the $ genitalia (PI. XXXI, Fig. 4) be borne in 
mind may possibly prove to be a good species; its range seems to be 
from Hudson Bay westward to the Rockies and down these with 
slight modifications into Colorado; we have specimens from Calgary, 
Alta. (PI. XXVII, Figs. 3, 4) which agree well with the type; besides 
the differences already noted we would point out that there is a distinct 
tendency for the t. p. line on underside of secondaries (and at times 
even on upper side) to become geminate much as in certain Euchlaena 
species ; there is also on the basal side of the t. a. line of primaries on 
the inner margin a distinct ruddy or purplish spot usually present 
which in the nimotypical form is scarcely ever found in the S sex. 

In the Great Basin Region (Utah, Nevada) agyllaria merges into 
crocearia Pack. (PI. XXVII, Fig. 9) in which the terminal suffusion 
is salmon-color and extends almost to apex, the spot on inner margin 
behind the t. a. line quite pronounced and the basal portion of secon- 
daries whitish. On Vancouver Is., B. C. a very similar form is found 
(PI. XXVII, Figs. 4, 5) in some ways intermediate between agyllaria 
and crocearia with less sexual dimorphism than in either form ; we do 
not think however that there are sufficient grounds for proposing a 
name for this form, at least for the present. 

In the Southern portion of California we meet with two races 
which differ widely from each other and also from the described 
forms ; the one race occurs in the San Bernardino Mts., is rather small 
in size, averaging 24 mm. from tip to tip, of a pale yellow color, slightly 
lighter than in macularia but with the terminal suffusion heavy, pur- 
plish and sharply defined apically in both sexes by vein 4; the basal 
portion of costa is strongly purplish, the t. a. line usually faint but 
with a well-defined blotch on inner margin, the t. p. line forms a small 
V at apical portion of costa, the concave portion of outer margin 
below apex is distinctly shaded with deep purple ; on the under-side of 
secondaries the t. p. line is broken up into dots with little or no ruddy 
terminal shading, although this is quite well defined on upper side ; the 
fringes are generally strongly checkered on primaries and at anal angle 
of secondaries (especially in $ ) they are tinged with purplish; in the 



253 

5 the t. p. line is distinctly crenulate and is obsolete above vein 4, 
being indicated by a purplish blotch on costa; this to our minds is 
without a doubt lewisi Swett, the brown terminal area mentioned in the 
description being due to a singed condition of the type specimen; we 
have a series from Camp Baldy and also from Loma Linda, a pair of 
which we figure (PI. XXVII, Figs. 7, 8). The genitalia (PI. XXXII, 
Fig. 5) are very similar to those of agyllaria. 

The second race occurs around San Diego, is still smaller (22 
mm.), the primaries of a sulphur yellow color, the whole terminal 
area and frequently a great portion of the wing being suffused with 
ruddy-brown or salmon-color ; the secondaries on both sides are much 
as in the preceding form but the primaries on under side are suffused 
with salmon color. We propose for this race the name laetula, our 
types (PI. XXVII, Fig. 10) being 8 $ 's and 1 $ from San Diego, 
Calif, the dates of capture ranging from late May to early June with 
a single specimen taken the middle of August. 

We figure what we consider to be typical specimens of all these 
forms on Plate XXVII ; we also include figures of the $ genitalia 
(PI. XXXII, Figs. 3-5) which on account of their comparative sim- 
plicity do not show good points of differentiation; possibly when a 
sufficient number of dissections can be made of each race distinguishing 
characteristics may be noted, but we would warn against putting any 
too great reliance on the number of spines on the Gnathos (vide Pierce, 
Genitalia of Brit. Geom. p. XX, for terminology) as this has proved 
variable in specimens examined which certainly belong to the same 
form. 

Sicya pergilvaria sp. nov. (PI. XXVII, Figs. 11, 12). 

Thorax and primaries deep sulphur-yellow, the latter with the outer margin 
less produced below the apex than in macnlaria; base of costa deep orange; 
t. a. line practically obsolete, indicated by a purple blotch on inner margin ; t. p. 
line fine, dark purple, oblique and subparallel to outer margin, at times slightly 
waved in lower portion, followed by a diffuse ruddy purple shade which in some 
instances suffuses the greater part of the subterminal and terminal areas, in 
others is confined to the immediate vicinity of the t. p. line; in a few specimens 
this t. p. line is almost obliterated, being indicated, as is the case of the t. a. line, 
by a purple patch on inner margin; the inner margin between the t. a. and t. p. 
lines is often, but not always, shaded with purple, there is a very faint dark 
discal dot and the fringes are whitish, strongly checkered with deep purple. 
Secondaries whitish, shaded with rosy in outer half with a faint ruddy discal dot 
and mere traces of a curved post-median line; fringes faintly checkered with 
purple. Beneath primaries rather even pale salmon-pink, rather deeper termin- 



254 

ally, with the maculation of upper side (when present) partly visible; a faintly 
ruddy discal dot; secondaries very pale creamy, slightly tinged with ruddy but 
less so than on upper side ; a very faint ruddy discal dot ; fringes on both wings 
checkered as above. Expanse 28-30 mm. 

Habitat: Camp Baldy, San. Bern. Mts., Calif. (June, July). 8 $,8 9. 
Types, Coll. Barnes. 

This variable species is readily distinguished from macularia by 
its deep yellow color and less prominent bulge of outer margin below 
apex of primaries ; it flies together with macularia lezvisi which leads 
us to the conclusion that it is a good species and not a form of macu- 
laria. The $ genitalia (PI. XXXII, Fig. 7) are very similar to 
those of macularia. 

Ellopia jacularia sp. nov. (PI. XXVIII, Fig. 1). 

Front and fore part of thorax as well as the extreme base of primaries 
deep chrome-yellow ; remainder of thorax and wings dull ocherous, heavily 
sprinkled with smoky atoms and crossed by two dark lines, accentuated on 
veins by blackish dots; t. a. line upright, indistinct at costa where it probably 
is angled, shaded inwardly with chrome-yellow; t. p. line distinct, very gently 
sinuate with an outward chrome yellow shade; this chrome yellow color, as 
well as the lines themselves, tends to become obsolete, leaving only the dark 
dots on the veins ; outer margin of primaries scarcely angled at all at vein 4, 
that of secondaries rounded. Secondaries with the outer line of primaries 
continued as an oblique dark line, obsolete between costa and vein 6, shaded 
outwardly with chrome-yellow. Beneath unicolorous pale ocherous, somewhat 
hyaline smoky toward base of wings with light sprinkling of smoky atoms. 
Expanse 35-38 mm. 

Habitat: Jemez Spgs., N. Mex. (Apr.) 8 $. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

Allied to vitraria Grt. but much larger and with differences in 
the $ genitalia which we figure (PI. XXXII, Figs. 1, 2) ; in jacularia 
the spined area of the Aedoeagus is wanting and the asymmetrical right 
branch of the Furca is shorter and broader; the species is also appar- 
ently close to axion Druce but this latter, according to the figure in the 
Biologia, shows no black points on the veins. 

Ellopia fervidaria Hbn. 

The species figured by Packard in his Monograph as fervidaria 
(PI. XII, Fig. 3) is apparently without a name; it is not the true 
fervidaria which according to Hubner's figure (Zutr. Ex. Schm. Fig. 
409) has both wings rounded and not angled at vein 4 in the $ sex; 
apart from the fact that it is rather smokier in color and shows no 
orange edging to the lines it very closely resembles pultaria Gn. (scitata 
Wlk.) the type of which is figured by M. Oberthur in Etudes de Lep. 



255 

Comp. VI, PI. 156, Fig. 1509; the type locality (Georgia) would also 
point to this association as scitata Wlk., which is certainly a synonym 
of pultaria, was described from- East Florida material ; very possibly 
the two names refer to forms of one species. 

For the species erroneously identified as fervidaria by Packard 
we propose the name turbataria and characterize as follows: 

Ellopia turbataria sp. nov. (PI. XXVIII, Figs. 2, 3). 

Head and base of collar pale orange; thorax and wings pale to dark 
ocherous, heavily suffused with smoky sprinkling ; t. a. line dark, rounded, 
edged inwardly with orange ; t. p. line gently sinuate, dark, edged outwardly 
with orange, continued as an oblique or somewhat curved line across secondaries; 
a dark discal dash on primaries ; both wings well angled at vein 4, more promi- 
nent in 9 sex than in $ 's. Beneath paler than on upper side. Expanse 
32-40 mm. 

Habitat: New Brighton, Pa. (Sept. Oct.) 4 $, 3 9. Types, Coll. 
Barnes. 

This is considered by some entomologists to be a mere form of 
fiscellaria Gn. ; while this is quite possible extensive breeding can alone 
prove the correct relationship ; in any case it is readily separated from 
fiscellaria and its forms by the nonangulate nature of the t. p. line, 
the $ genitalia (PI. XXXII, Figs. 3, 4) of the two forms are very 
similar ; it would seem that in turbataria the right branch of the Furca 
(the only one developed) is stouter and has less spining toward its base 
than in fiscellaria but this may not hold when long series are examined. 

Metarranthis duaria Gn. 

Duaria Gn. has been placed in our lists, along with its allies, in 
the genus Gonodontis Hbn. ; Mr. Prout has recently suggested to us 
that the genus Metarranthis Warren (Nov. Zool. I, 436) (type, obfir- 
maria Hbn.) be used in its place and we heartily concur with him after 
a study of the $ genitalia of the group and a comparison with 
Pierce's figure (PI. IV) of the genitalia of bidentata CI. which appears 
to be the type of the genus Gonodontis Hbn. (Odontopera Steph.). 
The two types of genitalia seem widely divergent, our duaria group 
corresponding closely to advenaria Hbn. which is listed by Pierce 
(p. 5) under the generic term Cepphis. 

We doubt if all the species at present listed under Gonodontis 
are congeneric but have not extended our studies further than the 
duaria group which would in any case form the typical section of 
Metarranthis. 



256 

With regard to duaria Gn. we have long been dissatisfied with 
the heterogeneous mass of forms included under this name. Until M. 
Oberthur completes his publication of figures of Guenee's types it 
will always be a little difficult to determine the nimotypical form espe- 
cially as the descriptions of both duaria and the following species 
hamaria Gn. (which both Packard and Hulst after having examined 
the type specimens make a synonym) are rather vague in certain direc- 
tions. The name duaria was based on a single 9 type from Canada 
(presumably Ont. or Que.), the color is given as a clear testaceous- 
gray (gris-testace clair) with only a slight black sprinkling, the tw T o 
cross lines of the primaries are wavy and black (ondulees noiratres) 
with darker bordering shades leaving the median space clear; the 9 
which we figure on PI. XXIX, Fig. 5 appears to us in the light of this 
description to be typical; the $ , which we also figure, (Fig. 4) is very 
similar but rather deeper in color ; the species seems to extend across 
the continent from the Atlantic States through Canada and the North- 
ern States to British Columbia ; we have specimens before us from the 
Eastern States, Penn., neighborhood of Chicago, Manitoba and Van- 
couver Is., B. C. According to our notes on Walker's types in the 
British Museum panisaria Wlk., amyrisaria Wlk., agreasaria Wlk., and 
adusiaria Wlk., will all become synonyms of the typical form. Apart 
from the fact that the subterminal blotches may be absent and that the 
cross-lines tend to lose their wavy nature the variation in this form is 
not very great; the dark sprinkling over the wing is fine and evenly 
distributed, the basal space of primaries a rather dull purplish gray, the 
median space wide and rather paler, the t. p. line on both wings fol- 
lowed by a rather obscure broad pale purplish shade ; on the underside 
the lines, especially the t. p., usually form purplish bands, the veins are 
yellow and the sprinkling is much heavier and more purplish, especially 
in the $ ; in both sexes the wings show a distinct angle at vein 4. 

With regard to hamaria Gn. which, as already stated, is placed by 
Packard and Hulst in the synonymy of duaria we must confess that 
we have not been able to satisfactorily identify this from Guenee's 
description ; the color is given as testaceous mixed with reddish (testace 
mele de rougeatre) sprinkled heavily with dark atoms and in the place 
of the cross-line Guenee mentions two blackish shades, wide apart on 
the primaries and close together, parallel and subterminal on the secon- 
daries ; from this it is evident that we are dealing with a much redder 
form with indistinct maculation ; we imagine the second subterminal 



257 

line on the secondaries would refer to the subterminal blotches which 
at times are rather well defined and tend to unite to form a more or 
less continuous shade. We have several specimens from the Atlantic 
States and Canada, one of which we figure (PI. XXIX, Fig. 6), which 
fit in in a general sort of way with the description, being ruddier, 
rather blurred in maculation and heavily sprinkled with fine dark 
atoms ; to these we apply the name hamaria for the present ; as we are 
unable with our limited material to find any point of distinction in the 
genitalia of these two forms we treat them as color variations of one 
species. 

Having separated out duaria Gn. and its form hamaria Gn. from 
the material before us we have found that there are still two other 
forms which, apart from certain differences in maculation, seem to 
show constant, slight differences in the S genitalia; for this reason 
we are inclined to regard them as good species and describe th-m here- 
with : 

Metarranthis septentrionaria sp. nov. (PI. XXIX, Figs. 2, 3). 

Palpi, front and base of collar ruddy-brown with a whitish line between 
the antennae; thorax gray-brown; primaries bluish-gray, heavily and evenly 
sprinkled with blackish atoms ; t. a. line rather broad, blackish, evenly rounded, 
less bent in at costa than in duaria, followed by a distinct light brown shade; a 
prominent black discal dot; t. p. line dark, slightly crenulate, especially below 
costa, but less so than in duaria, gently bulging opposite cell and preceded by 
a broad light brown shade which occupies most of the space between the discal 
dot and the line and together with the shade following the t. a. line restricts 
the pale portion of the median area to a small central stripe; the area beyond 
t. p. line is even gray, at times slightly paler next the line with traces of the 
customary dark blotch between veins 3 and 4 and with a faint oblique dark 
apical streak; fringes slightly pinkish-shaded. Secondaries with a curved dark 
t. p. line preceded by brown shade as on primaries ; a dark discal dot ; terminal 
area as on primaries with at times traces of dark subterminal shades; in the 
$ the wings are considerably less angulate at vein 4 than in duaria being inter- 
mediate in this respect between warneri and duaria; in the 9 the wings are 
much as in duaria. Beneath the veins are yellowish, the lines of the upper 
side rather well-defined and the whole surface heavily sprinkled with ruddy- 
purple and black atoms. Expanse $ 31 mm., 9 35 mm. 

Habitat: S Beulah, Man. (June 21) ; Aweme, Man. (May 29, June 18) ; 
9 Winnipeg, Man. (June). 3 3,2 9. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

Apart from the considerably smaller size this species differs from 
duaria from the fact that the median area, due to the brown shading, 
seems to stand out as a dark band in contrast to the paler basal and 
terminal areas whereas the reverse is the case in duaria; there is also 



258 

none of the purplish shade following the t. p. line in our new species. 
We will deal with the differences in the genitalia of the whole group 
at the close of the article; the species appears distinctly northern in 
its habitat and apparently intermediate between warneri (PI. XIX, 
Fig. 1) and duaria. 

Metarranthis angularia sp. nov. (PI. XXIX, Figs. 7, 8). 

Palpi, front and thorax ruddy-brown, the latter tinged with purplish; a 
whitish line between the antennae ; wings pale ocherous, heavily and roughly 
sprinkled and shaded with purple and brown so that the ground color is more 
or less blotted out, showing, however, in the median area of primaries, the 
basal area to t. p. line of secondaries and indistinctly in the subterminal area; 
t. a. line dark, rounded, strongly bent out below costa and slightly bent inward 
at inner margin, preceded by a broad purplish shade, the remainder of the 
basal area being very heavily covered with coarse brown scaling through which 
the ocherous ground color only appears as minute speckles; t. p. line dark, 
slightly crenulate, forming a sharp angle on vein 4 and then concave to inner 
margin ; the median space is considerably narrower than in duaria, contrastingly 
pale although sprinkled with brown atoms, these tending to coalesce and form 
a median brown shade line crossing the wing between the rather faint dark 
discal dot and the t. p. line ; beyond the t. p. line a broad purple shade tends 
to diffuse itself over the entire terminal area leaving here and there ocherous 
subterminal sprinklings, more marked in worn specimens than in fresh ones ; 
the usual dark subterminal blotch between veins 3 and 4 may be present or 
absent; a faint oblique dark shade; fringes deep ruddy purple. Secondaries 
with a distinct black discal dot and dark t. p. line sharply angled at vein 4; 
the basal area is ocherous, heavily sprinkled with coarse purple atoms, the area 
beyond t. p. line as on primaries. Beneath light ocherous heavily sprinkled 
with purplish-brown especially terminally, the cross lines rather vaguely defined 
by purplish bands. Expanse $ 32 mm., 5 40 mm. 

Habitat: $, Decatur, 111. (June); New Brighton, Pa., (June 4); Pa., 
?, no locality, (probably New Brighton, Pa.) (June 3, 1900). 4 #, 2 $ 
Types, Coll. Barnes. 

Distinguished from the ruddy forms of duaria by the angulate t. p. 
line and the narrower median space which in the type $ from Decatur 
is very much constricted ; the coarseness of the sprinkles and the paler 
median space also give the species quite a characteristic appearance ; 
judging by our dated material its time of flight is slightly later than 
that of duaria. 

With regard to the $ genitalia we have examined obfirmaria 
Hbn., warneri Harv., duaria Gn. and our two new species and find that 
they show great similarity to one another and that it is only possible 
to differentiate even such well marked species as obfirmaria and duaria 
by slight points of difference in the structure of what Pierce has termed 



259 

the Furca (Genit. of Brit. Geom. p. XXIII) ; taking into consideration 
that there are always slight variations in the genitalia of one species, 
especially from different localities, it will be seen that with only limited 
material at one's disposal it is a matter of considerable difficulty to 
pick out distinctive features that may prove of specific value. We 
have made about 20 slides of the male organs in this group and have 
arrived at certain conclusions which we offer for what they are worth. 
The two branches of the Furca are asymmetrical in the whole 
group, the left hand one being the longer; in obfirmaria (PI. XXXII, 
Fig. 5) the branches are slender, short, curving backward toward apex 
and ending in two short semiequal spines; in warneri (PI. XXXIII, 
Fig. 1 ) they are much stouter, the left hand one strongly bent back near 
apex, the inner edge of the apex of both branches being furnished with 
one very long spine whilst the outer edge has a short spine ; in duaria 
(PI. XXXIII, Fig. 4) the branches are considerably longer, more 
slender and less bent back, the apex is rather pointed and furnished 
with a number of spines, 4 or 5 on smaller branch and 8-10 on longer 
one, the spines extending a short distance below the apex down the 
sides and gradually decreasing in size; in septentrionaria (PI. XXXIII. 
Fig. 2) the branches are shorter than in duaria and somewhat stouter, 
the apical area is spined in much the same manner but the spines seem 
slightly fewer in number and more restricted in their area; finally in 
angularia (PI. XXXIII, Fig. 3) they are as long as in duaria but the 
left branch is truncate at the apex which is encircled by a whorl of 
spines whilst the right branch is much as in duaria. We figure the 
genitalia of all these species and would call attention to the fact that 
in most instances for the sake of clarity the Coremata on the ninth 
segment have been removed ; they are however present in every species. 

Selenia kentaria gen. aest. glaucata form nov. (PI. XXII, Fig. 4). 
We have recently receeived through the kindness of Prof. E. T. 
Owen of Madison, Wis., specimens of the summer generation of 
kentaria taken or bred by D. Bruce in New York State for which we 
propose the above name. As is the case with the summer generation 
ornata B. & McD. of alciphearia Wlk., glaucata is much smaller, of a 
bright yellow color with pinkish washing along costa and with the 
maculation finer and more delicate; beneath, especially on the sec- 
ondaries, it is more orange than yellow, with the latter crossed by a 
brown median line just within the lunule and with a narrow pinkish 
band, broadening toward anal angle, representing the shading beyond 



260 

the postmedian line which itself is obsolete. The bulging t. a. line arid 
less rigid t. p. line on primaries distinguish it from omata. Expanse 
25 mm. Types are 2 $ , 1 5 in Coll. Barnes. 

Epiplatymetra lentifluata sp. nov. (PI. XXVII, Fig. 13). 

Head, thorax and abdomen whitish ; primaries dull ocherous, sprinkled 
slightly with purplish-brown in $, strongly so in 9 ; t. a. line purple-brown, 
broad, inwardly oblique, from cell at base of vein 2 to inner margin, lacking in 
costal half of wing; faint traces of a discal dash, more distinct in 5 ; t. p. 
line purple-brown, gently curved outward below costa and then almost rigidly 
oblique to inner margin with the mere trace of an incurve at vein 2, followed 
by a broad purple-brown shade only slightly lighter than the line itself, broaden- 
ing toward inner margin. Secondaries pale ocherous, slightly sprinkled and 
with traces of a purple-brown oblique dash above anal margin representing the 
postmedian line. Beneath pale ocherous, more heavily sprinkled than on upper 
side, with maculation of primaries showing through. Expanse 34 mm. 

Habitat: S. Arizona (Poling); Redington, Ariz.; Tucson, Ariz.; Hua- 
chuca Mts., Ariz. ; Palmerlee, Ariz. 5 $ , 1 9 . Types, Coll. Barnes. 

Very close to coloradaria G. & R. (PI. XXVII, Fig. 14), but 
with the t. p. line much less bent in below cell and with the t. a. line 
incomplete. 

Synaxis jubararia sericeata var. nov. (PI. XXVIII, Fig. 9). 

Pale silky ocherous with scarcely a trace of brown sprinkles; lines fine, 
reddish-brown ; t. a. line perpendicular to inner margin with a slight in- 
ward bend at costa; t. p. line straight from costa to vein 4, then obliquely in- 
wardly to inner margin two-thirds from base ; median space twice as broad 
at costa as at inner margin .: 2 faint discal dot ; secondaries paler than primaries 
with only traces above inner margin of an oblique median line; discal dot 
scarcely visible. Beneath much as above with the lines obsolescent. 

Habitat: Glenwood Spgs., Colo. (Sept. Oct.). 1 $,l 5. Types, Coll. 
Barnes. 

Differs from the typical form from the West Coast in the much 
paler color and fainter discal dots; the course of the lines is rather 
different in our type specimens but this may not be constant as sev- 
eral specimens before us, which we consider too poor to make types, 
seem to show a variation in this feature. We also have two 2 's 
from Truckee, Calif., which seem to belong to this species; they en- 
tirely lack the discal dots. 

Metanema excelsa olivata var. nov. (PI. XXVIII, Figs. 7, 8). 

In typical excelsa, described from Pagosa Spgs., S. Colo, the color 
of primaries is a bright orange-red with narrow pale cross lines shaded 



261 

on their approximate sides with smoky shades; this race appears to 
extend southward along the borders of Arizona and New Mexico 
as far as the White Mts. ; we have received a series of specimens from 
Paradise, Cochise Co., Ariz, which differ from the typical form in 
having the primaries a light olivaceous with a tinge of salmon-color 
especially in the $ 's which further show a slight dark sprinkling ; 
the cross lines are distinct, pale ochreous with scarcely a trace of 
dark shading ; there is also a tendency in the 5 's for them to ap- 
proach each other more closely at the inner margin than in the nimo- 
typical form; the secondaries are whitish, shading into olivaceous 
outwardly, with scarcely a trace of a cross line; the discal dots are 
small and sometimes absent, especially on secondaries. We prefer 
to consider this a race of excelsa rather than a new species and propose 
the name olivata, our types being 3 $ 's, 7 9 's from Paradise, Ariz. 
(Aug. Sept.). 

Sabulodes sericeata sp. nov. (PI. XXVIII, Fig. 4). 

Thorax and primaries pale yellowish, the latter silky and very faintly 
sprinkled with smoky; cross lines distinct, brown; t. a. line rather far out, 
curved below costa; t. p. line in general course oblique, slightly bent at costa. 
Secondaries paler than primaries with a faint curved postmedian line. Be- 
neath paler than above, both wings with a dotted postmedian line which on 
primaries is nearer outer margin than the t. p. line of upper side except at 
costa. Expanse $ 31 mm., 2 35 mm. 

Habitat: Paradise, Cochise Co., Ariz. (Aug. Sept.). 1 $,2 2. Types, 
Coll. Barnes. 

The species seems allied to matrona Druce. 



262 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 



PLATE XVI 

P. battoides oregonensis B. & McD. Type, $ Crater Lake, Ore. 
P. battoides oregonensis B. & McD. underside, S Crater Lake, 

Ore. 
P. battoides oregonensis B. & McD. Paratype, 5 Crater Lake, Ore. 
P. battoides intermedia B. & McD. Type, $ Shasta Co., Calif. 
P. battoides intermedia B. & McD. underside, $ Shasta Co., Calif. 
P. battoides intermedia B. & McD. Type, ? Shasta Co., Calif. 
P. battoides centralis B. & McD. Type, $ Salida, Colo. 
P. battoides centralis B. & McD. underside, $ Salida, Colo. 
Philotes spaldingi B. & McD. Type, $ Provo, Utah. 
Philotes spaldingi B. & McD. underside, $ Provo, Utah. 
Philotes spaldingi B. & McD. Type $ Provo, Utah. 



Plate XV] 




&^i£h 










.'.-,. 



v * »**'•/ 



■;:V« #$ V.V 





. •. ' < . . » * 
. . .<* 




t 



} 






( 






<< 



264 



PLATE XVII 



Fig. 


1. 


Genitalia of $ 


Fig. 


2. 


Genitalia of $ 


Fig. 


3. 


Genitalia of $ 


Fig. 


4. 


Genitalia of $ 


Fig. 


5. 


Genitalia of $ 


Fig. 


6. 


Genitalia of $ 


Fig. 


7. 


Genitalia of $ 



P. enoptes Bdv. (side view). 

P. glaucon Edw. (side view). 

P. battoides Behr. (rear view). 

P. battoides bernardino B. & McD. (rear view). 

P. rita B. & McD. (rear view). 

P. spaldingi B. & McD. (side view). 

P. rita B. & McD. (side view). 



>LATE XV 




266 



PLATE XVIII 

Fig. 1. Acrobasis myricella B. &McD. Type, $ Ft. Myers, Fla. 

Fig. 2. Acrobasis comptoniella Hist. $ East Riv., Conn. 

Fig. 3. Mineola grossbecki B. & McD. Type, $ Lakeland, Fla. 

Fig. 4. Mineola indigenella Zell. $ Decatur, 111. 

Fig. 5. Xystrota davisi Grossbeck. Paratype, 2 Everglade, Fla. 

Fig. 6. Tallula watsoni B. & McD. Type 9 Stemper, Fla. 

Fig. 7. Tallula atrifascialis Hist. $ Kerrville, Texas. 

Fig. 8. Nephopteryx crataegella B. & McD. Type, $ Lakeland, Fla. 



Plate XVIII 



|i*Mjf 









t -- 1 



268 



PLATE XIX 

Fig. 1. S. magnoliata ruptata B. & McD. Type ? Deer Pk. Spgs., Lake 

Tahoe, Calif. 
S. magnoliata pernotata Hist. $ Wellington, B. C. 
T. georgii benesignata B. & McD. Paratype, $ Wellington, B. C. 
Thera georgii Hist. $ Truckee, Calif. 
Thera latens B. & McD. Paratype, $ Colo. (Bruce). 
Triphosa bipectinata B. & McD. Type, $ Palmerlee, Ariz. 
X. ferrugata infumata B. & McD. Type, $ Crater Lake, Ore. 
X. ferrugata infumata B. & McD. Type, 2 Crater Lake, Ore. 
Xanthorhoe ferrugata Clerck $ New Brighton, Pa. 
Zenophleps obscurata Hist. $ S. Bern. Mts., Calif. 
Z. obscurata infumata B. & McD. Paratype, $ Palmerlee, Ariz. 



Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 



Plate XIX 




.x"* S*x 



,.{ K 



j6 V<; 












* iar » I* *« i«i - 
ill 









Af 



5% 



^ 5>^H 



% 






** 



i o 



270 



PLATE XX 

Fig. 1. E. plebeculata vivida B. & McD. Paratype, $ Wellington, B. C. 

Fig. 2. E. plebeculata vivida B. & McD. Paratype, 9 Wellington, B. C. 

Fig. 3. Epirrhoe plebeculata Gn. $ Alameda Co., Calif. 

Fig. 4. Epirrhoe plebeculata Gn. 9 Alameda Co., Calif. 

Fig. 5. Stamnodes topazata Stkr. $ Colo. (Bruce). 

Fig. 6. S. topazata apicata B. & McD. Paratype, $ Hymers, Ont. 

Fig. 7. Spargania illustrata B. & McD. Paratype, $ Palmerlee, Ariz. 

Fig. 8. Spargania illustrata B. & McD. Paratype, 9 Palmerlee, Ariz. 

Fig. 9. Spargania aurata Grt. 9 White Mts., Ariz. 



Plate XX 









ffftdtftf 



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272 



PLATE XXI 

Fig. 1. Dystroma truncata Hufn. $ White Mts., N. H. 

Fig. 2. Dystroma truncata Hufn. 2 White Mts., N. H. 

Fig. 3. Dystroma citrata Linn. 2 White Mts., N. H. 

Fig. 4. D. truncata mulleolata Hist. $ Victoria, B. C. 

Fig. 5. D. truncata mulleolata Hist. 2 Victoria, B. C. 

Fig. 6. D. mulleolata form, ochrofuscaria Swett 2 Duncans, B. C. 

Fig. 7. D. truncata walkerata Pears. $ Calgary, Alta. 

Fig. 8. D. truncata walkerata Pears. 2 Ketchikan, Alaska. 

Fig. 9. L. xylina serrataria B. & McD. Paratype, S Meach Lake, Que. 



Plate XXI 



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274 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 



PLATE XXII 

Plagodis approximaria Dyar $ McNabs' Is., N. S. 

Plagodis intermediaria B. & McD. Type, S Ottawa, Can. 

Plagodis phlogosaria Gn. $ Meach Lake, Que. 

S. kentaria gen. aest. glaucata B. & McD. Type, $ N. Y. (Bruce). 

Catopyrrha esperanza B. & McD. Type, $ Brownsville, Tex. 

Catopyrrha esperanza B. & McD. Type, $ Brownsville, Tex. 

T. albovittata tenuifasciata B. & McD. Type, # Spirit Lake, Idaho. 

Trichodesia albovittata Gn. $ New Brighton, Pa. 

Heliomata fulliola B. & McD. Type, $ Redington, Ariz. 

Mesoleuca gratulata Wlk. $ Victoria, B. C. 

M. gratulata latialbata B. & McD. Type, $ Plumas Co., Calif. 



Plate XXII 




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276 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 



PLATE XXIII 

Phasiane triviata B. & McD. Paratype, ? Paradise, Ariz. 

P. dislocaria malefactaria B. & McD. Type, $ Paradise, Ariz. 

P. dislocaria malefactaria B. & McD. Type, 9 Paradise, Ariz. 

Phasiane septemberata B. & McD. Type, $ Paradise, Ariz. 

Itame epigenata B. & McD. Type, 6* Truckee, Calif. 

Itame wauaria Linn. $ Petrograd, Russia. 

Phasiane ponderosa B. & McD. Type, $ Cartwright, Man. 

Phasiane ponderosa B. & McD. Type, 9 Calgary, Alta. 

P. ponderosa form demaculata B. & McD. Type, $ Calgary, Alta. 

Itame extemporata B. & McD. Type, $ Havilah, Calif. 

A. anticaria fumata B. & McD. Type, $ Kaslo, B. C. 

Aethaloptera anticaria Wlk. $ New Brighton, Pa. 



Plate XXII I 



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278 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 



PLATE XXIV 

Itame coortaria Hist. $ Eureka, Utah. 

I. coortaria enigmata B. & McD. Type, $ Illinois. 

Itame umbriferata Hist. $ Siskiyou Co., Calif. 

Itame umbriferata Hist. $ Siskiyou Co., Calif. 

Itame confederata B. & McD. Type, $ Glenwood Spgs., Colo. 

Itame confederata B. & McD. Type, $ Glenwood Spgs., Colo. 

Itame plumosata B. & McD. Paratype, $ Provo, Utah. 

Itame plumosata B. & McD. Paratype, 2 Provo, Utah. 

I. graphidaria sobriaria B. & McD. Type, $ Redington, Ariz. 

Itame graphidaria Hist. $ Brownsville, Tex. 



Plate XXIV 












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280 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 



PLATE XXV 

Cleora satis facta B. & McD. Type, $ Kaslo, B. C. 

Cleora satisfacta B. & McD. Type, 2 Kaslo, B. C. 

Cleora profanata B. & McD. Type, $ Glenwood Spgs., Colo. 

Cleora anellula B. & McD. Type, $ Jemez Spgs., N. M. 

Cleora vernata B. & McD. Type, $ Glenwood Spgs., Colo. 

Cleora sanctissima B. & McD. Type, $ S. Bernardino, Calif. 

Cleora clivinaria Gn. $ S. Bernardino, Calif. 

Monroa quinquelinearia Pack. $ Stockton, Utah. 

Monroa interpunctata B. & McD. Type, $ Paradise, Ariz. 

Cleora ocularia B. & McD. Type $ Placer Co., Calif. 



Plate XXV 







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282 



PLATE XXVI 

Fig. 1. Phaeoura mexicanaria Grt. $ Pinewood, Colo. 

Fig. 2. A. cognataria fortitaria B. & McD. Paratype, $ Glenwood Spgs., 

Colo. 

Fig. 3. Phaeoura triaria B. & McD. Type, $ Redington, Ariz. 

Fig. 4. Phaeoura perfidaria B. & McD. Type, $ Glenwood Spgs., Colo. 

Fig. 5. Phaeoura perfidaria B. & McD. Type 9 Glenwood Spgs., Colo. 

Fig. 6. A. cognataria form, swettaria Type, $ New Brighton, Pa. 



Plate XXV] 









284 



PLATE XXVII 

Fig. 1. Sicya macular ia Harris $ Hymers, Ont. 

Fig. 2. Sicya macularia Harris 9 New Brighton, Pa. 

Fig. 3. S. macularia agyllaria Wlk. $ Calgary, Alta. 

Fig. 4. S. macularia crocearia Pack. $ Vancouver Is., B. C. 

Fig. 5. S. macularia crocearia Pack. 9 Vancouver Is., B. C. 

Fig. 6. S. macularia agyllaria Wlk. 9 Calgary, Alta. 

Fig. 7. S. macularia lewisi Swett $ S. Bern. Mts., Calif. 

Fig. 8. S. macularia lewisi Swett 9 S. Bern. Mts., Calif. 

Fig. 9. S. macularia crocearia Pack. $ Stockton, Utah. 

Fig. 10. S. macularia laetula B. & McD. Paratype, $ S. Diego, Calif. 

Fig. 11. Sicya pergilvaria B. & McD. Paratype, $ S. Bern. Mts., Calif. 

Fig. 12. Sicya pergilvaria B. & McD. Paratype, 9 S. Bern. Mts., Calif. 

Fig. 13. Epiplatymetra lentifluata B. & McD. Type, $ S. Arizona. 

Fig. 14. Epiplatymetra coloradaria G. & R. $ Durango, Colo. 



Plate XXVII 




286 



PLATE XXVIII 

Fig. 1. Ellopia jacularia B. &McD. Type, $ Jemez Spgs., N. M. 

Fig. 2. Ellopia turbataria B. & McD. Type, $ New Brighton, Pa. 

Fig. 3. Ellopia turbataria B. &McD. Paratype, ? New Brighton, Pa. 

Fig. 4. Sabulodes sericeata B. &McD. Type, $ Paradise, Ariz. 

Fig. 5. D. hulsti carneolata B. & McD. Type, $ Redington, Ariz. 

Fig. 6. D. hulsti carneolata B. & McD. Type, $ S. Catalina Mts., Ariz. 

Fig. 7. M. excelsa olivata B. & McD. Type, $ Paradise, Ariz. 

Fig. 8. M. excelsa olivata B. & McD. Type, $ Paradise, Ariz. 

Fig. 9. S. jubararia sericeata B. & McD. Type $ Glenwood Spgs., Colo. 



Plate XXVIII 



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288 



PLATE XXIX 

Fig. 1. Metarrhanthis warneri Harv. $ Cartwright, Man. 

Fig. 2. Metarrhanthis septentrionaria B. & McD. Type, $ Beulah, Man. 

Fig. 3. Metarrhanthis septentrionaria B. & McD. Type, $ Winnipeg, Man. 

Fig. 4. Metarrhanthis duaria Gn. $ New Brighton, Pa. 

Fig. 5. Metarrhanthis duaria Gn. $ New Brighton, Pa. 

Fig. 6. Metarrhanthis duaria hamaria Gn. $ Ottawa, Can. 

Fig. 7. Metarrhanthis angularia B. & McD. Type, $ Decatur, 111. 

Fig. 8. Metarrhanthis angularia B. & McD. Type, $ 

Fig. 9. Cleora rusticaria B. & McD. Type, $ Glenwood Spgs., Colo. 



Plate XXIX 



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290 



PLATE XXX 

Fig. 1. Genitalia of $ D. truncata mulleolata Hist. Ketchikan, Alaska. 

Fig. 2. Genitalia of $ D. citrata L. Ketchikan, Alaska. 

Fig. 3. Genitalia of $ Monroa inter punctata B. & McD. Chiricahua Mts. 

Ariz. 

Fig. 4. Genitalia of $ Monroa quinquelinearia Pack. Glenwood Spgs., Colo. 

Fig. 5. Genitalia of $ Cleora sanctissima B. & McD. Loma Linda, Calif. 

Fig. 6. Genitalia of $ Cleora profanata B. & McD. Glenwood Spgs., Colo. 



Plate XXX 












I 











^ ,: 






292 



PLATE XXXI 



Fig. 


1. 


Genitalia of 


<5 


Fig. 


2. 


Genitalia of 


$ 


Fig. 


3. 


Genitalia of 


3 


Fig. 


4. 


Genitalia of 


$ 


Fig. 


5. 


Genitalia of 


6 


Fig. 


6. 


Genitalia of 


S 



Cleora anellula B. & McD. Glenwood Spgs., Colo. 

Clcora vernata B. & McD. Glenwood Spgs., Colo. 

Sicya macularia Harris Hymers, Ont. 

5\ macularia agyllaria Wlk. Calgary, Alta. 

S. macularia lewisi Swett S. Bern. Mts., Calif. 

Sicya pergilvaria B. & McD. S. Bern. Mts., Calif. 



Plate XXXI 




294 



PLATE XXXII 



Fig. 1. 


Genitalia of 


$ 


Fig. 2. 


Genitalia of 


6 


Fig. 3. 


Genitalia of 


$ 


Fig. 4. 


Genitalia of 


6 


Fig. 5. 


Genitalia of 


S 



Ellopia vitraria Grt. Colorado Spgs., Colo. 
Ellopia jacularia B. & McD. Jemez Spgs., N. M. 
Ellopia flagitiaria Gn. 

Ellopia turbataria B. & McD. New Brighton, Pa. 
Metarrhanthis obfirmaria Hbn. Clarendon, N. J. 



Plate XXXII 




296 



PLATE XXXIII 

Fig. 1. Genitalia of $ Metarrhanthis warneri Harv. Cartwright, Man. 

Fig. 2. Genitalia of $ Metarrhanthis septentrionaria B. & McD. Chicago, 111. 

Fig. 3. Genitalia of $ Metarrhanthis angularia B. & McD. Decatur, 111. 

Fig. 4. Genitalia of $ Metarrhanthis duaria Gn. Aweme, Man. 



Plate XXXIII 




INDEX 



Page 
abdominaria B. & McD. 218 

agyllaria Wlk 250 

albicostella Grossb 222 

albovittata Gn 225 

altruaria Pears 249 

andromedana B. & McD 223 

anellula B. & McD 242 

angularia B. & McD 258 

anoa Dyar 217 

anticaria Wlk 245 

apicata B. & McD 224 

approximaria Dyar 248 

approximella Wlk 222 

associaria B. & McD 219 

atrifascialis Hist 220 

aucillaria Stkr 220 

aurata Grt 231 

battoides Behr 213 

benesignata B. & McD 226 

bernardino B. & McD 213 

bipectinata B. & McD 225 

bitactata Wlk 239 

calipusaria Wlk 250 

carneolata B. & McD 233 

catachloa Hist 217 

centralis B. & McD 215 

citrata Fabr 227 

clivinaria Gn 241 

cognataria Gn 246 

coloradaria G. & R 260 

comptoniella Hist 221 

conf ederata B. & McD 237 

coortaria Hist 236 

crataegella B. & McD 222 

crocearia Pack 251 

davisi Grossb 219 

demaculata B. & McD 235 

discerpta Wlk 217 

dislocaria Pack 234 

dryadella Hist 222 

duaria Gn 255 

enigmata B. & McD. ... 236 

enoptes Bdv 215 



Page 

epigenata B. & McD 238 

esperanza B. & McD 239 

eudoriella Rag 222 

excelsa Stkr 260 

extemporata B. & McD 236 

extremaria Wlk 218 

ferrugata CI 230 

fervidaria Hbn 254 

fiscellaria Gn 255 

fortitaria B. & McD 246 

fulliola B. & McD 233 

fumata B. & McD 245 

georgii Hist 226 

glaucata B. & McD 259 

glaucomarginaria B. & McD. . . 224 

glaucon Edw 215 

graphidaria Hist 239 

gratulata Wlk 232 

grossbecki B. & McD 221 

hamaria Gn 256 

hulsti Dyar 233 

illustrata B. & McD 230 

incarnata B. & McD 240 

inclusaria Wlk 217 

indigenella Zell 220 

infumata B. & McD. (Xantho- 

rhoe) 230 

infumata B. & McD. (Zeno- 

phleps) 232 

intermedia B. & McD 214 

intermediaria B. & McD 248 

interpunctata B. & McD 240 

jacularia B. & McD 254 

jubararia Hist 260 

kentaria G. & R 259 

kuetzingaria Pack 249 

laetula B. & McD 253 

latens B. & McD 227 

latialbata B. & McD 232 

lentifluata B. & McD 260 

lewisi Swett 251 

lixaria Gn 217 

macularia Harris 250 



Page 

maculifascia Hist 220 

magnoliata Gn 231 

malefactaria B. & McD 234 

mexicanaria Hist 246 

mulleolata Hist 228 

myricella B. & McD 221 

nebulella Riley 220 

nigrescaria Hist 249 

nymphaeella Hist 222 

obfirmaria Hbn 259 

obliqua Wlk 217 

obscurata Hist 232 

ochrofuscaria Swett 230 

ocularia B. & McD 245 

olivata B. & McD 260 

oregonensis B. & McD 214 

packardaria Moesch 238 

perfidaria B. & McD 247 

pergilvaria B. & McD 253 

pernotata Hist 231 

phlogosaria Gn 248 

planatella Grossb 222 

plebeculata Gn 232 

plumosata B. & McD 237 

ponderosa B. & McD 234 

pravella Grt 221 

profanata B. & McD 242 

pultaria Gn 254 

punctivena Sm 217 

purpuraria Pears 249 

quadripunctata Pack 231 

quinquelinearia Pack 240 

rita B. & McD 215 

robustella Zell 220 

rosaochreana Kft 223 

rubrolinearia Pack 218 

rubromarginaria Pack 218 

rufinans Gn 217 



Page 

ruptata B. & McD 231 

rusticaria B. & McD 244 

sanctissima B. & McD 241 

satisfacta B. & McD 244 

scitata Wlk 254 

semiobscurella Hist 221 

septemberata B. & McD 235 

septentrionaria B. & McD 257 

sericeata B. & McD. (Sabulodes) 261 
sericeata B. & McD. (Synaxis) 260 

serrataria B. & McD 226 

slossoni Hist 220 

sobriaria B. & McD 239 

solfataria Gn 250 

spaldingi B. & McD 216 

speciosa Hist 236 

suavata Hist 219 

subfuscella Rag 221 

sublimaria Gn 250 

suspectata Moesch 227 

swettaria B. & McD 246 

tenuifasciata B. & McD 225 

topazata Stkr 224 

traversata Kell 227 

triaria B. & McD 247 

triviata B. & McD 233 

truncata Hufn 227 

truncataria Gn 250 

turbataria B. & McD 255 

umbriferata Hist 237 

verecuntella Grossb 222 

vernata B. & McD 243 

viridirufaria Neum.. 240 

vitraria Grt 254 

vivida B. & McD 232 

walkerata Pears 228 

warneri Harv 258 

watsoni B. & McD 220 

xylina Hist 226